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Questions tagged [geochemistry]

Chemical processes and dynamics associated with geological processes, including hydro-thermal veins and weathering on Earth. For questions about other celestial bodies, please use [astrochemistry].

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Is Geologic Mineral Trapping of Chlorine Plausible?

One strategy for sequestration of $\ce{CO2}$ is mineral trapping arising from geologic sequestration. Another strategy is mineral trapping in concrete via the Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation ...
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2answers
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Why neglecting OH Ions from charge balance?

I have a problem, in which the concentration of $\ce{Ca^{2+}}$ ions in water should be related to the partial pressure of $\ce{CO2}$ (assuming the water is an open system and in equilibrium with ...
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1answer
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Can I lock up CO2 into silicon carbide? [closed]

Can it be possible to use atmospheric $\ce{CO2}$ in a reaction (or series) with silicon dioxide, both of which are plentiful, to sequester the carbon in a solid and more useful material, silicon ...
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615 views

What are the differences between monotropic and enantiotropic polymorphic transformations?

I'm studying polymorphism and came across the terms "enantiotropic" and "monotropic" transformations. The first is described as reversible, whereas the latter, irreversible due to metastability. But ...
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Differences between LIBS over LA-ICP-MS? [closed]

Which differences should I consider between the techniques Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for a geochemistry fingerprint focused ...
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Will we ever run out of gold, silver, copper and other important conductors? [closed]

Conductors are very important in technology. At the current rate of extraction how long until the world's reserves of copper are depleted?
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Are volcanic eruptions a form of entropy? [closed]

My understanding of entropy is 'order to disorder' so I was thinking whether volcanic eruptions are a form of entropy since when magma leaves the crater it becomes lava. Is it more favourable for this ...
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How can you detect iron hydroxide or iron sulfide in quarried rocks?

We have a quarry that produces some gray rocks that sometimes turn green, then orange and the color bleeds, making the rocks unsuitable for our purposes. But it can take up to 6 months out in the ...
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Abiogenesis: Formation of Lipids from Montmorillonite

I have been really interested in scientific hypotheses regarding abiogenesis, particularly the lipid-world hypothesis. However, I could not find information on the chemical pathway that leads to the ...
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How to calculate molar mass of (6)UO2+2D and (6)UO2OH+D

For a hydrogeochemistry project, I want to calculate the molar masses of some compounds. I came across a problem when encountering species like (6)UO2+2D (aq) and <...
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1answer
267 views

What exactly is petuntse? (mineral)

What exactly is petuntse, the "china stone" used as one of two ingredients in porcelain along with kaolin? The Wikipedia article (and books I have read) describe petuntse as a mineral containing ...
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Which crystals can exist permanently (and do not break down) under normal earth like outside conditions? [duplicate]

Hi I am looking for crystals I can use in the world of my novel but I have no idea what types to use or what there are. So my question is what kind of crystals fit these criteria: They must be able ...
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How do i create a significantly correct world with large crystal formations in my novel? [closed]

I have uploaded an shorter and less broad Question which is largely the same but requires a different kind of answer. What i want to say is that i re-asked my question in a different way because i do ...
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2answers
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Which definition of an ore is correct?

In metallurgy, an ore is defined as that mineral from which metal can be obtained with economic viability. I have also read that ores are rocks from which minerals or metals can be extracted ...
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1answer
265 views

Carbon dioxide sequestration in Limestone

The chemical reaction where dissolved carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid and then reacts with various calcium containing minerals to form calcium carbonate and bicarbonate is rather slow. I know that ...
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2answers
268 views

How does the pH of fresh glacial meltwater compare to marine seawater?

How does the pH of fresh glacial meltwater (at the time of melting, so it has not travelled downstream for example) compare to marine seawater? I assume that glacial ice is more neutral since it ...
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2answers
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What is chemical formula of Bauxite?

My book says Aluminium is extracted from its ore bauxite $\ce{Al2O3.nH2O}$ What does "n" stands for? Does it mean that there is no fixed amount of water in bauxite?
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If I were to create a fictional way to obtain elements from Granite, what would be a good approach?

Notes: This question is in regard to my Minecraft mod. To those who don't know, Minecraft is a first person survival game by Mojang, where the players' objective is to become self sufficient and ...
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How can rocks absorb CO2?

In the beginning of the earth, there was at a certain point so much $\ce{CO2}$ in the air that most of it was absorbed by rock. The consequence of that was the snowball earth, because the atmosphere ...
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Calculating the age by radioactive dating

The following was an example done in class, so I know the answer and (maybe?) the formula, but I still can't derive it for myself, and I would appreciate some help. Given a sample of biotite with $\...
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2answers
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Are there magnetic rocks, and not hematite?

I dug up some sand and small rocks in a stream bed near me and moved a powerful magnet through the wash picking up numerous small rocks and black sand. Now, the black sand is definitely small ...
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2answers
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How to determine age of stones (and other inorganic matter)?

I'd like to ask how can one determine /with relative precision/ the age of stones and stone monuments, like statues, columns, stone walls or stone tablets? I know that one determines the age of ...
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1answer
399 views

Chromatography in geology

I just started reading about the technique of chromatography and learning how important it is. Now I'm trying to focus on whether is possible to use this technique in the geological fields (fossils ...
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1answer
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Calibration Curve Error Propagation

I am using ED-XRF for geochemical analysis for a geology dissertation. The ED-XRF provides a ppm reading for elements and a 2sigma error, for example 472 +- 5.11ppm Sr. An example calibration ...
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1answer
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Radon gas in earthquake prediction - Why Rn?

I recently studied an article about predicting earthquakes and how correctly realizing that an increase in $\ce{Rn}$ gas is a sign for the earthquake saved a whole city. The following is derived from ...
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Why is sand, sand; and why is glass, glass; While both mainly contain Silicon Dioxide?

I know that there is the famous process of heating material and converting them to glass; but what I don't know is, what is the chemical process of the creation of glass? Is it crystallization? How ...
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1answer
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Best x-ray dopant?

An x-ray computed tomography scanner has been used in an attempt to look at the pore space of a limestone rock sample (a carbonate, $\ce{CaCO3}$) saturated with a $\mathrm{12\ wt\%}$ sodium iodide ($\...
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307 views

Is Sweetwater, Missouri, named due to water contamination with lead compounds?

The town of Sweetwater, Missouri is known for its mineral resources, particularly rich lead sulfide (galena) deposits. I am curious to find the origin of the name "Sweetwater" and if it has any ...
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1answer
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Why doesn't limestone thermally decompose instead of turning to marble?

When limestone is buried and put under intense heat and pressure, why does it turn to marble instead of thermally decomposing into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide?
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1answer
374 views

Caclulating the Solubility of Fluorite in River Water

Source: Chapter 4 of Brunlow's 1979 Geochemistry text. Calculate the solubility of fluorite in river water with the average composition given in table 4-1. Assume that no fluoride complexes form....
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1answer
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Is the Ocean acidification inconsistent with the Bjerrum plot?

$\ce{CO2}$ dissolves in water and goes through chemical reactions and exists at different concentrations of, dissolved $\ce{CO2}$, carbonic acid, bicarbonate, and carbonate. The Bjerrum plot ...
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1answer
224 views

What element or compound could be used to make the ocean more basic?

The ocean is becoming acidic. This is not a natural evolutionary change but happens through human negative effect on the environment. What element or compound could be used to create a more base ocean?...
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1answer
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How can I determine the chemical composition of local rocks and minerals?

Specifically I live in the U.S. so I'm asking about an ordinary rock that you might find in your backyard or near a playground. Humans have discovered gun powder, petroleum, silica, iron, and many ...
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Modelling planar molecules and their evolutions

I am trying to simulate a chain of molecules which are planar. Can anyone please give me an example of the molecular chain which can stay as planar with it's minimum energy state is planar. A ...
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When was oil discovered to be of biological origin?

Is there an article, book, some account of the discovery that crude oil came from decayed biological material?
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1answer
457 views

Is pitchblende the same as Uraninite?

Different websites say different things on the matter. For example: This Website Holds that pitchblende is also known by the name Uraninite. This Website Holds that pitchblende is a type of ...
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2answers
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What's the reddish powder that oozes out of a black rock?

As an artist, some of the work I do involves the use of seashells, sea rocks/stones, etc. I picked up a black rock from shore at one of the beaches here in Florida and it looked somewhat clumpy with ...
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Why do carbonates, oxides, and pure metals precipitate before metal sulfides?

Water tends to leach metals near the surface and deposit them deeper through precipitation in two layers. The upper layer is usually made of metal carbonates, oxides, and occasionally pure or native ...
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What happens to the oxygen when carbohydrates turn into hydrocarbons?

According to the biogenic theory of hydrocarbon formation, hydrocarbons come from pressurized carbohydrates. I am looking for an explanation of what happens to the oxygen in the process. How could ...