Questions tagged [formal-charge]

For questions about formal charge in any molecule. Do not confuse with [oxidation-state].

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Does formal charge impact electron donation and withdrawal?

Does an atom with a positive formal charge withdraw more electrons than that atom without formal charge, due to the extra positive charge on the atom? For example, I know the carbonyl group becomes ...
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Forming conjugate acid of borate anion via protonation

I am a biologist so please forgive me as I likely won't be as rigorous as a professional chemist. I am using the RDKit package to extract organic molecules from salts, where one ion is organic and the ...
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Can a neutral molecule have nonzero formal charge?

I initially thought that yes, there must be a neutral molecule that exists with a nonzero formal charge on at least one atom. But thinking more into it, if we are given a neutral molecule where the ...
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Charge polarisation in acetamide molecule due to different lithium salts (varying anions)

I am trying to understand how will acetamide molecules behave in the presence of lithium salts with different anions (nitrate, bromide and perchlorate). Among the three, it is evident that bromide is ...
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Why exactly do we need formal charge? [closed]

Formal charge is considered to be the charge present in one atom by considering all the bonds to be 100% covalent.What is the significance of 100% covalent here? Why are we considering the bonds to be ...
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Is this analogy right? [closed]

Is my logic correct in this case ? Since the formal charge represents the charge the element possess in a covalent compounds, is it right to say that formal charge is the equivalent term for covalent ...
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Stability of Carbanions

For comparing stability of carbanion, we use the fact that "negative charge is stable on more electronegative atom." So, The stability order is, {electronegative order: $\mathrm{sp \gt sp^2 \...
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Does formal charge affect bond polarity?

Bond polarity, as far as I understand, is a measure of the degree to which shared electron density is distorted, and thus solely depends on the electronegativity difference. Up until now, I had ...
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Why don't atoms with expanded [duplicate]

My title may be confusing, so let me explain. Let's take the molecule SO2 for example... Above, you can see that the Sulfur atom has 6 electrons from its original valence shell involved in bonding/in ...
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Why is Cl2-P-O-Cl an unfavourable structure for POCl3?

Why is the structure $\ce{(Cl)2P - O - Cl}$ unfavourable compared to the two structures in the picture? The latter in the picture and the one I stated both have zero formal charge, so I don't really ...
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How to calculate Hirshfeld charges from Gaussian?

I am new to Gaussian and want to calculate Hirshfeld charges from Gaussian 09 or 16. I found this input file for Methanol: ...
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Does a minus charge represent two electrons?

In OH- 's lewis structure, we put 8 dots around O and then the H, thus, it now has 10 electrons, instead of 9 (as 8 electrons for O and 1 for H), and thus we say that it has a charge of minus one. Am ...
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I am having problem with this question including topics of redox reactions and charges [duplicate]

What is the oxidation number of $\ce{Fe}$ in $\ce{K4[Fe(CN)6]}$? This seems to be a pretty easy problem. Just input the oxidation numbers of everything and equate for 'x'. But the problem is that I ...
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Proper notation of doubly charged ions

I have always notated doubly charged ions with a superscript $++,$ such as $\ce{He^{++}}.$ For more highly-charged ions I would denote them with the number of charges, such as $\ce{Pt^{4+}}.$ ...
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How many sodium ions is each oxygen atom attracted to in aqueous sodium chloride? [closed]

When $\ce{NaCl}$ salt is dissolved in water the $\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{Na+}$ ions and the polar $\ce{H2O}$ molecules are attracted to each other such that each $\ce{Na+}$ ion attracts several oxygen ...
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How to find the oxidation numbers of individual ions of a transition metal with an average fractional oxidation state

In the classical example compound of $\ce{Fe3O4}$, we know that $\frac 23$ of Fe ions display +3 oxidation state and $\frac 13$ of Fe ions display +2 oxidation state fulfilling charge neutrality ...
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Computed partial charges for protonated amine: discrepencies between Gasteiger and other methods

Consider the following molecule: SMILES: COC(=O)[C@@H](c1ccccc1)[C@@H]1CCCC[NH2+]1 I would expect the computed partial chage on the amine to be positive, due to ...
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What is the Lewis structure of the azide ion?

On a chemistry homework, we're asked to draw the Lewis structure of $\ce{N3-}$. My answer: Nitrogen ordinarily has five electrons in its valence; $\ce{N-}$ has six. This makes a total of 16 ...
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Why are only two bond structures considered for ozone and not three? [duplicate]

We were taught in chemistry that: Formal charges can be determined by drawing the Lewis dot structure, then subtracting the nonbonding electrons and half of the bonding electrons from the number of ...
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Lewis Structure of OF+

Would the Lewis Structure for OF+ be drawn so that the more electronegative atom has the more negative formal charge, or would it be drawn to satisfy the octet rule? Here are my thoughts thus far: ...
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Understanding the structure of NCS⁻

Predict the most preferable structure of $\ce{NCS-}.$ $$\Large\underset{(\textbf{1})}{\ce{(:\!\!\overset{\huge.\!\!.}{N}=C=\overset{\huge.\!\!.}{\underset{\huge.\!\!.}{S}})-}}\qquad\underset{(\textbf{...
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resonance structures and formal charges

hey so I have been stuck on this question for the past few hours and I can't seem to figure it out. I am moving the pi bond one carbon/bond at a time but I can't seem to come up with the correct ...
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Does an electronegative atom which carries a negative formal charge withdraw electrons by induction?

Electronegative atoms withdraw electrons by their inductuve effect. Does this fact remain true even when they are heavily loaded with electrons through negative formal charge? Are these two ideas ...
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Formal charge: size vs electronegativity?

My question is why size is not taken into consideration when deciding major contributors of resonance structures, particularly: why is the formal charge always assigned to the most electronegative ...
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Formal Charge in Coordinate covalent bonds [closed]

I am in an honors chemistry course right now and I would like to know the formal charges of the atoms in CO, my confusion is that because the bond is partially coordinate covalent, are the bonded ...
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Determining the charge on an ion through mole calculation in electrolyis

During electrolysis $\pu{0.02 mol}$ of metal $\ce{X}$ is deposited on cathode when $\pu{0.12 mol}$ of electrons are passed through molten chloride of $\ce{X}.$ What is the formula of the chloride? I ...
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Why (SO4)^2- does not create 4 double bonds

I looked this question up and still couldn't understand. Why, in $\ce{SO4^2-}$ don't the 4 oxygens create double bonds. In that case the all the oxygens will have 0 formal charge while the sulfur ...
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What is the difference between expanded structural formula and Lewis dot structure?

I am teaching myself the basics of chemistry and I have done Lewis dot structure before. Right now I am going into carbon chemistry which often use structure formulas to represent compounds. There is ...
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In Diazonium Ion why does N contain 4 bonds?

Nitrogen's valenc number is 3. Sometimes it can form a co-ordinate bond by donating it's lone pair electrons. In diazonium ion N has 4 bonds, then one of those 4 bonds must be a co-ordinate bond. ...
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Lewis structure of ClO radical

The commonly shown structure of the ClO radical described here has a single bond between the chlorine and oxygen atoms. In that structure, chlorine has a formal charge of 1, and oxygen has a formal ...
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How can Phosphate be charged at -3? [closed]

I am studying chemistry in High School and I am studying my ions(Because I failed too in the beginning, oops) and I have a question on this reasoning: In Phosphate(PO4), it has a charge of -3. The ...
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Question about resonance structures [duplicate]

I stumbled upon an exercise asking to draw the resonance structure of $\ce{SO4^{2-}}$. We can choose between the resonance structures by calculating the formal charges and by checking which one gives ...
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Formal charge and valence shell

Is there a relationship between valence shell and formal charge of the atom...... Let's take an example. A carbocation for eg $methenium$ has a formal charge of +1,can we tell how many valence ...
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Charge on an atom [closed]

I am really confused at this part.The resonance as shown above causes the generation of a positive charge on nitrogen atom but the fact is that it's octet is still complete even after that resonance.....
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Rules to identify the most stable resonance structures

While studying resonance from this Chemistry LibreTexts article, I found the rules to follow in order to decide which structure is the most stable. Among them: The structure with the least number of ...
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Formal charges on polyatomic ions

Why is it that sometimes a polyatomic ion's Lewis structure is adjusted to remove the formal charge on the central ion, but sometimes it is not? For example, in the $\ce{I3-}$ ion (triiodide), the ...
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Do conjugated double bonds take priority over a +1 formal charge?

Do conjugated double bonds take priority over a +1 formal charge? The first one is what I solved for (ignore the hexagon that has no double bonds attached to it), and the one below it is the answer ...
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Charge on Nitrogen in NCl3

What is the charge on $\ce{N}$ in $\ce{NCl3}$? I want to know if it is positive or negative. I feel it should be positive but I am not sure.
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How to calculate formal charge?

I am trying to understand formal charge and how it is being calculated. I have copied the image from organic chemistry as a second language below: How do I calculate formal charge? In the book formal ...
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Understanding how electrons are counted for lone pairs vs. bonds especially when understanding resonance?

This is taken from the book Organic Chemistry I as a Second Language 3E: Translating the Basic Concepts[1] from page 35. In the following image: It is seen that when the electrons from the double ...
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Why are electrons shared equally when calculating formal charge, but unequally when calculating oxidation state?

When calculating formal charge - electrons are shared equally between the atoms in the bond. When calculating oxidation state - electrons are both given to the most electronegative atom. Why is this ...
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Formal charge of oxygen in protonated alcohol [closed]

When ethanol is attacked by positive hydrogen ion, how can the oxygen atom acquire formal positive charge? I tried calculation it as : $\frac{6-4}{2-1}$ which gives answer 3, but the answer should be ...
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How can the formal charge of the B in the Lewis structure of BF4(-) ion be minus one?

How can the formal charge of the $\ce{B}$ in the lewis structure of $\ce{BF4-}$ ion be minus one ? I draw the lewis structure of $\ce{BF4-}$ ion such like the following: I put $\ce{B}$ in the ...
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Arrow pushing: why does the O become positive when its lone pair becomes a double bond?

In the following image: The oxygen's top pair of electrons forms a double bond. But in a covalent bonds, aren't the electrons shared? So won't the oxygen still have these $2$ electrons (that it ...
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Oxidation number vs charge?

From what I understand: *oxidation numbers: are the "act" of electrons moving while *charge: is what the atom "wants" to do with its electrons. - Can anyone please clear up the distinction ...
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Cyanide's Lewis structure - electronegativity or octet rule?

The formula for the cyanide ion is $\ce{CN-}$. That gives us a total of ten valence electrons to work with. There are two obvious ways to build the Lewis structure. $\ce{:^-C#N:}$ $\ce{:C=N^-::...
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Is it possible for a carbon atom with a negative formal charge to have ONE bond and ONE lone pair?

I was completing some problems from my textbook and found that the answer of this problem seemed incorrect to me. From my limited understanding, carbon atoms with a negative formal charge must have ...
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Formal charges can mislead when writing arrow-pushing mechanisms

We know opposing charges attract and like charges repel. By this logic then, in the two examples on the left, the curved arrows would be show the formation of an oxygen-oxygen bond. However, these ...
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Formal charge and net charge

What is the basic difference between formal charge and net charge . Does formal charge take part in resonance . I searched it on wikipedia , but it is mostly discussing how to find formal charge. ...
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Partial charges in a covalent bond

My professor stated the following statement: In a covalent bond, there is a presence of a partial charge in the atoms that combine to form a compound. For example in $\ce{H2O}$, since $\ce{O}$ is ...
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