Questions tagged [formal-charge]

For questions about formal charge in any molecule. Do not confuse with [oxidation-state].

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Why is Cl2-P-O-Cl an unfavourable structure for POCl3?

Why is the structure $\ce{(Cl)2P - O - Cl}$ unfavourable compared to the two structures in the picture? The latter in the picture and the one I stated both have zero formal charge, so I don't really ...
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How to calculate Hirshfeld charges from Gaussian?

I am new to Gaussian and want to calculate Hirshfeld charges from Gaussian 09 or 16. I found this input file for Methanol: ...
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Does a minus charge represent two electrons?

In OH- 's lewis structure, we put 8 dots around O and then the H, thus, it now has 10 electrons, instead of 9 (as 8 electrons for O and 1 for H), and thus we say that it has a charge of minus one. Am ...
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I am having problem with this question including topics of redox reactions and charges [duplicate]

What is the oxidation number of $\ce{Fe}$ in $\ce{K4[Fe(CN)6]}$? This seems to be a pretty easy problem. Just input the oxidation numbers of everything and equate for 'x'. But the problem is that I ...
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Proper notation of doubly charged ions

I have always notated doubly charged ions with a superscript $++,$ such as $\ce{He^{++}}.$ For more highly-charged ions I would denote them with the number of charges, such as $\ce{Pt^{4+}}.$ ...
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How many Cl and Na atoms per Water molecule when salt dissolves? [closed]

When salt dissolves in water the Cl and Na ions or drawn to the polar water molecules. Is it a one to one pairing? As in one Cl to the hydrogen side and one Na to the oxygen side?
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115 views

How to find the oxidation numbers of individual ions of a transition metal with an average fractional oxidation state

In the classical example compound of $\ce{Fe3O4}$, we know that $\frac 23$ of Fe ions display +3 oxidation state and $\frac 13$ of Fe ions display +2 oxidation state fulfilling charge neutrality ...
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Computed partial charges for protonated amine: discrepencies between Gasteiger and other methods

Consider the following molecule: SMILES: COC(=O)[C@@H](c1ccccc1)[C@@H]1CCCC[NH2+]1 I would expect the computed partial chage on the amine to be positive, due to ...
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What is the Lewis structure of the azide ion?

On a chemistry homework, we're asked to draw the Lewis structure of $\ce{N3-}$. My answer: Nitrogen ordinarily has five electrons in its valence; $\ce{N-}$ has six. This makes a total of 16 ...
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Why are only two bond structures considered for ozone and not three? [duplicate]

We were taught in chemistry that: Formal charges can be determined by drawing the Lewis dot structure, then subtracting the nonbonding electrons and half of the bonding electrons from the number of ...
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Lewis Structure of OF+

Would the Lewis Structure for OF+ be drawn so that the more electronegative atom has the more negative formal charge, or would it be drawn to satisfy the octet rule? Here are my thoughts thus far: ...
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Understanding the structure of NCS⁻

Predict the most preferable structure of $\ce{NCS-}.$ $$\Large\underset{(\textbf{1})}{\ce{(:\!\!\overset{\huge.\!\!.}{N}=C=\overset{\huge.\!\!.}{\underset{\huge.\!\!.}{S}})-}}\qquad\underset{(\textbf{...
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resonance structures and formal charges

hey so I have been stuck on this question for the past few hours and I can't seem to figure it out. I am moving the pi bond one carbon/bond at a time but I can't seem to come up with the correct ...
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Does an electronegative atom which carries a negative formal charge withdraw electrons by induction?

Electronegative atoms withdraw electrons by their inductuve effect. Does this fact remain true even when they are heavily loaded with electrons through negative formal charge? Are these two ideas ...
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Formal charge: size vs electronegativity?

My question is why size is not taken into consideration when deciding major contributors of resonance structures, particularly: why is the formal charge always assigned to the most electronegative ...
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Formal Charge in Coordinate covalent bonds [closed]

I am in an honors chemistry course right now and I would like to know the formal charges of the atoms in CO, my confusion is that because the bond is partially coordinate covalent, are the bonded ...
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290 views

Determining the charge on an ion through mole calculation in electrolyis

During electrolysis $\pu{0.02 mol}$ of metal $\ce{X}$ is deposited on cathode when $\pu{0.12 mol}$ of electrons are passed through molten chloride of $\ce{X}.$ What is the formula of the chloride? I ...
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Why (SO4)^2- does not create 4 double bonds

I looked this question up and still couldn't understand. Why, in $\ce{SO4^2-}$ don't the 4 oxygens create double bonds. In that case the all the oxygens will have 0 formal charge while the sulfur ...
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408 views

In Diazonium Ion why does N contain 4 bonds?

Nitrogen's valenc number is 3. Sometimes it can form a co-ordinate bond by donating it's lone pair electrons. In diazonium ion N has 4 bonds, then one of those 4 bonds must be a co-ordinate bond. ...
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Lewis structure of ClO radical

The commonly shown structure of the ClO radical described here has a single bond between the chlorine and oxygen atoms. In that structure, chlorine has a formal charge of 1, and oxygen has a formal ...
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How can Phosphate be charged at -3? [closed]

I am studying chemistry in High School and I am studying my ions(Because I failed too in the beginning, oops) and I have a question on this reasoning: In Phosphate(PO4), it has a charge of -3. The ...
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Question about resonance structures [duplicate]

I stumbled upon an exercise asking to draw the resonance structure of $\ce{SO4^{2-}}$. We can choose between the resonance structures by calculating the formal charges and by checking which one gives ...
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184 views

Formal charge and valence shell

Is there a relationship between valence shell and formal charge of the atom...... Let's take an example. A carbocation for eg $methenium$ has a formal charge of +1,can we tell how many valence ...
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Charge on an atom [closed]

I am really confused at this part.The resonance as shown above causes the generation of a positive charge on nitrogen atom but the fact is that it's octet is still complete even after that resonance.....
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Rules to identify the most stable resonance structures

While studying resonance from this Chemistry LibreTexts article, I found the rules to follow in order to decide which structure is the most stable. Among them: The structure with the least number of ...
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Formal charges on polyatomic ions

Why is it that sometimes a polyatomic ion's Lewis structure is adjusted to remove the formal charge on the central ion, but sometimes it is not? For example, in the $\ce{I3-}$ ion (triiodide), the ...
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Do conjugated double bonds take priority over a +1 formal charge?

Do conjugated double bonds take priority over a +1 formal charge? The first one is what I solved for (ignore the hexagon that has no double bonds attached to it), and the one below it is the answer ...
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Charge on Nitrogen in NCl3

What is the charge on $\ce{N}$ in $\ce{NCl3}$? I want to know if it is positive or negative. I feel it should be positive but I am not sure.
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How to calculate formal charge?

I am trying to understand formal charge and how it is being calculated. I have copied the image from organic chemistry as a second language below: How do I calculate formal charge? In the book formal ...
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Understanding how electrons are counted for lone pairs vs. bonds especially when understanding resonance?

This is taken from the book Organic Chemistry as a Second Language from page 35. In the following image: It is seen that when the electrons from the double bond are pushed into the lone pair ...
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Why are electrons shared equally when calculating formal charge, but unequally when calculating oxidation state?

When calculating formal charge - electrons are shared equally between the atoms in the bond. When calculating oxidation state - electrons are both given to the most electronegative atom. Why is this ...
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Formal charge of oxygen in protonated alcohol [closed]

When ethanol is attacked by positive hydrogen ion, how can the oxygen atom acquire formal positive charge? I tried calculation it as : $\frac{6-4}{2-1}$ which gives answer 3, but the answer should be ...
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How can the formal charge of the B in the Lewis structure of BF4(-) ion be minus one?

How can the formal charge of the $\ce{B}$ in the lewis structure of $\ce{BF4-}$ ion be minus one ? I draw the lewis structure of $\ce{BF4-}$ ion such like the following: I put $\ce{B}$ in the ...
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155 views

Arrow pushing: why does the O become positive when its lone pair becomes a double bond?

In the following image: The oxygen's top pair of electrons forms a double bond. But in a covalent bonds, aren't the electrons shared? So won't the oxygen still have these $2$ electrons (that it ...
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290 views

Oxidation number vs charge?

From what I understand: *oxidation numbers: are the "act" of electrons moving while *charge: is what the atom "wants" to do with its electrons. - Can anyone please clear up the distinction ...
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Cyanide's Lewis structure - electronegativity or octet rule?

The formula for the cyanide ion is $\ce{CN-}$. That gives us a total of ten valence electrons to work with. There are two obvious ways to build the Lewis structure. $\ce{:^-C#N:}$ $\ce{:C=N^-::...
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Is it possible for a carbon atom with a negative formal charge to have ONE bond and ONE lone pair?

I was completing some problems from my textbook and found that the answer of this problem seemed incorrect to me. From my limited understanding, carbon atoms with a negative formal charge must have ...
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Formal charges can mislead when writing arrow-pushing mechanisms

We know opposing charges attract and like charges repel. By this logic then, in the two examples on the left, the curved arrows would be show the formation of an oxygen-oxygen bond. However, these ...
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Formal charge and net charge

What is the basic difference between formal charge and net charge . Does formal charge take part in resonance . I searched it on wikipedia , but it is mostly discussing how to find formal charge. ...
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Partial charges in a covalent bond

My professor stated the following statement: In a covalent bond, there is a presence of a partial charge in the atoms that combine to form a compound. For example in $\ce{H2O}$, since $\ce{O}$ is ...
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Lone pair and dipole moment of ozone

(This is a question similar to this and this, but none of the answers to those two questions answer my question.) I've seen many places explain the dipole moment of ozone from the formal charges of ...
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How is it possible to get an attractive charge-dipole interaction using the modified Coulomb law?

Vqµ = − qµ / (4π ε0εr r2) Say you had a negative charge, interacting with the positive end of a dipole then the charge would be -1.602 x 10-19 C and the dipole moment would always be a positive value....
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Difference between oxidation and formal charge

What is the difference between oxidation number and formal charge? I am confused about the two.
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What is an algorithm for drawing resonance structures?

Question What is an instance of a procedure for writing resonance structures for any given compound's name or structural formula? I would prefer any of these formats to represent the algorithm: ...
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Why does calculating formal charges help us draw correct Lewis structures?

Reading about how to draw Lewis structures, all I know is that formal charge is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule assuming that electrons are shared equally, regardless of differing ...
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How to know when subscripts refer to charges or not [closed]

My question is very easy. Sometimes to determine to charge of a compound you multiply the charge by the number of ions you have of that element. But sometimes it seems as if you don't do it this way. ...
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How to differentiate the notation of a compounds charge and an anions oxidations state?

I have had the case a few times. Being given something of this form: $$\ce{Cr2O7^2-}$$ How do I know whether the $2-$ is referring to the oxidation of the oxygen anion or the charge of the whole ...
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How is (SO4)^2- Charged if S and O all are Neutral Themselves?

As far as I understand $\ce{SO4^2-}$ structure, sulfur makes two coordinate bonds with two oxygen atoms and two double bonds are formed with oxygen after sulfur expands it's valance shell to 6. At ...
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Determine polarity of covalent bond with formal charge

In a covalent molecule, can we conclude that if the formal charge between two atoms are +1 and -1 respectively, then the chemical bond acting between them is a polar covalent bond (such as the bond ...
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Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals [closed]

Look at $\ce{FeO2}$. We know that $\ce{O2}$ is $-2$ then we must have $-4$ for $\ce{Fe}$ So $\ce{Fe}$ must have $+4$ charge so then is it $\ce{Fe(IV)}$ ?