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For questions about formal charge in any molecule. Do not confuse with [oxidation-state].

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Which is the likely structure of [N3]-? [duplicate]

I was reviewing formal charges and did a problem where I had to draw the likely structure for [N3]- and write the formal charges. The book gave the first answer (answer A), however, I came up with ...
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In Diazonium Ion why does N contain 4 bonds?

Nitrogen's valenc number is 3. Sometimes it can form a co-ordinate bond by donating it's lone pair electrons. In diazonium ion N has 4 bonds, then one of those 4 bonds must be a co-ordinate bond. ...
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What is a formal charge, conceptually? [duplicate]

I'm having some difficulty understanding what a formal charge is. I know how to calculate it and what it's used to determine, but I don't know what the numbers represent. For example, in methane, the ...
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74 views

Why isn't N2O3 linear? [duplicate]

The $\ce{N_2O_3}$ molecule is shown to be branched, as so: Here, the formal charge of the left-most $\ce{N}$ atom is 1, and the formal charge of the bottom-left $\ce{O}$ atom is -1. However, a linear ...
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Why doesn't the arsenate ion have two double bonds?

The commonly described arsenate anion has a double bond between the arsenic atom and one of the oxygen atoms. This makes the arsenic ion have a formal charge of 0, and all of the oxygens have a formal ...
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Lewis structure of ClO radical

The commonly shown structure of the ClO radical described here has a single bond between the chlorine and oxygen atoms. In that structure, chlorine has a formal charge of 1, and oxygen has a formal ...
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Lewis Structure of SO3 [duplicate]

regarding to the SO3 structure, so it's better if the formal electron is equal to zero rather than applying the octet rule?
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3k views

SO3-2 Lewis structure

so I was trying to draw SO3-2 Lewis structure and when I looked it up on the internet I found it different to the one I've drawn This is the one I found on the internet, mine was without a double ...
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515 views

How can Phosphate be charged at -3? [closed]

I am studying chemistry in High School and I am studying my ions(Because I failed too in the beginning, oops) and I have a question on this reasoning: In Phosphate(PO4), it has a charge of -3. The ...
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Question about resonance structures [duplicate]

I stumbled upon an exercise asking to draw the resonance structure of $\ce{SO4^{2-}}$. We can choose between the resonance structures by calculating the formal charges and by checking which one gives ...
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1answer
94 views

Formal charge and valence shell

Is there a relationship between valence shell and formal charge of the atom...... Let's take an example. A carbocation for eg $methenium$ has a formal charge of +1,can we tell how many valence ...
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1answer
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Charge on an atom [closed]

I am really confused at this part.The resonance as shown above causes the generation of a positive charge on nitrogen atom but the fact is that it's octet is still complete even after that resonance.....
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2answers
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Rules to identify the most stable resonance structures

While studying resonance from this Chemistry LibreTexts article, I found the rules to follow in order to decide which structure is the most stable. Among them: The structure with the least number of ...
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1answer
412 views

Formal charges on polyatomic ions

Why is it that sometimes a polyatomic ion's Lewis structure is adjusted to remove the formal charge on the central ion, but sometimes it is not? For example, in the $\ce{I3-}$ ion (triiodide), the ...
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3answers
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Do conjugated double bonds take priority over a +1 formal charge?

Do conjugated double bonds take priority over a +1 formal charge? The first one is what I solved for (ignore the hexagon that has no double bonds attached to it), and the one below it is the answer ...
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3answers
691 views

Charge on Nitrogen in NCl3

What is the charge on $\ce{N}$ in $\ce{NCl3}$? I want to know if it is positive or negative. I feel it should be positive but I am not sure.
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366 views

How to calculate formal charge?

I am trying to understand formal charge and how it is being calculated. The image is taken from organic chemistry as a second language. The structure is the image below: How do I calculate formal ...
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2answers
536 views

Understanding how electrons are counted for lone pairs vs. bonds especially when understanding resonance?

This is taken from the book Organic Chemistry as a Second Language from page 35. In the following image: It is seen that when the electrons from the double bond are pushed into the lone pair ...
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Why are electrons shared equally when calculating formal charge, but unequally when calculating oxidation state?

When calculating formal charge - electrons are shared equally between the atoms in the bond. When calculating oxidation state - electrons are both given to the most electronegative atom. Why is this ...
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226 views

Formal charge of oxygen in protonated alcohol [closed]

When ethanol is attacked by positive hydrogen ion, how can the oxygen atom acquire formal positive charge? I tried calculation it as : $\frac{6-4}{2-1}$ which gives answer 3, but the answer should be ...
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754 views

How can the formal charge of the B in the Lewis structure of BF4(-) ion be minus one?

How can the formal charge of the $\ce{B}$ in the lewis structure of $\ce{BF4-}$ ion be minus one ? I draw the lewis structure of $\ce{BF4-}$ ion such like the following: I put $\ce{B}$ in the ...
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1answer
80 views

Arrow pushing: why does the O become positive when its lone pair becomes a double bond?

In the following image: The oxygen's top pair of electrons forms a double bond. But in a covalent bonds, aren't the electrons shared? So won't the oxygen still have these $2$ electrons (that it ...
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124 views

Oxidation number vs charge?

From what I understand: *oxidation numbers: are the "act" of electrons moving while *charge: is what the atom "wants" to do with its electrons. - Can anyone please clear up the distinction ...
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Cyanide's Lewis structure - electronegativity or octet rule?

The formula for the cyanide ion is $\ce{CN-}$. That gives us a total of ten valence electrons to work with. There are two obvious ways to build the Lewis structure. $\ce{:^-C#N:}$ $\ce{:C=N^-::...
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1answer
708 views

Is it possible for a carbon atom with a negative formal charge to have ONE bond and ONE lone pair?

I was completing some problems from my textbook and found that the answer of this problem seemed incorrect to me. From my limited understanding, carbon atoms with a negative formal charge must have ...
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Formal charges can mislead when writing arrow-pushing mechanisms

We know opposing charges attract and like charges repel. By this logic then, in the two examples on the left, the curved arrows would be show the formation of an oxygen-oxygen bond. However, these ...
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Formal charge and net charge

What is the basic difference between formal charge and net charge . Does formal charge take part in resonance . I searched it on wikipedia , but it is mostly discussing how to find formal charge. ...
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Partial charges in a covalent bond

My professor stated the following statement: In a covalent bond, there is a presence of a partial charge in the atoms that combine to form a compound. For example in $\ce{H2O}$, since $\ce{O}$ is ...
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Lone pair and dipole moment of ozone

(This is a question similar to this and this, but none of the answers to those two questions answer my question.) I've seen many places explain the dipole moment of ozone from the formal charges of ...
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How is it possible to get an attractive charge-dipole interaction using the modified Coulomb law?

Vqµ = − qµ / (4π ε0εr r2) Say you had a negative charge, interacting with the positive end of a dipole then the charge would be -1.602 x 10-19 C and the dipole moment would always be a positive value....
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787 views

Difference between oxidation and formal charge

What is the difference between oxidation number and formal charge? I am confused about the two.
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280 views

What is an algorithm for drawing resonance structures?

Question What is an instance of a procedure for writing resonance structures for any given compound's name or structural formula? I would prefer any of these formats to represent the algorithm: ...
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262 views

Why does calculating formal charges help us draw correct Lewis structures?

Reading about how to draw Lewis structures, all I know is that formal charge is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule assuming that electrons are shared equally, regardless of differing ...
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How to deal with dative(coordination) bond when calculating formal charges?

When we calculate the formal charge of an atom in a molecule we consider the non-bonding pair as 2 electrons and any covalent bond as 1 electron. Ok then what about dative bonds,how many electrons do ...
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How to know when subscripts refer to charges or not

My question is very easy. Sometimes to determine to charge of a compound you multiply the charge by the number of ions you have of that element. But sometimes it seems as if you don't do it this way. ...
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1answer
89 views

How to differentiate the notation of a compounds charge and an anions oxidations state?

I have had the case a few times. Being given something of this form: $$\ce{Cr2O7^2-}$$ How do I know whether the $2-$ is referring to the oxidation of the oxygen anion or the charge of the whole ...
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How to solve such a redox equation without periodic table of elements?

I am given the following reaction: $$\ce{KClO3 + FeSO4 + H2SO4 -> Fe2(SO4)3 + KCl}$$ In order to solve this redox reaction I first of all I need to spot "the elements that changed". In order to ...
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How is (SO4)^2- Charged if S and O all are Neutral Themselves?

As far as I understand $\ce{SO4^2-}$ structure, sulfur makes two coordinate bonds with two oxygen atoms and two double bonds are formed with oxygen after sulfur expands it's valance shell to 6. At ...
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Determine polarity of covalent bond with formal charge

In a covalent molecule, can we conclude that if the formal charge between two atoms are +1 and -1 respectively, then the chemical bond acting between them is a polar covalent bond (such as the bond ...
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Naming Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals [closed]

Look at $\ce{FeO2}$. We know that $\ce{O2}$ is $-2$ then we must have $-4$ for $\ce{Fe}$ So $\ce{Fe}$ must have $+4$ charge so then is it $\ce{Fe(IV)}$ ?
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Identifying lone pairs when looking for formal charges

Why are there no formal charges on the 1st compound? I am specifically referring to the nitrogen atom, which I would think should exhibit a +2 formal charge? However, in David Klein's organic ...
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Identifying coordinate bonds

How can we know whether a compound has a coordinate bond or not? I know that I have to draw the Lewis Structure for the compound. But what to do after that? Is there anything to do with formal charges?...
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Full Valence Shell (Octet Rule) vs Formal Charge

When does formal charge have more precedence over the octet rule / an atom having a full valence shell when drawing structures? When you draw $\ce{BCl3}$ for example, there are no double bonds - ...
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1answer
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Lewis structure of chlorite ion [duplicate]

When solving the lewis structure for the $\ce{ClO2-}$ ion, taking into consideration formal charges, the structure is represented as: A lewis model with 2 double bonds also fits the formal charge and ...
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439 views

Any free tool for Calculating Gasteiger-Hückel charges for ligands?

I want to know if there is any free open source tool available for Gasteiger-Hückel charge calculation? I know it is available on Sylbyl but is there any other(free) way to calculate these charges for ...
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Can metals have a net negative charge

Normal metals like sodium or Calcium have a positive charge as $\ce{Na}^+$ or $\ce{Ca}^{2+}$. Transition metals have a loot of variable oxidation states. Yesterday I read about Iridium in Wikipedia ...
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Oxide surfaces develop a charge in H2O. Do we have any, even vague, handle on how long does an indivdual charge last on avg. before being neutralised?

We often know, from e.g. titration experiments, what the average surface charge density of a surface is. How do these charges vary over both time and space (i.e. dynamics)? I have been unable to find ...
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How does a carbocation have a positive charge?

When an alkene bonds with an H+ ion, the electron pair from the pi bond goes towards a new dative covalent bond with the hydrogen ion, leaving, on one side of the old double bond, a carbon bonded to ...
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Why does delocalization of π electrons bring stability?

My book mentions that Delocalization of $\pi$ electrons makes a compound stable as the process of delocalization involves loss in internal energy. This is the synopsis of resonance. But how does ...
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8k views

What is the charge of Silicon dioxide? [closed]

What is the charge of Silicon dioxide ions? I can't find it anywhere. It seems to be 0? Also is there anywhere I can find these on my own?