Questions tagged [enthalpy]

A thermodynamic state function describing the total energy content of a system.

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4
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1answer
240 views

Would ionic compounds dissolve in methanol?

Question: Determine whether liquid hexane ($\ce{C6H14}$) or liquid methanol ($\ce{CH3OH}$) is the more appropriate solvent for the substances grease ($\ce{C20H42}$) and potassium iodide ($\ce{KI}$)....
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2k views

What really are the units of enthalpy change? [duplicate]

A reasonable definition of standard enthalpy change of formation would be: 'The enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements under standard conditions' ...
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2answers
103 views

Is Kirchoffs law valid at all pressures?

$$\Large H_{T_\mathrm{f}, p}=H_{T_\mathrm{i},p}+\int_{T_\mathrm{f}}^{T_\mathrm{i}}c_p(T)dT$$ This can be derived by integrating: $$C_v =\left(\frac{\mathrm{d}U}{\mathrm{d}T}\right)_V$$ Applying this ...
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1answer
318 views

Why are there two contradicting formulas for Enthalpy (Delta H): [duplicate]

1) Delta H = Bonds broken - Bonds Formed 2) Delta H = $H_{products} - H_{reactants}$ In the first formula, bonds break in the reactants and form in the products, so its basically saying "bonds ...
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0answers
84 views

How do the pressure acting on the reactants and the initial temperature of the reactants affect the enthalpy of reaction?

In an exothermic reaction that occurs under constant pressure, does the pressure acting on the reactants affect the enthalpy of reaction? Does the initial temperature of the reactants affect the ...
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1answer
734 views

Is the bond dissociation enthalpy of Cl-F greater than that of Cl-Cl?

In my book, it is mentioned that $\ce{Cl-F}$ has greater bond dissociation enthalpy than $\ce{Cl-Cl}$. Is it true? I know that interhalogen molecules usually have weaker bonds than dihalogen molecules ...
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2answers
131 views

Why don't we consider VΔP when we define Q?

We only define $Q = \Delta U + W_\text{exp}$ (expansion work = $-P\Delta V$). If heat can cause $\Delta U$ and work, why work is defined only as expansion work in the first place where there are other ...
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2answers
263 views

What is V times dP?

Work is defined when there is a change of volume. Mathematically, $W=-\int P\, dV$. When pressure is constant $W= P\, \Delta V$. For an ideal gas expansion we have $W= nRT\ln\frac{V_2}{V_1}$. If its ...
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3answers
588 views

Why is the enthalpy of a reaction equal to the difference between the enthalpies of combustion of the reactants and the products?

My textbook gives me the following formula for calculating the enthalpy change of any reaction: $$\Delta H_\mathrm{r}^\circ=\sum(\Delta H_\mathrm{c}^\circ)_\text{reactants}-\sum(\Delta H_\mathrm{c}^\...
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1answer
4k views

What is the difference between enthalpy of reaction and standard enthalpy?

What is the difference between enthalpy of reaction ($\Delta H$) and standard enthalpy ($\Delta H^\circ$)? I was told that the standard enthalpy of reaction is the change in heat when one mole of ...
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1answer
1k views

Estimation of change in enthalpy of a gas phase reaction using bond enthalpies [closed]

Estimate ∆H for the following gas phase reaction: $$\ce{C2H4 + 3 O2 ⟶ 2 CO2 + 2H2O}$$ I have been having trouble on this problem for a long time, and I was hoping someone would help me with it. I ...
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1answer
77 views

Enthalpy of formaton [closed]

today I was doing a set of HW problems regarding enthalpy and stumble upon one problem that I found confusing.It was the standard enthalpy of formation for CaCO3 is -1207.6 kJ mol when 30.7 g of ...
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2answers
416 views

Expansion under isobaric adiabatic condition

A 3 mole sample of a triatomic gas at $\pu{300 K}$ is allowed to expand under isobaric adiabatic condition from $\pu{5L}$ to $\pu{40L}$. The value of change in enthalpy is: $\pu{12.46 KJ}$ ...
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2answers
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Why 'Enthalpy change' (Delta H) is equal to 'Heat transfer at constant pressure' (Qp)? [closed]

Why 'Enthalpy change' (∆H) is equal to 'Heat transfer at constant pressure' (Qp)? ∆H = ∆U + ∆pV, here only expansion work done by the sustem is added. If non expansion work is done on the system then ...
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4answers
173 views

How do energy changes in reactions avoid violating the conservation of momentum?

As mentioned in this question, the idea of chemical potential energy explains how the thermal/kinetic energy of particles can change in a reaction; energy is taken in / released by the bonds broken / ...
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2answers
410 views

Shouldn't enthalpy be constant measured at constant volume?

Shouldn't enthalpy be measured at constant volume? Then the work done on and by the gas is 0 meaning that the temperature change is caused solely by heat released or absorbed by the system. You'd be ...
2
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1answer
274 views

Acetone Enthalpy & Observations

I was looking at the enthalpy of various liquids using WolframAlpha and noticed that at 30 °C, while water and ethanol have a positive enthalpy, acetone has a negative enthalpy. If I'm understanding ...
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4answers
291 views

Is it possible to freeze water by dissolving a salt?

Theoretically, by dissolving a salt in water the melting point lowers, approximately 1.86 K kg/mol, making it more difficult to freeze water. However, the process of dissolution of certain salts is ...
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2answers
684 views

Difference between Enthalpy and Heat transferred in a reaction?

We know at const pressure change in enthalpy is change in internal energy plus work done. Here by taking enthalpy as heat i can easily think the situation in mind that heat absorbed is due to the two ...
4
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1answer
361 views

Enthalpy calculation

What is the value of enthalpy change for the following reaction $$\ce{X + 2Y -> 2Z}$$ given \begin{align} \ce{W + X &-> 2Y} &\qquad &\Delta_\mathrm{r}H_1 = \pu{-200 ...
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1answer
512 views

Entropy and enthalpy at the melting point of benzene

For the melting of Benzene, since it is melting, it feels intuitive to think that the change in entropy will be positive (more disorder) and enthalpy will be positive (exothermic). However, when I ...
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0answers
153 views

Change in enthalpy and entropy for the formation of nickel tetracarbonyl

I was working on an enthalpy/entropy problem and I had a question on predicting the signs of some reactions. For the reaction $$\ce{Ni (s) + 4 CO (g) -> Ni(CO)4 (g)}$$ my textbooks says that ...
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What is wrong with my enthalpy calculations?

I need to calculate the enthalpy of combustion for butane using bond formation energies. Thus I first balance the equation: $$\ce{C4H10 + 6.5 O2 -> 4 CO2 + 5 H2O}$$ Then, I calculate the total ...
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1answer
15k views

Calculating the heat of formation of propane given its enthalpy of combustion

Given the equation $\ce{C3H8 + 5O2 -> 3CO2 + 4H2O}$ and that enthalpies of formation for $\ce{H2O (l)}$ is $\pu{-285.3 kJ/mol}$ and $\ce{CO2 (g)}$ is $\pu{-393.5 kJ/mol}$, and the enthalpy of ...
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1answer
916 views

Why can we use standard entropy when determining temperature at which a reaction becomes spontaneous?

In this chemistry problem, $\Delta H$ and $\Delta S$ are given at $298\text{ K}$, and it asks for the temperature at which the reaction becomes spontaneous: For the reaction $2\text{SO}_3 \...
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1answer
418 views

Can absolute enthalpy values be used to determine reaction enthalpy?

Our teacher added this question to an exam, and there was a huge disagreement with my classmates and teacher about the correct answer. One side favoured answer 2, the other side favoured answer 4 ...
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1answer
137 views

Is dH(S,P) = dH(T,P) true (always)?

I came across an interesting question with some physical chemistry students today. Based on the following steps, we're uncertain whether the statement in the title is/could be true. Assuming $dN = 0$, ...
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3answers
3k views

What is the difference between “spontaneous” and “energetically favourable”? [duplicate]

I read somewhere that the difference between energetically favorable reactions and spontaneous reactions is that energetically favorable reactions are ones where energy is released, i.e., $\Delta H<...
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Application of the definition of enthalpy in a modified way

My book gave me this equation at constant temperature and constant volume: $$\ce{2NH3(g) -> N2(g) + 3H2(g); \Delta U = 92.3 kJ}$$ And it says here enthalpy and internal energy are the same as ...
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162 views

How to evaluate enthalpy variation of combustion of sucrose in a constant volume calorimeter?

Consider combustion reaction (with the formation of $H_2O$ and $CO_2$) of a mass $m$ of sucrose in a constant volume calorimeter with thermal capacity $C$. This reaction increases the temperature of $...
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632 views

Entropy of Activation and Temperature Dependence

I am trying to understand the extrapolation of enthalpy $\Delta H^{\ddagger}$ and entropy of activation $\Delta S^{\ddagger}$ from the Eyring equation. It's typically cast as: $$\ln\left(\frac{k}{T}\...
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1answer
112 views

How do scientist obtain the value of enthalpy of formation? [closed]

Do they do it experimentally or do/can they use bond enthalpy to figure it out? For example $\ce{C2H4 + H2 -> C2H6}$. The enthalpy of formation, $\Delta_fH$ of formation for the product is listed ...
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2answers
2k views

Which of the following species has an enthalpy change of formation = 0 kJ/mol?

Below was a question in the 2012 Australian Chemistry Olympiads: The enthalpy change of formation ($\Delta_\mathrm{f}H^\circ$) for a species at $\pu{298 K}$ is defined as the enthalpy change that ...
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1answer
195 views

How can I calculate the standard reaction enthalpy if I lack one formation enthalpy?

I have this reaction, for which I need the standard enthalpy of reaction: $$\ce{CuO (s) + H2S (g) \rightarrow CuS (s) + H2O (g)}$$ This is the data from the NIST web book (standard formation ...
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2answers
554 views

Why is the enthalpy of combustion higher for n-butane as compared to 2-methylpropane?

N-butane has an enthalpy of formation of $\pu{-125.6 kJ/mol}$, whereas it is $\pu{-134.2kJ/mol}$ for 2-methylpropane. When comparing the heat set free at the combustion process, why is it higher for n-...
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1answer
394 views

Enthalpy - unit confusion

I think I have trouble interpreting reaction enthalpy in these kind of situations: I am given that $\Delta _rH^0 = 25,9$kJ/mole in the reaction: $$\ce{1/2 H2 + 1/2 I2 \rightarrow HI}$$ which I ...
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411 views

How do I calculate the standard enthalpy of formation for liquid ethanethiol? Do I use Hess's law? [closed]

Calculate a value for the standard enthalpy of formation for liquid ethanethiol, $\ce{C2H5SH}$. Use the equation given below and enthalpy of combustion data from the following table. Just assume ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Why is $\Delta G = -T \Delta S_{\mathrm{total}}$ valid only at constant pressure?

According to my book(Elements of Physical Chemistry by Atkins and de Paula, 5th ed.), $\Delta G = - T \Delta S_{\mathrm{total}}$ is valid only for constant pressure and temperature. Enthalpy is ...
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1answer
332 views

Does temperature change pressure in isochoric system?

Consider the following equilibrium reaction: $$\ce{2 NOCl (g) <=> 2 NO (g) + Cl2 (g)} \qquad \Delta H > 0$$ My textbook has a statement that: If you decrease the temperature when ...
4
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1answer
399 views

What exactly does the “per mole” unit of heat of atomization mean?

I am facing a confusion in the definition of the standard enthalpy of atomization. The confusion arises because of the "per mole" in its units ($\pu{kJ mol^-1}$). My question: When I say "per mole", ...
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1answer
284 views

Why must NaOH be in excess if we wish to measure the effect acid strength has on the enthalpy of neutralisation?

A few different acids are given i.e $\ce{HCl}$ , ethanoic acid, $\ce{H2SO4}$, ethanedioic acid. We want to conduct an experiment in which we measure the temperature rise for neutralisation as a ...
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1answer
228 views

Why does the standard enthalpy of formation diverge so far from the standard Gibbs free energy of formation for some substances?

If you look at a Table of Thermodynamic Values for chemical substances, most substances have very close values for their standard enthalpy of formation ($\Delta H_{\mathrm{f}}^\circ$) and their ...
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1answer
2k views

Why is the standard enthalpy of formation of black phosphorus not zero? [duplicate]

Black phosphorus is the most stable allotrope of phosphorus. Then why is its standard enthalpy of formation not taken as zero?
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1answer
74 views

Enthalpy Change

In calculating the change of enthalpy in converting Fulminic to Isofulminic acid, would one simply take the sum of the negative enthalpies of the bonds of Isofulminic acid minus the sum of the ...
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0answers
2k views

Why increase in enthalpy leads to increase in entropy? [closed]

Given statement: Enthalpy of adsorption is the strength at which molecule (say $\ce{H2}$) is bound to the adsorbent (say some metal center). For a free $\ce{H2}$ molecule, the entropy contribution is ...
3
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1answer
9k views

Entropy and specific heat capacity

I have seen the equation $S(T_2)=S(T_1)+C_p\ln(T_2/T_1)$ where $C_p$ is the molar heat capacity at a constant pressure. I understand that this assumes that the temperature range is sufficiently small ...
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1answer
289 views

What does “heat is evolved at standard-state conditions” mean?

When $\pu{0.539 g}$ of $\ce{Na(s)}$ reacts with excess $\ce{F2(g)}$ to form $\ce{NaF(s)}$, $\pu{13.3 kJ}$ of heat is evolved at standard-state conditions. What is the standard enthalpy of formation ($\...
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1answer
170 views

Can the enthalpy change of allotrope transformation can be done with Hess cycle?

My A- level textbook has some points about the uses of Hess cycle. For example: indirectly determining the lattice enthalpy, vaporisation enthalpy etc. But, my book also says it is possible to ...
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1answer
63 views

Do electric charges increase activation barriers?

The activation energy governs the rate of reaction, and is thought to be equal to the energy needed to break the bonds needed to initiate the reaction. But if we have a reaction like: $$\ce{A +B -&...
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1answer
542 views

How to determine the mass of ammonium nitrate needed and enthalpy of solution?

I am trying to figure out how to determine the mass of ammonium nitrate needed to reduce the temperature of solution from $\pu{23 ^\circ C}$ (measured room temperature at start) to $\pu{3 ^\circ C}$, ...