Questions tagged [enthalpy]

A thermodynamic state function describing the total energy content of a system.

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4answers
93k views

Difference between exothermic and exergonic

In High School I learned that an exothermic reactions releases energy, while an endothermic reaction needs energy to occur. Now I learned that there is a separate, somewhat similar classification ...
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3answers
12k views

Enthalpy of formation and reaction equations

I'm disagreeing with my chemistry teacher over this enthalpy of formation problem, so can someone tell me if I am right or why I am wrong? The enthalpy of formation of gaseous sulfur trioxide is $-...
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Is the S–O bond strength in sulfur trioxide or sulfite anion larger?

Can you please explain the difference between the bond enthalpies in sulfurtrioxide $\ce{SO3}$ and the sulfite anion $\ce{SO3^{2-}}$?
13
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1answer
783 views

How is enthalpy change equal to heat supplied at constant volume?

We know that: $$\begin{align} H &= U + pV \\ \Delta H &= \Delta U + \Delta (pV) \end{align}$$ Now, If $p$ is constant, $$\begin{align} \Delta H &= \Delta U + p\Delta V \\ &= q_p + ...
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1answer
3k views

How different concentration of HCl on magnesium affect the enthalpy change

I had conducted an experiment where I reacted a $0.3\ \mathrm{g}$ strip of magnesium with $100\ \mathrm{mL}$ of varying concentrations of $\ce{HCl}$: $1\ \mathrm{mol/L}$, $2\ \mathrm{mol/L}$ and $3\ \...
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7answers
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Will heating diatomic oxygen enough break the O=O bonds?

The bond enthalpy associated with a $\ce{O=O}$ double bond is equal to 495 kJ/mol. Does that mean that adding enough kinetic energy in the form of heat will eventually cause the bonds to break and ...
12
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1answer
492 views

A theoretical molecule that could match uranium mole-for-mole

XKCD #1162 piqued my curiosity. Obviously, there's nothing we generally use as a chemical fuel that can match the energy density of uranium fission. But I wondered what it would take, hypothetically, ...
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3answers
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Increasing the solubility of sodium hydroxide

$\ce{NaOH -> Na+ + OH-} \quad \Delta H^\circ = -44.51\ \mathrm{kJ/mol}$ The dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water is an exothermic process, and so, according to Le Chatelier’s principle, ...
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2answers
11k views

Why is the standard enthalpy of formation of diamond not zero?

Why doesn’t diamond have $\Delta H_\mathrm{f}^\circ=0$, when graphite does? Is it something to do with the definition – diamonds can’t really form at STP, even though it is naturally occurring?
11
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1answer
600 views

Explanation of the strength of phosphorus-oxygen bond

When discussing the Wittig reaction, Clayden's Organic Chemistry cites the strength of the $\ce{P=O}$ formed in triphenylphosphine oxide as a driver of the reaction through enthalpy: The $\ce{P=O}$ ...
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3answers
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How to calculate an enthalpy change for this reaction

I've got an assignment to solve problem number 4 in this worksheet, that is to calculate change in enthalpy for reaction: $$\ce{CHCl3 + O -> COCl2 + HCl}$$ How do I solve it? Why is oxygen $\ce{O}$...
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Why is the enthalpy change not zero in an adiabatic process?

Which of the following must be true for adiabatic processes? $C_\mathrm{V} = C_\mathrm{p}$ $\Delta H = 0$ $\Delta U = 0$ $\Delta S = 0$ $q = 0$ (Source: Chemistry GRE) The answer ...
9
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788 views

Comparing formula for enthalpy change with bond dissociation energy and formation enthalpy

I learnt that given a reaction: $$\ce{A -> B}$$ the enthalpy change is given by: $$\Delta H = \left( \begin{array}{c} \text{total enthalpy of}\\ \text{bonds broken}\end{array}\right)-\left( \begin{...
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2answers
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Which of the following species has an enthalpy change of formation = 0 kJ/mol?

Below was a question in the 2012 Australian Chemistry Olympiads: The enthalpy change of formation ($\Delta_\mathrm{f}H^\circ$) for a species at $\pu{298 K}$ is defined as the enthalpy change that ...
9
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1answer
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Mathematical basis of why enthalpy of mixing is 0 for ideal gas

For this case, let's say there are two identical chambers connected by a small tube, constant pressure and temperature. There's a closed valve that separates the two chambers. Within the chambers ...
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1answer
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How is it possible for a substance to have a high heat of vaporization but a low boiling point?

The final paragraph of Dissenter's question here is worthy of standing alone: [H]ow does one square a high heat of vaporization with a low boiling point? If it takes a lot of energy to vaporize ...
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3answers
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Methane seems to dissolve more readily in cold water. Why?

When you are diluting air in the system and/or properly evacuating it, you must consider water temperature. Methane is completely dissolved in water at 42 degrees Fahrenheit (5.5 C) but can be ...
8
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1answer
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Why is the standard enthalpy of formation of black phosphorus not zero? [duplicate]

Black phosphorus is the most stable allotrope of phosphorus. Then why is its standard enthalpy of formation not taken as zero?
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3answers
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What non-toxic non-water substances have a freezing point very close to water's?

I was linked to a Kickstarter for a cooling ball to be placed in drinks which claims with constant marketing hyperbole how much it relies on "Phase Change" ! which is a neat concept and seems not ...
8
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2answers
240 views

Calculating the strength of an ionic bond that contains poly-atomic ions

So the bond association enthalpy for ionic compounds like $\ce{NaCl}$ and $\ce{NaBr}$ can be easily calculated from a Born-Haber cycle. But the way a Born-Haber cycle is constructed it uses info that ...
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2answers
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What kind of chemicals would exist at the heat death of the universe?

As the universe reaches the maximum entropy, presumably only the most stable chemicals would exist. Assume that all the elements haven't turn into iron yet, what kind of chemicals would dominate at ...
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1answer
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Why is $\Delta G = -T \Delta S_{\mathrm{total}}$ valid only at constant pressure?

According to my book(Elements of Physical Chemistry by Atkins and de Paula, 5th ed.), $\Delta G = - T \Delta S_{\mathrm{total}}$ is valid only for constant pressure and temperature. Enthalpy is ...
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0answers
601 views

Entropy of Activation and Temperature Dependence

I am trying to understand the extrapolation of enthalpy $\Delta H^{\ddagger}$ and entropy of activation $\Delta S^{\ddagger}$ from the Eyring equation. It's typically cast as: $$\ln\left(\frac{k}{T}\...
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Where to find data for gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy digitally

Where can you find the enthalpy and gibbs free energy of formation and entropy of compounds either as a data file or web api (I technically only need two since I can figure out the other one from two ...
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2answers
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Can negative (abnormally) lattice enthalpies during the formation of ionic compounds exist?

Why do compounds form bonds? I've got three words for you: Less potential energy. I don't remember a case of positive lattice enthalpies $\ldots$ - My comment This makes me wonder. I remember seeing $...
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2answers
482 views

Enthalpy definitions. What are their main differences?

The definition of enthalpy is properly described in here. The principal objective of this question is mainly academic. In order to any students with internet connection can find a definition and an ...
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724 views

C-C bond dissociation energy

Have the various $\ce{C-C}$ bonds in straight chain hydrocarbons, have the same dissociation energies? Or does it depend on the location of the carbon in the chain? In other words, are the terminal ...
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1answer
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How can enthalpy change of a system be negative while entropy change is positive?

$$\Delta G = \Delta H_\text{system}-T\Delta S_\text{system}$$ $$ \begin{array}{ccc} \hline \text{Sign of}~ΔH & \text{Sign of}~ΔS & \text{Spontaneity} \\ \hline + & + & \text{The ...
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1answer
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How to calculate the mass of iron with a temperature of 325 °C needed to melt ice and raise the temperature of water from 0 to 22 °C?

A large well-insulated container holds a mixture of $75\ \mathrm g$ of ice and $100\ \mathrm g$ of water at $0\ \mathrm{^\circ C}$. Using the data given below, calculate the mass in grams of solid ...
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3answers
686 views

Is this the true expression for isochoric enthalpy of non-ideal gases?

$\def\d{\mathrm{d}}$ $\def\D{\Delta}$ I recall seeing an equation in a thermodynamics lecture, $$\tag{non-ideal gas at constant $V$} \D H = n \int_{T_1}^{T_2}\! C_{P,\mathrm{m}}\ \d T$$ where $C_{...
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1answer
545 views

Algebra of conserved quantities for chemical reactions

So there is the standard formation enthalpy $\Delta H^0_f$ and there is also formation entropy. Are there more (independent) quantities? What about the heat capacity? Is there a general theoretical ...
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2answers
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What is an example of a very low temperature endothermic reaction?

Shakashiri describes the reaction of solid Ammonium Thiocyanate and solid Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate resulting in an endothermic reaction leading to subzero temperatures. I've performed this ...
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2answers
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How to calculate the entropy change of benzene when it changes from vapour into liquid?

Given information: The boiling point of benzene at atmospheric pressure is $353~\mathrm{K}$ the enthalpy of vaporization of benzene is $30.8~\mathrm{kJ~mol^{−1}}$ at this temperature. ...
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4answers
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Why won't water freeze if you put ice in it, despite ice being frozen?

Just now I got some room temperature water and added some ice to cool it, and it just came to me, like the scientist I wish I was ... why doesn't frozen (freezing point) ice added to higher ...
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3answers
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Why are there different values for enthalpy of combustion, depending on the calculation method?

Why are there different values for enthalpy of combustion, depending on the calculation method? Take for example the combustion of ethanol: $$\ce{C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) -> 2CO2(g) + 3H2O (l)}$$ If I ...
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1answer
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Why is the standard enthalpy of formation of elements in their native forms zero?

Why is the standard enthalpy of formation of $\ce{O2}$ and other reference forms of elements equal to zero? Well, from what I know, bonding releases energy. Also, does anybody know a source for ...
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5answers
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How much energy is stored when H+ is converted to H2?

I'm doing a write-up for this for my students: Source: Amirav Research Group (Facebook) The energy of formation of isopropyl alcohol is $-318.2~\mathrm{kJ/mol}$ (kilojoules per mole), that of ...
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1answer
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What is the proper term for lines of constant volume and constant enthalpy on a thermodynamic diagram?

I know an isotherm is a line of constant temperature. Isobar is a constant pressure line. Isentrope is a line of constant entropy. But what do you call a line of constant volume? An Isochore? And ...
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2answers
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Thermodynamics: Relation between different types of energy: My Analogy

I have always been confused between the different kind of energies in thermodynamics so today I thought of finally getting it right. Here's my analogy(which is wrong and I need help in improving it, ...
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1answer
112 views

Is dH(S,P) = dH(T,P) true (always)?

I came across an interesting question with some physical chemistry students today. Based on the following steps, we're uncertain whether the statement in the title is/could be true. Assuming $dN = 0$, ...
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1answer
16k views

What is the difference between enthalpy of formation and Gibbs free energy of formation?

I'm having trouble (not alone, apparently) understanding the concept of Gibbs free energy, but I'm beginning to. What I still don't understand, however, is how Gibbs free energy of formation differs ...
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2answers
8k views

How can I figure out whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic without its enthalpy value?

I already know the way to determine whether if the given reaction is exothermic or endothermic by the enthalpy values. But is it possible without enthalpy values, and just by looking at the reaction? ...
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1answer
2k views

Why is enthalpy of atomization of Mn exceptionally low?

Transition elements usually have high values, especially so for greater number of unpaired electrons. Why the exception here?
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4answers
277 views

Is it possible to freeze water by dissolving a salt?

Theoretically, by dissolving a salt in water the melting point lowers, approximately 1.86 K kg/mol, making it more difficult to freeze water. However, the process of dissolution of certain salts is ...
6
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1answer
322 views

Reaction-enthalpy for synthesis of 40 g hydrazine

Calculate the reaction-enthalpy for the synthesis of 40 g hydrazine (rocketfuel): $$\ce{4NH3(g) + Cl2 (g) -> N2H4(l) + 2 NH4Cl(s)}$$ Attempt at solution: First we have to account for the ...
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1answer
303 views

Calculation of the enthalpy change of reactions

First, I’m a high school student and I wonder why every textbook just tells you how to set up those equations and cancel them to get the entropy change but never tells you why you can cancel the same ...
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3answers
7k views

Is a carbon-fluorine bond stronger than a carbon-chlorine bond?

In hydrolysis/nucleophilic substitution of haloalkanes, the bond enthalpy indicates the rate of hydrolysis (e.g. the $\ce {C-I}$ bond is weaker than the $\ce {C-Cl}$ bond so in hydrolysis the alkane ...
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4answers
13k views

Why is the enthalpy of vaporization greater than the enthalpy of fusion?

Why is the molar enthalpy of vaporization of a substance larger than its molar enthalpy of fusion (at constant pressure); for example, in the case of ice and water.
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2answers
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Why are condensation reactions endergonic?

My lecture notes state that Condensation reactions, like all biosynthetic reactions, are endergonic. I am unsure as to why this would be the case. I thought bond formation was an exothermic ...
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1answer
153 views

How to calculate bond enthalpies from first principles?

Is it possible to calculate bond enthalpies using the periodic table and the molecule's geometric structure? I am interested in a way of calculating this without getting the answer from measurements ...