Questions tagged [electronic-configuration]

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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Why does mercury in mercuric acetate have a lone pair?

The configuration of mercury ends with $6s^{2}$. In mercuric acetate, mercury is in the +2 oxidation state, so does it still have a lone pair?
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Anomalous Electronic Configuration of Thorium

The electronic configuration of thorium ($Z=90$) is $5\mathrm f^0 6\mathrm d^2 7\mathrm s^2$. But, according to the aufbau principle, the electrons should first enter the $\mathrm f$ subshell and not ...
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What is the electronic configuration of Cr (+1) ion

I believe it should be $\ce{d^5}$ , but i found out that it is $\ce{d^4s^1}$. Is it so? I have not found any explanation for the following. So why the strange configuration?
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Tungsten 4+ ion magnetism?

I just had a quiz and struggled on a particular question: Tungsten forms a $+4$ ion. It is observed to be diamagnetic. The electron configuration for this ion may not be what you would expect. ...
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Does an atom want to give or take electrons when it has a shell half full?

For example, carbon has 4 electrons in the outer shell and so its half full. Does it want to give electrons in a bond or take electrons, and if any atom has a half full electron shell does it want to ...
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Comparing two oxidizing agents using electron configuration

Which oxidizing agent from the pair $\ce{K_2IrCl_6/K_2PtCl_6}$ is stronger? Explain your answer using their electron configurations. We write the electron configurations for $\ce{Ir/Ir^{4+}}$ and $\...
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Why does ionization increase from Li to Be? [duplicate]

If ionization energy decreases from $\ce{N}$ to $\ce{O}$ due to the pairing of electrons (causing electric repulsion and greater potential energy) in the $\mathrm{2p}$ orbital in the $\ce{O}$ atom, ...
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How many bonds can Hydrogen make?

Recently I saw a video which told me that Hydrogen has a valency of 1, i.e, Hydrogen can only bond with 1 other atom. But since hydrogen wants a complete shell, it can have 2 covalent bonds with 2 ...
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Are there atoms with different numbers of protons, but the same number of electrons, with different orbital occupations?

Imagine there is an electron-stripped nucleus with $Z$ protons, in high vacuum and isolated. Then you add electrons, one by one, and check which orbitals are filled. Will this depend on $Z$ at all, or ...
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Which statement is correct about electron orbitals and energy levels?

Which statement is correct about electron orbitals and energy levels? A. Yttrium, $\ce{Y}$ ($Z = 39$) is the first element in the periodic table with an electron in a f sub-level. B. The maximum ...
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Why ionic radii of Cu2+ is less than Zn2+?

Fully filled orbital has more effective nuclear charge than incompletely filled orbital. So atomic or ionic radii of elements or ions having fully filled orbitals should be less than that of elements ...
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Calcium reactivity vs electronic configuration

Calcium is an alkaline earth metal, so it is reactive. But, it has two valence electrons. Don't those two electrons fill up the first energy level? Isn't an atom with a full energy level considered ...
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Free radicals vs Hund's rule contradiction?

How do we reconcile these two statements? Formation of electron pairs is energetically favorable. Therefore, free radicals are particularly reactive Hund's rule - it takes energy to pair electrons, ...
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How are electronic configurations including hybrid orbitals notated?

I know the general scheme for notating electronic configurations is (with s and p orbitals) [noble gas core]nsel.$n$pel. etc., where $n$ is the principal quantum number and el. is the number of ...
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how to find valency of calcium using spdf electronic configuration [closed]

Electronic configuration of calcium is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2}$. The orbitals are fully filled with electrons so would its valency be two or zero?
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Pauli's Exclusion Principle

While reading Pauli's Exclusion principal from here, they said that The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that, in an atom or molecule, no two electrons can have the same four electronic quantum ...
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How does the electron configuration of platinum relate to its stability?

Does platinum's electron configuration, [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1, influence its reactivity and stability? Is the electron configuration the primary contributing factor to platinum's relative inertness? ...
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Why tungsten does not have stable configuration? [duplicate]

Whenever there are 4 unpaired electrons in d-orbital, elements try to attain stable electronic configuration. For example copper. Electronic configuration of copper should be [Ar]3d4 4s2, but it ...
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Transition of electron from HOMO to LUMO?

Molecules usually have certain number of (doubly) occupied molecular orbitals and an infinite number of unoccupied molecular orbitals but the probability of electron makes the orbitals shapes so, how ...
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Ionic reaction between lithium and chlorine

I got a weird question in my chemistry book. It says Li and Cl react to form LiCl an ionic compound. Cl has .... electrons in its outermost occupied shell and the answer of the book is 6 electrons . ...
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Strange valence numbers? [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand why ChemReference sometimes lists the valence electrons as a number I don't expect. Take Oxygen, for instance. It should have six valence electrons, however the site lists two....
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What is the electron configuration for Og with a charge of 2-?

I was writing a cool program that determines the electron configuration of elements for me, and I wondered what would happen if you went over 118 — the "limit" of my program. So, what is the ...
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How it was observed, that elements in columns 6 and 11 assume abnormal electron configuration?

Reading this question about why do elements in columns 6 and 11 assume abnormal electron configurations I wondering, how this was observed.
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How are related the electrons magnetic dipole moments in atomic orbitals?

I wondering, has somebody ever try to take in account the electrons magnetic dipole moment for the shapes of the probability distribution in atom? Does this magnetic dipole moment play any role in the ...
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Multiple values for the magnetic quantum number and the spin projection quantum number?

The valence electron configuration of boron is $2\mathrm{p}^1$. So, $n=2$, and $l=1$. $m_l$ ranges from $-l$ to $l$. Can I say $m_l$ (for the specified electron) may be (-1 or 0 or +1) or should I ...
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Are the Phosphate and Sulfate ion diagrams with double bonds an invalid picture?

Whenever you see an image of phosphate, it's always shown having 5 bonds. 3 single bonds to anionic oxygen atoms and a double bond to an extra neutral oxygen. Not only that, but they're shown being ...
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How many valence electrons do elements in the d block have?

I just noticed that on the periodic table it doesn't say how many valence electrons there are for each column in the d block. How do I find out how many valence electrons elements in the d block have?...
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What do the molecular orbitals of a single water molecule look like?

Some time ago, (a few years back) I heard that the orbitals of a single water molecule were solved analytically (or was it just numerically). What do they look like? I am interested in the shape (...
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Filling up of orbitals

As we know that the orbitals in a sub shell are degenerate, so is it necessary to fill up the electrons starting from x then to y and then z (if in p-subshell) or they can be filled like shown in the ...
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Filling up of electrons [duplicate]

Is it necessary that filling up orbitals start from spin-up orientation only? And also, is it mandatory to fill the electrons with one kind of spin or they can be filled with spin up and spin down(as ...
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How does valency change in a reaction?

There is a reaction given in my book: $\ce{2FeSO_4 +Heat -> Fe_2O_3 + SO_2 + SO_3}$ I just noticed that on the left $\ce{Fe}$ has valency $2$, while it has $3$ on the right. How can it change ...
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Change in spin angular momentum during transition in one-electron atoms

I have a really basic qustion about spin and electronic transitions. In one-electron systems (like H or $\ce{He+}$), will the electron change its spin during an electronic transition? Let's say the ...
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Saturated and unsaturated elements?

I was reading about Group 15 and came upon the following: The penultimate shell in N contains 2 electrons (saturated), in P contains 8 (saturated), in Arsenic 18 (saturated) while antimony and ...
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Will adding up protons and electrons (without neutrons) create a new element?

If protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge, can we add up several protons and electrons together to create a new element, without adding neutrons to hold the nuclei ...
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What is the highest known bond order?

In science we learn about single, double, and sometimes triple bonds. From a quick search I have found up to sextuple bonds. Is there a maximum bond order? If yes/no, what causes this?
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Why Fe 3+ is more common than Fe 2+

I heard that $\ce{Fe}(\mathrm{III})$ is more common than $\ce{Fe}(\mathrm{II})$ but I've not heard a very clear explanation. Could someone please explain this incorporating electron configurations in ...
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Water molecule bent shape and electron configuration [closed]

The hydrogen atoms in a water molecule are negatively charged, so they should repulse each other completely due to the electromagnetic force, forcing the hydrogen atoms to be on opposite sides of the ...
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Experimental Validation of Schrodinger's Electron Cloud theory

I am currently doing a report for school on the electron cloud atomic structure theory. One of the major points on my report is the experiments performed by the scientists (Schrodinger and Heisenberg) ...
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Why do iron(II) ions and chromium have different electronic configurations?

What I know: Empty 3d orbitals are higher in energy than empty 4s orbitals Aufbau Principle (electrons always go into an empty orbital with the lowest energy) Partially/half/fully filled 3d ...
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What is the reason for the anomalous electronic configuration of palladium? [duplicate]

The p block elements generally have the general valence shell configuration as $$n\mathrm{p}^{1-6}\,n\mathrm{s}^{1-2}.$$ Expected electronic configuration for palladium is $$\ce{^46Pd} = \mathrm{1s^2\,...
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Exceptions to the Madelung rule for electronic configurations

The electronic configuration of platinum is $$\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^9 6s^1}$$ and not $\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^{10} 6s^0}$ or $\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^8 6s^2}$. I see this question has already ...
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How does the electronic configuration for this acid oxide correspond to its structure?

The following electronic configuration and drawing of the structure are given: $\mathrm{(1s)^2 (2s)^2 (2p)^6 (3s)^2 (3p)^6 (3d)^{10} (4s)^2 (4p)^4}$ How does this image correspond with the ...
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Fermi Level of an alloy

How could one calculate the Fermi level of a copper-nickel alloy? They are both structurally face-centered cubic, however how would this structure affect the Fermi level of the individual atom or the ...
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Molecular orbital (MO) diagram for N2 and N2^-

I have been taught that the MO diagram is different for molecules with 14 or less electrons than the one used for molecules with 15 or more electrons. For $\ce{N2}$ the orbitals in increasing energy ...
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Confused about writing out electron configurations

I watched the Crash Course chemistry video about the electron. In the video Hank showed an example configuration of iron as $\mathrm{(1s)^2 (2s)^2 (2p)^6 (3s)^2 (3p)^6 (4s)^2 (3d)^6}$ and explained ...
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Do Slater's rules apply to neutral lithium (at least approximately)?

For lithium, the electronic configuration is $\ce{(1s)^2(2s)^1}$. I tried to calculate $Z_{eff}$ for the $\ce{2s}$ orbital of the neutral atom as follows: $$Z_{eff} = Z-\sigma$$ $$Z_{eff} = 3-(2\...
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Correct Electron Configuration of Ni-28

I have seen two electron configurations for $\ce{_{28}Ni}$ in my chemistry textbook: $$[\ce{Ar}]~3d^8~4s^2$$ $$[\ce{Ar}]~3d^9~4s^1$$ Which of those is ACTUALLY the correct one (in real life, reality)? ...
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Why 4s lose electron to 3d? [duplicate]

In chromium and copper, the are the configuration fill up like $$\mathrm{3d^5 4s^1}$$ but not $\mathrm{4s}$ first as it has lower energy level. and why only these 2 elements.
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Each electron shell can hold up to 2n² electrons. Is there a geometric reason for this?

It seems such a simple formula, that each electron shell can hold in principle two times a square number. I imagine there must be a geometrical reason for this, that's to do with the way electron ...
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Are bond orders always the same in isoelectronic diatomic species?

In my textbook of chemistry it is written that: In the Lewis description of covalent bond, the Bond order is given by the number of bonds between the two atoms of a molecule. ... ...

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