Questions tagged [electronic-configuration]

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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How to compare magnetic moment of chromium(III) and cobalt(II) ions?

Is there any way of comparing magnetic moment of $\ce{Co^2+}$ and $\ce{Cr^3+}$ by just going through their electronic configuration?Or is it just experimental data?
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Density of d-block elements

Something that confuses me slightly is the trends in density when comparing periods 4, 5, and 6 in the d-block. Looking at periods 5 and 6, the density peaks at group 8, with ruthenium and osmium, ...
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If most probable radius is inversely proportional to orbital quantum number, how is energy proportional to n+l

The closer an electron to the nucleus, the lesser the energy. Then why does a 3d electron have higher energy and be closer to nucleus than a 3s electron?
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Ammonium considered as metal

Why ammonium ion has very similar properties to the heavier alkali metals and is often considered a close relative? Ammonium is expected to behave as a metal ($\ce{NH4+}$ ions in a sea of electrons) ...
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Which relatively simple molecules violate the octet rule?

I'm learning how to draw Lewis diagrams. Everything I've read emphasizes the octet rule. However, to the best of my knowledge, that rule only applies to elements in the first three periods. On our ...
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Electron configuration of the Superactinoids (Z > 118) [duplicate]

I have a question: Do I see it correctly that the electron configuration of the superactinoids given in wikipedia was somehow calculated differently (quantum mechanically?); e.g. Z=119: [Og] 8s1 Z=...
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Why is potassium less dense than sodium?

Potassium has a density of $\pu{0.86g/cm3}$ and sodium has a density of $\pu{0.97g/cm3}$,even though potassium is below sodium and one might expect the alkali metals to exhibit monotonously increasing ...
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What happens to the 2s orbital in carbon-hydrogen bonds? [closed]

I was taught in high school that carbon atoms by themselves are capable of establishing covalent bonds with with as far as four hydrogens atoms. Nowadays, trying to understand the topic in-depth, I ...
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How are Quantum Dot molecules formed and what properties do they hold apart differently from singular quantum dots? [closed]

I am trying to understand the science and phenomena behind the function and operation of quantum dot molecules, but the only articles I run into talk about the synthesis of them. Could this be ...
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What is electronic configuration of manganese in the manganate(VI) anion?

The electronic configuration of the central atom of $\ce{[MnO4]^2-}$ if given out to be $e^1\,t_2^0$ I want to know how to identify which one of the d-orbitals does this configuration utilizes because ...
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Do Slater's rules apply to neutral lithium (at least approximately)?

For lithium, the electronic configuration is $\ce{(1s)^2(2s)^1}$. I tried to calculate $Z_{eff}$ for the $\ce{2s}$ orbital of the neutral atom as follows: $$Z_{eff} = Z-\sigma$$ $$Z_{eff} = 3-(2\...
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Can an element have a third energy shell without completely filling the second energy shell?

I came across an electronic configuration diagram, it had three shells. The first shell had only one electron, the second had six and the third energy shell had five. An electron was also present ...
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Is the spin of the transferred 4s electron always opposite to the spin of 3d electron in chromium?

I am studying atomic structure and found out that Chromium has an exception in electronic configuration. One electron from 4s jumps to 3d to achieve stability. let's say the spin of transferred ...
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What would the Electronic Configuration of Ru²⁺ be?

I'm doing homework for Inorganic Chemistry, and I am a little confused. The Question is: What is the electronic configuration of $\ce{Ru^{2+}}$? If I were to remove from the highest energy level ...
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Noble gas configuration and valence shell electrons [duplicate]

I know that the maximum number of electrons within a shell is equal to 2n^2. I would think that the noble gases would reflect this but that isn’t always the case n = 1 2(1^2) = 2, this is the atomic ...
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Why is there an exponent 4 after the brackets in sp3?

My professor wrote an electron configuration for carbon as: 1s2 (sp3)4 I thought it was just 1s2 sp3 where did the 4 come from?
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Bond formations in doping of semiconductors [duplicate]

I was reading about semiconductors and found out that semiconductors are doped with either 13th group or 15th group elements which are named p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively. In n-type ...
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Are these correct? [closed]

We were tasked to write the electronic configuration of the elements in the third energy level. My answers are: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 ...
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How many valence electrons do elements in the d block have?

I just noticed that on the periodic table it doesn't say how many valence electrons there are for each column in the d block. How do I find out how many valence electrons elements in the d block have?...
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Why does Co(I) have a 3d8 configuration?

Why is the electron configuration of $\ce{Co^+}$ $[\ce{Ar}](\mathrm{3d})^8$? Since neutral $\ce{Co}$ itself has a $[\ce{Ar}](\mathrm{4s})^2(\mathrm{3d})^7$ configuration, wouldn't the ionised electron ...
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If the ferric ion is more stable than the ferrous ion, then why is it readily reduced to the latter?

The standard reduction potential value for the ferric ion: \begin{align} \ce{Fe^3+ + e- &<=> Fe^2+} & E^\circ &= \pu{0.77 V} \end{align} The value is positive, hence it means that ...
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Thermionic Emission Conservation of Energy

I am learning about thermionic emission and how it led to the vacuum tube. It is said that thermionic emission was a way to increase the flow of electrons from a signal (e.g. in a radio receiving a ...
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Should Birge–Sponer plots always have a negative gradient?

I have a set of data I would like to use the Birge–Sponer extrapolation with, but the data is the wavenumbers of the bands in the vibrational-electronic spectrum of a diatomic molecule for $v' = 0, 1, ...
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Electron Configuration confusion

I'm getting so much conflicting information!! When I practice electron configuration and google to check my answers I often see configurations that list the 3d orbital before the 4s orbital (...
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Two different electronic configurations for cerium

Depending on the textbook there are two different electronic configurations stated for cerium. On the one hand $$[\ce{Xe}]\mathrm{4f^15d^16s^2}\quad$$ and on the other hand $$[\ce{Xe}]\mathrm{4f^...
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Quantum numbers associated with electron

I wanted to get your opinion on something. I was given the electron 5p^3 and was told to find the quantum numbers associated with it. I got: n=5 l=1 Ml=1 Ms= +1/2 However, my teacher has told me that ...
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Lewis structure for magnesium diboride

What is the Lewis structure for $\ce{MgB2}$? I just read that it is a superconducting material (up to a relatively high critical temperature, 39 K) and am wondering if this has to do with its ...
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Why is nitrogen dioxide brown?

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a reddish brown molecule, while its dimer nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) is colorless. Can you give a reasonably detailed explanation for this from electronic structure theory? ...
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D block elements electronic configuration

We have found the electronic configuration of d block elements.As we move from left to right in the periodic table the energy of the 3d subshell is decreased and it becomes smaller than the energy of ...
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Predict the valence configuration of this element using the first five ionization energies [closed]

If the first five ionization energies of an element are, respectively: $\pu{1.09 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{2.35 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{4.62 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{6.22 kJ/mol}$ and $\pu{37.83 kJ/mol}$, to which group of the ...
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Physical interpreation of coulomb and exchange integral

When trying to solve the Schrodinger equation for the electronic hamiltonian: $$H_{el} = \sum_{i=1}^{N} \bigg( - \frac{1}{2}\nabla_i^2 - \sum_A \frac{Z}{r_{i_A}} \bigg) + \sum_{i>j=1}^{N}\frac{1}{...
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Why does Boron only need 6 valence electrons unlike the standard 8?

So I was a bit confused. Hydrogen and Boron seem to be the only outliers to the octet rule. Hydrogen makes sense because it has only one shell and 2 electrons complete its shell. Boron's configuration,...
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Help understanding how “steric effects” are distinct from “electronic effects”?

@jakebeal's excellent answer to Why do animal cells “mistake” rubidium ions for potassium ions? includes the following passage: In the case of potassium versus sodium, which are both very important ...
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Aluminium isopropoxide electronic structure

From Wikipedia: A tetrameric structure of the crystalline material was verified by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The species is described by the formula $\ce{Al[(μ-O-i-Pr)2Al(O-i-Pr)2]3}...
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Describe the formation of the [PbCl4]2- complex ion

The $\ce{[PbCl4]^{2-}}$ complex ion is formed when $\ce{PbCl2}$ is exposed to excess $Cl^-$ ions in solution as explained here and here through the following reversible reaction: $$\ce{PbCl2(s) + 2Cl^-...
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Size consistency in computational chemisty methods

I am looking for a clear answer that would explain what exactly size consistency is, why configuration interaction (CI) is not size consistent and how this leads to errors when using CI for large ...
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Bonding in 1,4-dihydro-1,4-diborinine

In most aromatic compounds (e.g. benzene), their $\pi$-bonding molecular orbitals are completely occupied and their antibonding molecular orbitals are unoccupied. I'm wondering if there are any ...
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What is the 'electronic energy', in units of 'negative' hartrees, of a molecule?

On a NIST (National Institute for Standards and Technology) page on the molecular details of water and it's various isotopologues, I came across this: Electronic energy: -76.4089547246 hartree There ...
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Anomalous electronic configuration of platinum

Why is the electronic configuration of platinum $$\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^9 6s^1}$$ and not $\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^{10} 6s^0}$ or $\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^8 6s^2}$?
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Why is +3 the oxidation state of Indium? [duplicate]

The three more energy electron layers for Indium(49) are, sorted from lower to higher energy: [Kr] $5\text{s}^24\text{d}^{10}5\text{p}^1$ From this configuration, it could be said that is easy to ...
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What is the electron configuration of platinum? [closed]

Some textbooks write the electron configuration for platinum (Pt) as $\ce{[Xe] 4f^14 5d^9 6s^1}$. However, some also write it as $\ce{[Xe] 4f^14 5d^8 6s^2}$. Which is correct? I hope someone can help ...
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Why does the energy gap for π - π* transitions shrink with the size of the pi-conjugated system?

Quoting from this site: As conjugated pi systems become larger, the energy gap for a π - π* transition becomes increasingly narrow, and the wavelength of light absorbed correspondingly becomes ...
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Is the quantum number $L$ a combination of the azimuthal and magnetic quantum numbers $(\ell, m_\ell)$?

Somehow, I am getting confused about this... In the $J=L+S$ equation about total angular momentum, which of the four quantum numbers used to describe the electrons and their states is included in the $...
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In metal complex electron counting, is the neutral or ionic formalism more correct?

I have been practicing finding total valence electron counts by both methods, and a few points have arisen that have confused me. 1) Which method gives the true d-electron count? From what I ...
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How can I solve a problem like this, “what is the eletronic distribution of Iron in layers”

What is the eletronic distribution in layers of Fe? a) 2 – 8 – 10 – 2. b) 2 – 8 – 12. c) 2 – 8 – 8 – 4. d) 2 – 8 – 18 – 18 – 8 – 2. e) 2 – 8 – 14 – 2. What is the ...
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Abbreviations in electronic configurations

I am teaching my students how to write the electronic configuration of the elements of the periodic table. For example, following the rules on how to fill the orbitals, the electronic configuration of ...
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Electron configuration of non-hybridized carbon

I'm currently learning about orbital hybridization in carbon. I see that carbon has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p2. However, there are actually three p-orbitals in the second shell, namely ...
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What is the correct electronic configuration of darmstadtium?

Some of the places, the electronic configuration of darmstadtium ($\ce{Ds}$) is given as $\mathrm{6d^9 7s^1}$ while at some other places, it is $\mathrm{6d^8 7s^2}$. Which among the two is correct?
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Viewing and capturing real time values of Electronic balance measuring instrument on television set and computer monitor larger screens [closed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weighing_scale Is it possible to view and capture real time values of Electronic balance measuring instrument using wired, wireless,CCTV technology on television set or ...
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Why does the Most Stable State of an Atom Tend to be One with Full s and p Subshells?

I'm new to posting on stack exchange, although I've read a lot of it before. This question seems like it might end up being marked as a duplicate, but I've looked through a lot of the similar ...

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