Questions tagged [electronic-configuration]

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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1answer
732 views

What do the subscripts 1/2 and 3/2 for the p-orbitals refer to?

What does $p_{1/2}$ and $p_{3/2}$ mean when referring to electron configuration? I've seen sub shells and I'm assuming it has something to do with spin. I am asking this in regard to the $8p_{1/2}$ ...
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Why group 13 elements don't show +2 as their major oxidation state?

These are the things I understand: 1) Group-13 elements show +1 and +3 as their major oxidation states(OS). 2) The general configuration of G-13 elements is $ns^2$ $np^1$. 3) In the ...
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Exceptions to the Madelung rule for electronic configurations

The electronic configuration of platinum is $$\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^9 6s^1}$$ and not $\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^{10} 6s^0}$ or $\mathrm{[Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^8 6s^2}$. I see this question has already ...
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How can a methyl cation exist without 8 valence electrons

So far I have been taught that everything wants to achieve noble gas configuration - 8 electrons in the outer shell. I came across a methyl cation. Which contains a positive carbon, no lone pairs and ...
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423 views

Two different electronic configurations for cerium

Depending on the textbook there are two different electronic configurations stated for cerium. On the one hand $$[\ce{Xe}]\mathrm{4f^15d^16s^2}\quad$$ and on the other hand $$[\ce{Xe}]\mathrm{4f^...
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Using comparisons for one atom to compare different atoms

I am trying (albeit rather unsuccessfully) to grasp a basic understanding of electrons in atoms and related trends like ionization energy, atomic radius, etc. One assertion that all my professors seem ...
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Why does period 3 of the periodic table contain 8 elements instead of 18?

Period 1 of the periodic table contains 2 elements ($1s^1$ and $1s^2$). Period 2 contains 8 elements ($2s^1$, $2s^2$, $2p^1$, $2p^3$, ..., $2p^6$). By the same argument, period 3 might contain 18 ...
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Shortcut method to find atomic term symbols ignoring the spin orbit coupling

Is there any shortcut method by which we can find the atomic term symbols ignoring the spin-orbit coupling, i.e. ignoring the values of J. For instance, when writing the d-d transitions for any ...
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Filling orbitals of Germanium [on hold]

I've been asked to find the configuration of some elements. Here's what I found from my side (they are obviously in their fundamental state): -Ge(32) = $1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^{10} 4p^2$ ...
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Intuition for why effective nuclear charge increases down a column

My textbook (Chemistry the Central Science, edition 12, Brown et al.) says that effective nuclear charge increases down a column. Indeed, this is consistent with the values provided by Clementi in the ...
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Diamagnetic vs Paramagnetic

As far as I know, to know whether a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic, we check if that particular species has got unpaired electron or not. But my textbook lists- Examples of Diamagnetic ...
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A Question on the Role of Triplet Oxygen in the Formation of Artemisinin

It is observed that whereas singlet oxygen is required for an ene reaction with an alkene to give an allyic hydroperoxide, triplet oxygen will react similarly with an enol to give an alpha-hydroperoxy ...
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Why is Thorium (At. no. 90) an f-block element at all?

Being an exception of the Aufbau principle, Thorium has an electronic configuration of $\ce{[Rn]}\mathrm{7s^25f^06d^2}$ instead of the expected $\ce{[Rn]}\mathrm{7s^2 5f^2 6d^0}$. Two other elements, ...
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Why are sulfur trioxide and nitrate not isoelectronic, even though both have the same number of outer electrons?

Though $\ce{SO3}$ has the same number of outer electrons as $\ce{NO3-}$, the two are not isoelectronic. This statement is from JD Lee, but I could not understand why is he calling these two molecules ...
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Water molecule bent shape and electron configuration [closed]

The hydrogen atoms in a water molecule are negatively charged, so they should repulse each other completely due to the electromagnetic force, forcing the hydrogen atoms to be on opposite sides of the ...
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1answer
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Do different oxidation states of the same element have the same emission spectrum?

I looked at the flames of copper (I) chloride and of copper (II) chloride through a spectroscope and they looked the same. The flame colour is the same too. But since they have different oxidation ...
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How can a neutral atom attract electrons when it's supposed to have zero charge?

A neutral atom is an atom with an equal number of protons and electrons We know the force of attraction between the proton and electron is equal and assuming that: one proton's positive charge ...
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Calculating valence of oxides

Learning about Oxides. Basically when oxygen is combined with a metal. $$\ce{FeO}$$ This is called "Iron Oxide (II)" according to my book. Apparently, the II represents the valence. But how come? ...
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How can one explain niobium’s weird electronic configuration?

As cited in an answer to this question, the ground state electronic configuration of niobium is: $\ce{Nb: [Kr] 5s^1 4d^4}$ Why is that so? What factors stabilize this configuration, compared to ...
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Coulombic energy of repulsion and exchange energy

In this Wikipedia link about the excited states of oxygen, this diagram is shown. The left most molecular orbital diagram is the first excited state of oxygen, and the MO diagram in the middle is the ...
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Electronic configuration of Co³⁺

Cobalt (atomic number 27) has electronic configuration $[\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(4s)^2 (3d)^7}.$ I have seen two different configurations and explanations for $\ce{Co^3+}$ from a variety of different ...
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Do external electronic shells influence internal ones?

There is a well-known electron shielding effect: negatively-charged internal electronic shell screens external shells from positive nuclei, thus increasing their radii. Thus, 2S orbital radius of Li ...
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Why does ethene not disintegrate upon excitation?

The average c=c double bond has somewhere around 614 kJ/mol of energy, if we convert it to eV, then the bond strength is roughly 6.4 eV. Additionally, Ethene absorbs light at 171 nm. However, if we ...
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Are there any forbidden collisional electronic transitions?

There are spectroscopy selection rules marking some radiative electronic transitions as forbidden. For example, it is stated that single electron of H atom can not move from S2 to S1, or from P2 to S2 ...
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Electron shells and subshells energies [duplicate]

According to what i learned in university, the energy of orbitals increases when the principal quantum number n increases. Also, in a given shell, s orbitals have lower energy than p orbitals which ...
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Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
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Ionization energy of S²⁻ vs S

Which of $\ce{S^2-}$ and $\ce{S}$ has smaller ionization energy? On one hand, ionization energy of $\ce{S^2-}$ can be predicted to be smaller than that of $\ce{S}$ because it is "easier" to remove ...
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Are Slater’s rule and lanthanide contraction contradictory?

According to most textbook and the Wikipedia page of lanthanide contraction, the phenomenon is due to poor shielding of nuclear charge by 4f electrons. However, the σ value of 4f electrons to 6s is 1....
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Lewis structure of chlorine dioxide [duplicate]

The central atom in the molecule of $\ce{ClO2}$ is chlorine. Draw the ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram for $\ce{ClO2}.$ Show outer electrons only. How to draw Lewis structure of $\ce{ClO2}?$ Please explain ...
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Does exotic potassium exist?

I was reading a book called 'Hundred and Seven Stories of Chemistry'. There is a chapter about how the attributes of different elements can change in presence of enormous pressure and temperature. ...
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Does this electronic configuration violate the Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity?

I know this configuration violates the AufBau principal but does it also violate Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity?
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Confused with Electronic Configurations [duplicate]

According to the Aufbau principle, the electronic configuration for $_{78}^{158}Pt$ is the following: $$[Xe]\,5s^{2} 5p^{6} 5d^{8} 6s^{2}$$ But in reality, it is: $$ [Xe]\,5s^{2} 5p^{6} 5d^{9} 6s^{1}$$...
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Additional example determining Marcus parameters searched

Background / theory: The electron transfer in organic materials was formalized by the Marcus theory, introducing $|H_{ab}|$ to describe the how molecules (or more generally: sites) are coupled with ...
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1answer
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How are the π bonds arranged in Osmium Tetroxide?

The structure of $\ce{OsO4}$ has puzzled me greatly for a while. I know that it has a tetrahedral geometry. I am quite piqued at the thought of how the $π$ bonds were arranged in the molecule. My ...
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1answer
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What is the electronic configuration of La⁺? [closed]

Second IP of La is most likely to second IP of which element: (1) Be (2) Ba (3) Ca (4) Zn The given answer is calcium. I don't understand if the 6s electron or the 5d electron leaves on ...
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4answers
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Why are there 14 electrons in the third shell of iron atom?

The third shell must contain at least 18 electrons. But in iron there are 14 electrons in third and 2 electrons in 4th. Why are there 14 electrons in the third shell of iron atom?
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1answer
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Electronic configuration in [Ni(CN)4]2-

$\ce{[Ni(CN)4]^2-}$ is a low spin , inner orbital complex having $\mathrm{dsp^2}$ hybridisation. According to Crystal Field Theory, $\ce{CN^-}$ is a strong field ligand that causes pairing of ...
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2answers
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Density of d-block elements

Something that confuses me slightly is the trends in density when comparing periods 4, 5, and 6 in the d-block. Looking at periods 5 and 6, the density peaks at group 8, with ruthenium and osmium, ...
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Plutonium element configuration

For Plutonium 94 when I do it's element configuration I get 1s2-2s2-2p6-3s2-3p6-4s2--3d10-4p6-5s2-4d10-5p6-6s2-4f14-5d10-6p6-7s2-5f6 I found on this site that I'...
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Electronic configuration

I was preparing for an exam and I saw one question which is difficult to understand: The electronic configuration $\mathrm{(1s)^2(2s)^2(2p)^6}$ does not belong to: a) any element b) anion ...
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1answer
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Are the Phosphate and Sulfate ion diagrams with double bonds an invalid picture?

Whenever you see an image of phosphate, it's always shown having 5 bonds. 3 single bonds to anionic oxygen atoms and a double bond to an extra neutral oxygen. Not only that, but they're shown being ...
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Atoms or molecules with spin 1 in the ground state?

Is there any atom or molecule that has spin 1 in its ground state? Do Hund's rules keep this from happening for an atom? The reason I'm curious is that it would be nice to have a spin-1 example for ...
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What is SPDF configuration?

Recently in my chemistry classes, the teacher spoke about SPDF configuration and then said that we'll be taught about it in higher classes. But I'm sorta curious to know that what is SPDF ...
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What is the electronic structure of Mn in KMnO4 and K2MnO4?

I know that is is d3s hybrid. But in my book it is unclear which orbitals participate in pi bond with O. I think it should be both p and d orbitals of Mn that do.
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Explaning Cis & trans isomers through VSEPR

Total rewrite as was a panic-stricken 2am question. Unfortunately I wrote on an application that VSEPR theory is a reason of Cis-Trans isomerism (specifically in fatty acids however I doubt that ...
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What is the definition of a bipolaron and a dipolaron?

I wondered about the exact definition of a bipolaron? In particular, if I have an oxygen vacancy in a metal oxide and the 2 excess electrons (when forming a neutral oxygen vacancy) localise on the 2 ...
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Explanation of metallic crystal structures using orbitals and electron configuration

There has to be a direct relation between metallic crystal structure formation and electrons in orbitals. For instance, we know that Fe2+ forms body centered cubic or bcc structure with the ...
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Why is the ground state electronic configuration of Group 10 (Ni group) elements so anomalous?

While studying about d block elements I came across this table showing outer shell electronic configuration of group 10 elements $\ce{Ni}$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $3d^8$ $4s^2$ $\ce{Pd}$ $ $ $ $ $...
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Why is a compound that is more stable gives out less energy upon reaction? [closed]

I am having trouble relating stability with energy released. For example, I am looking at a statement regarding Benzene that says, since delocalised electron model of Benzene is more stable than the ...
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1answer
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Tungsten 4+ ion magnetism?

I just had a quiz and struggled on a particular question: Tungsten forms a $+4$ ion. It is observed to be diamagnetic. The electron configuration for this ion may not be what you would expect. ...