Questions tagged [electronegativity]

Refers to ability for an atom in a covalent framework to attract electron density to itself. Do not conflate with electron affinity, which is the ability of a lone atom (or molecule) to attract an electron to itself. Both are measured in joules/mole.

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Why is fluorine one of the most electronegative atoms even though it doesn't have the largest effective nuclear charge?

Why doesn't electronegativity increase as the effective nuclear charge increases? Most atoms with a higher atomic number than fluorine have a higher effective nuclear charge. However, flourine is a ...
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Directional nature of the acetamido group in electrophilic substitution reaction

Here, in $\ce{CH3CONH2 -}$ group, the nitrogen has a lone pair and can thus activate the benzene ring along with having an ortho-para directive effect in the following manner: However at the same ...
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Why is FeCl3 covalent? [duplicate]

There is an electronegativity difference of 1.2 between $\ce{Fe}$ and $\ce{Cl}$. Then why it is covalent?
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How do lone electrons impact the charge of an ion?

This is a quite elementary question, but I still can't wrap my head around it. I know how to calculate the formal charges of an ion or a molecule, but I don't understand what happens when oxygen (...
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What factors affect the chemical stability of a compound? [closed]

My question is essentially about the factors that make certain atoms in certain compounds leave the compound they are currently in in order to bond with another atom/compound. For example, I've been ...
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Can electrostatic interaction affect nucleophilic attack by thiolate anion

Suppose a protein side chain has a $\ce{-SH}$ group which is partially deprotonated to thiolate anion $\ce{-S -}$. This thiolate can perform a nucleophilic attack on a certain substrate. Will the ...
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What are the effects if fluorine distorts the adjacent bonds in molecules?

In class we were taught to treat fluorine as anomalous because it distorted the adjacent bonds in a molecule, like fluoromethane shown below as the electron cloud in C-H would move towards the ...
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Clearing my doubt over Electronegativity and oxidation state

I was doing a question in which we were required to find the oxidation state of $\ce{H3PO3}$. I knew the structure that is: Now, Phosphorus being less electronegative than oxygen get $+2,+1,+1$ ...
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Why must polar molecules be asymetrical? [duplicate]

As I understand, polarity in molecules comes from the difference in electronegativity or the ability of the atoms to attract eletrons so the electrons spend more time or are more probable to gravitate ...
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Can an element have variable oxidation states in a compound?

Take propanoic acid for example. If I assign oxidation states to the 3 carbons in it using the idea that the more electronegative element gets all the electrons in the bonds it makes, the 3 carbons ...
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Why don't I get the same value of percentage ionic character of a particular molecule from different equations?

About the ionic character of a polar covalent compound Pauling gave two equations as [1-$e^{.25(x_a - x_b)}] $% [18$(x_a-x_b)^{1.4}$]% Hanary and Smith gave the equation [$16(x_a-x_b)+3.5(x_a-...
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Is a SR2+ substituent really more electron-withdrawing than NH3+?

As the electronegativity of nitrogen and sulfur are around 3.04 and 2.58, respectively (according to the Pauling scale). So according to that, $\ce{NH3+}$ should pull the electrons more towards it ...
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Why is a CO single bond stronger than a NO single bond?

Why is a CO sigma bond stronger than a NO sigma bond? I would think that since nitrogen and oxygen are of similar size and have similar atomic orbitals (because they are adjacent in the period), their ...
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Why isn't ammonium strong acid, since it's charged and ammonia is neutral? [duplicate]

Why is ammonium such a weak acid $(\mathrm pK_\mathrm a = 9.24)$, if $\ce{NH4+}$ has a positive charge on nitrogen, while $\ce{NH3}$ is neutral. It means that conjugate base (ammonia) is really stable,...
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Why does electronegativity generally increase across a period? [duplicate]

I've been doing some research and the only answer I seem to be getting is that the increase of protons means electrons are more attracted to the atom. I thought though it was because as you go ...
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Why does chlorine become stable?

We have an equation in our book $$\ce{2Cl- (aq) + 2H2O -> 2OH-(aq) + H2(g) + Cl2(g)}$$ Why does chlorine become stable if it is electronegative? Chlorine has excess of electrons, but later loses ...
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Why is hydrogen not very electronegative? [closed]

I looked at my reactivity series and I have just realized that hydrogen and carbon are both included in the series, even though they are non-metals. So why is hydrogen more electropositive than ...
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Relationship between effective nuclear load and periodic properties

The effective nuclear charge is defined as the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom. It can be calculated using the well-known Stars Rule. Once I have calculated ...
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How does HCl dissolve in water if the intramolecular force is stronger?

So what I know now is that the H in HCl is more positive and the Cl is more negative, while the H in H2O is more positive and the O is more negative. When HCl enters water, its more positive atoms (H) ...
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Why -I effect of SR2+ >NH3+ [duplicate]

I have previously asked this question, but that was in a little ambiguous way. So am re-asking the question precisely. As electronegativity of N > S, hence the tendency of N to pull the electrons is ...
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electronegativity and hydrogen bonding [duplicate]

I have a basic idea why, but can someone just confirm, why chlorine isn't able to hydrogen bond despite the fact that it has the same electronegativity value as nitrogen.
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In what circumstances and why do bonds break without an external energy source? [closed]

Edit: I've flagged my own question because it's too broad instead I'll split it up into more specific questions. So I'm trying to work out exactly how bonds are able to break when there is no ...
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Why in SN1 reaction the order of reactivity of alkyl halides increases from fluorine to iodine?

In $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism alkyl halides need to be ionized, so wouldn't it make more sense if alkyl fluoride reactivity were the most, since it is the most electronegative element?
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What is the reaction mechanism between a basic oxide and an acid?

For instance in $$\ce{ Li2O (s) + 2HCl (aq) -> 2LiCl (aq) + H2O (l)}$$ I am wondering why the $\ce{Cl}$ displaces $\ce{Li}$ .I figure that oxygen is negatively charged as it pulls the electron from ...
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What is more polar?

Is the bond $\ce{Cs-F}$ more polar or $\ce{C-F}$ ? I am not sure because I thought $\ce{Cs-F}$ is classified as an ionic bond, and $\ce{C-F}$ as a polar covalent one. Based on electronegativity values,...
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Why doesn't CO2 repel itself? [closed]

In a molecule like $\ce{CO2}$, the oxygens are more electronegative than the carbon, and so the electron cloud is denser around them. Then, isn't the oxygen going to be a negative dipole? The picture ...
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What is boron classified as a electronegative element and a electropositive element? [closed]

What is boron classified as a electronegative element or a electropositive element? Is electronegativity a relative concept ? Why is it that sometimes we treat Boron as an electronegative element ...
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why fluorine and oxygen have different behaviour towards electron gain enthalapy and electronegativity? [closed]

I have seen following definitions in my textbook: Electron gain enthalapy may be defined as enthalpy change taking place when an isolated gaseous atom of the element accepts an electron to form a ...