Questions tagged [electronegativity]

Refers to ability for an atom in a covalent framework to attract electron density to itself. Do not conflate with electron affinity, which is the ability of a lone atom (or molecule) to attract an electron to itself. Both are measured in joules/mole.

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Do some electrons transfer if I connect with a conductor 2 solid pieces of 2 different elements with different electronegativity? [closed]

Making some researches to answer my last post, I found this article. It explains that when a piece of zinc and a piece of copper are connected with a conductor, since copper is more elctronegative ...
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Relative strengths of hydrogen bonds

Order of hydrogen bond strength: $\ce{O-H...N}$ > $\ce{O-H...O}$ > $\ce{N-H...N}$ > $\ce{N-H...O}$. Why is that so? According to me $\ce{O-H...O}$ should have the maximum strength while $\ce{...
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Tin (II) chloride is white while tin(II) iodide is red. Why?

Tin (II) chloride is white while tin(II) iodide is red. Why? The answer given in my book says: Bigger anion has higher polarizability; more polarization greater is the intensity of colour(...
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Why can't chlorine atoms form hydrogen bonds? [duplicate]

Why can't chlorine atoms form hydrogen bonds even though they have very similar electronegativity to nitrogen, which can? Electronegativities are as follows: $\ce{Cl} - 3.16$ $\ce{N} - 3.04$ Is it ...
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What is the best Electronegativity cutoff for my calculator?

I have written a Chemical Bond Polarity Calculator application, which many students use for their homework. I sometimes get questions from these students as to why the cutoff I use is 2.0, and not ...
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Why is the electrode potential of copper positive when hydrogen is more electronegative than copper?

Both copper and zinc has an electronegativity that is smaller than hydrogen, but why does copper have a positive electrode potential while zinc has a negative one? And lead (which has a greater ...
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Aren't hydrogens on less substituted groups more electrophilic?

I am having some trouble understanding the behaviors of some Alkene reactions that I have been studying. I took two semesters of O-chem a couple of years ago and am trying to refresh before an ...
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Why is OH group activating towards electrophilic aromatic substitution?

In phenol, the OH group has -I effect due to electronegative oxygen. So, OH group should deactivate the benzene ring towards electrophilic substitution. [P.S.: I am not talking about the o,p-...
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Li2O + 2KCl =2 LiCl +K2O: Is it a feasible Reaction?

$$\ce{Li2O + 2KCl <=> 2LiCl + K2O}$$ I got this reaction on a test question paper. With three other options, it was asked whether this reaction is feasible or not? I googled it and found the ...
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Which atom goes in the middle of a lewis dot structure?

I've read online in multiple sites that the least electronegative atom goes in the middle with the exception of H, which always goes on the outside. However, in the molecule NaCN, C is in the middle. ...
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How to rationalise the difference in halogen bonding?

Can anyone explain the difference in halogen bonding to me. I understand the explanation in (c). It appears to me, that accepting that would contradict the answers to parts (a), (b), and (c). Is the ...
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Electronegativity of Potassium (Pauling)

Just a little question, I was taught that the electronegativity of potassium[K] is 1, but I recently discovered most internet resources say 0.82. Some even say both. What is the actual ...
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Which Oxygen atom in HCOOH (formic/methanoic acid) does Carbon donate its electrons to, to obtain a partial positive charge?

I was wondering if the Carbon atom in HCOOH (methanoic/formic acid) forms a positive partial charge by donating its electrons to both the Oxygen atoms, since they both possess a higher ...
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Why isn't the ionic radius of Mg2+ bigger than F-? [closed]

They will both have the same number of valence electrons, but $\ce{F-}$ is more electronegative. Why is it not the case that $\ce{Mg^2+}$ has a bigger radius than $\ce{F-}$?
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Why does Pb have a higher electronegativity than Sn?

I recently learnt that electronegativity generally decreases as I move down a group and from right to left within a period. However, according to the table below, Pb has an electronegativity of $2.33$,...
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Does a C=C double bond donate electron or withdraw it?

I have learned that a $\ce{C=C}$ double bond is electron-rich because of the p-p overlap and hence can easily donate an electron pair: I agree with this statement. However, in a $\ce{C=C}$ double ...
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Periodic Trends of Zeff and Electronegativity

The effective nuclear charge $Z_\mathrm{eff}$ increases from left to right and from top to bottom. Can you explain why it increases from top to bottom? Also can we explain the periodic trend of ...
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What is the reason for strong acids/bases dissociating in water?

I have read that the actual definition of a strong acid is one which will fully dissociate in water, so please do not turn the problem on its head when answering. It is also my understanding that ...
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Order of lewis basic strength

My teacher told me that order of lewis basic strength is inversely proportional to electro negativity. Comparing between iodide ion and chloride ion, chloride ion is more electronegative than iodide ...
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In which of the following compounds does Cl have the most positive partial charge?

The problem is : In which of the following compounds does Cl have the most positive partial charge? SCl2 ,, HCl ,, BrCl ,, OCl2 ,, before I go through how I will solve this problem .. There is ...
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Why does acetyl have negative charge?

"Acetylation (adding an acetyl group) and phosphorylation (adding a phosphate group) make the histones more negatively charged because acetyl and phosphoryl groups are negative. They are "glass is ...
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Having trouble understanding activity series of metals & electronegativity

I want to know how do metals replace hydrogen in a substance such as water. Isn't water happy with its configuration? It has shared enough electrons so that both hydrogen and oxygen complete their ...
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Confusions about oxidation and reduction

My teacher told me that elements get oxidised when: 1)There is a loss of electron 2) There is an addition of oxygen 3)There is a loss of hydrogen And that they get reduced when: 1)There is a gain ...
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Scale to be considered for comparing electronegativities of nitrogen and chlorine

The Pauling scale gives the $\chi$ values of $\ce{N}$ and $\ce{Cl}$ to be $3.04$ and $3.16,$ respectively, but the Allen scale gives the $\chi$ values of $\ce{N}$ and $\ce{Cl}$ to be $3.066$ and $2....
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Why do Hydrogen Halides(with the exception of HF) form mostly strong acids? [duplicate]

Why do Hydrogen Halides(with the exception of HF) form mostly strong acids? My guess is that the negatively charged Halide part of the molecule is attracted by the partially positive part of the water ...
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What is the correlation between electronegativity and the sharing of electrons?

For example in a C-O bond, the electronegativity difference is 1.2. does this mean that the Oxygen has 1.2 of the shared electrons and Carbon 0.8 (or some other numbers)? Is there a specific equation ...
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Confusions about inductive effect and acid strength

If one of the hydrogens in the alkyl side chain of ethanoic acid is replaced with an atom of Chlorine, the acid has a larger Ka value. My book says this is since the Cl "borrows" electron density from ...
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Difficulty understanding redox in terms of hydrogen and oxygen transfer?

I have come across 4 ways of defining oxidation: loss of electrons increase in oxidation number gain of oxygen loss of hydrogen From these definitions, I have an idea of what I think 'oxidation' and ...
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Relationship between dipole moment of a molecule and electronegativities of constituent atoms

I want to know if I can calculate the dipole moment of a molecule given the electronegativity values for the atoms comprising it. I think that dipole moments determine the polarity of molecules, so ...
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What is the standard potential of carbon?

What's the value of standard potential of carbon? The hydrogen and Carbon are in the electrochemical series despite being non metals hydrogen has zero potential difference what about carbon?
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How does an atom's electronegativity change as it becomes more negatively charged?

I had a question about the carbon atom specifically. Carbon has 4 valence electrons, with electronegativity 2.55 (approx). If I was to fire electrons at the carbon atom, each carbon will occupy up to ...
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Displacement by more electropositive metal in non aqueous environment

The more electropositive element should displace metal from it's salts' solution. This can be seen in reaction of copper salts with iron. But, if you try using for example potassium metal as the more ...
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Bent's rule: electronegativity and s character

I'm very much confused about Bent's rule. What I perceive from it is that more electronegative element occupies a position which has less s character. What I can infer from here is that s character ...
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The most acidic hydrogen of 4‐hydroxybutanenitrile

Identify the most acidic hydrogen atom in the compound below: $$\ce{NC-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH}$$ My teacher said that the $\ce{H}$ connected to $\ce{O}$ is the most acidic since $\ce{O}$ is more ...
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Relationship between electronegativity and atomic radius [closed]

Would someone please explain in detail the relationship between the two? I understand that atomic radius is related to ionisation energy but I can't see how atomic radius may be related to ...
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Effect of Electronegativity on Bond Angles in NH3 and NF3 [duplicate]

I am reading a book: Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J.D.Lee (Fifth Edition) In the chapter-The Covalent Bond, the author says: $\ce{NF3}$ and $\ce{NH3}$ both have structures based on a tetrahedron ...
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Is there any mathematical formula for electron affinity and ionization potential?

I already know about the mathematical formula for electronegativity, but it requires the ionization potential and electron affinity. How can I can easily calculate the ionization potential and ...
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How to identify where a bond will break and where a bond will form (acetals)

In the following reaction: The $\ce{H}$ from $\ce{ROH}$ joins the $\ce{O}$ in the carbonyl. So the Alcohol breaks at the bond between the $\ce{R'O}$ and the $\ce{H}$. How do I know this occurs, ...
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Electronegativity difference value [closed]

What is the exact electronegativity differece value of determinig whether a compound is ionic or covalent? Is it 1.7 or 2.1?
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Why does increasing electronegativity difference result in decreasing density?

I've been collecting data and there's a very strong inverse relationship between electronegativity difference and density ($\pu{R^2}$ value of roughly 0.95 from my data). Is there any chemistry that ...
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Cyanide's Lewis structure - electronegativity or octet rule?

The formula for the cyanide ion is $\ce{CN-}$. That gives us a total of ten valence electrons to work with. There are two obvious ways to build the Lewis structure. $\ce{:^-C#N:}$ $\ce{:C=N^-::...
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Why are the electronegativities of elements in the middle of the transition groups quite high compared to surrounding elements? [duplicate]

Is it something to do with the d orbital being used, and if so, what effect does this have and why does it make the electronegativity higher?
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Can a more electropositive metal replaced by a less electropositive one?

I read from this reference that rubidium is extracted by reduction of its chloride with calcium or sodium. How is it possible?. Their electronegativities are much higher than rubidium. I think ...
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Electronegativity (Oxygen and Phosphorus)

What makes an element electronegative. I understand, for example, $\ce{P(OR)3}$ is less basic than $\ce{PR3}$ because the oxygen in $\ce{P(OR)3}$ is more electronegative than P, so it pulls electron ...
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Melting temperature and electronegativity trends in transition metals [duplicate]

So I know that generally the melting temperature increases across the row (let's look at just the first row for now) but what are the deviations? And why do they occur? I've looked everywhere online ...
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electronegativity and how it relates to bond strength

my question is, if the strength of the bond between two atoms increases as the difference in electronegativity increases as well. so say, a H-F bond would be stronger than a O-H bond. I'm a little ...
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Why does this reaction take place in terms of electronic structure?

I need to know, in terms of electronic charge - the electrophiles and nucleophiles involved - how the electronegativity of the potassium and hydrogen atoms alongside the hydroxide and H+ ions result ...
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Will there be change in electronegativity difference in C-O and C=O?

Is there any change in EN difference in C-O and C=O. If yes, why? Does EN difference change if its bond is changed to single, double, or triple?
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Why do atoms have electron Affinity? [duplicate]

Atoms are stable so how can they pull electrons i.e how do they have any electron affinity at all?
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Intramolecular or intermolecular?

I am extremely confused about these types of forces. Some websites state that the forces in the covalent bonds of carbon dioxide are inter. Other websites say they are intra? Also, some websites say ...