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Questions tagged [electronegativity]

Refers to ability for an atom in a covalent framework to attract electron density to itself. Do not conflate with electron affinity, which is the ability of a lone atom (or molecule) to attract an electron to itself. Both are measured in joules/mole.

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What is the explanation of the changes in stability going down a group for carbonates, bicarbonates, fluorides, and chlorides?

For carbonates and bicarbonates, I know that stability increases down the group, and for chlorides and fluorides, stability decreases down the group. Why does this happen? Can someone explain this in ...
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What is the most polar covalent bond?

Which polar covalent bond of the following: Cl-F S-O P-N C-Cl It's trivia - I guess. And I got it wrong. Electronegativity list was given for the following: F, O, Cl, N, S, C, H, P My wrong ...
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433 views

Bending of water and methanol towards a charged objects

I just had a question about why does water, methanol or any other polar substances tend to bend towards the charged object. I think it is because of a slight dipole dipole movement between the ...
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886 views

Electronegativity and HCl and HF molecules

In a book I am reading, it is said In the $\ce{HCl}$ molecule, the shared pair of electrons spend more time nearer the chlorine atom. In the $\ce{HF}$ molecule, the shared electrons spend more time ...
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Why electronegativity instead of electropositivity

When I learnt about polarity, I always come to the term electronegativity and always use the electronegativity chart. However, when I studied further, they have the word electroposivity. So, I've ...
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Reactivity of magnetized materials

Does the magnetisation process affects the reactivity of a magnetic material? Does the electronegativity change if a metal is magnetised?
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766 views

Dipole Moment of Normal Water vs Heavy Water

The question is in the title itself. My guess: Higher for Normal water. My Reasoning: Internet told me Deuterium is more electronegative than Protium. So, there should be less difference between ...
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Why any other element except fluorine wouldn't take electrons from oxygen?

My teacher said that fluorine is more electronegative than oxygen thus it will take electrons of oxygen. But now, why won't other Group 17 elements, like chlorine, bromine, iodine, would take ...
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Why is the electronegativity of indium greater than that of thallium?

Why is the electronegativity of indium greater than that of thallium? One possibility which I had assumed was the poor shielding effect by the d and f orbitals which leads to an increase in the ...
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Why do some elements with high electronegativity exhibit metallic properties?

Metals typically have low electronegativity, which makes them form ions easily and prefer making metallic bonds to covalent. However, some of them seem to disprove that. Take, for example, gold, lead ...
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Geometries of SCl2(OCH3)2 and SF2(OCH3)2

I am not able to understand the difference between structure of $\ce{SCl_{2}(OCH_{3})_{2}}$ and $\ce{SF_{2}(OCH_{3})_{2}}$. I am already well versed with Molecular Orbital and VSEPR theories. I found ...
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Percentage ionic character when electronegativity is given

What is the ionic character of a bond, $\ce{A-B}$, in terms of the electronegativities of $\ce{A}$ and $\ce{B}$ ($\chi_\ce{A}$ and $\chi_\ce{B}$)? I have been taught that the percentage ionic ...
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Bond angles in NH3 and NCl3

The bond angle in a molecule is inversely proportional to the electronegativity of the surrounding atom if the central atom is same. This also happens with $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{NF3}$, as bond angle in $...
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Confusion between electronegativity and electron affinity

Electronegativity is a chemical property that says how well an atom can attract electrons towards itself. The electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released ...
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Why does electronegativity create a stronger acid, but so does greater electron distribution?

I just learned that: Acids get stronger with: Increasing electronegativity of atom bonded to $\ce{H}$. Size of atom bearing negative charge. Hybridization of negative charge (more s character, $\ce{...
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Why is the inductive effect for a protonated amino group greater than that of a nitro group?

Why does $\ce{NH3+}$ have a higher $-\ce{I}$ effect ( inductive effect) than $\ce{NO2}$ even though oxygen is more electronegative? Does it have something to do with positive charge on $\ce{N}$?
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Why is a cationic trialkylammonium functional group inductively withdrawing in nature?

The alkyl groups on the nitrogen ion should donate electrons (alkyl groups are electron donating in nature). So, irrespective of the nitrogen ion being a cation (which is an electrophile), the alkyl ...
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Does ionization energy have anything to do with how reactive an element is?

According to my textbook, fluorine has a pretty high (compared to elements like sodium) first ionization energy. But why does it have such a high requirement to ionize? After all, it actively seeks ...
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Electronegativity and anion stability

If two similar sized atoms have different electronegativity values, the atom with higher electronegativity holds the electrons more tightly, and thus is more stable. Example: hydroxide vs azanide (NH2-...
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Why is the boiling point of alkyl iodide is more than alkyl fluoride?

As far as I know, more the polar character of the organic compound, more will be the energy required to break the bond and thus more boiling temperature. Here in this case, $\ce{R-F}$ is more polar in ...
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H2Te dipole and electronegativities of H and Te (high school level chemistry)

I saw somewhere that $\ce{H2Te}$ is a polar molecule, but as far as I know the only time dipole-dipole forces arise (giving molecules the possibility of becoming polar) are when there is a difference ...
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What is the direction of charge transfer between Aluminum and aliphatic amines physisorbed on top?

Is there dipole formation upon physisorption of an aliphatic amine to an aluminum substrate? What is the charge transfer direction? What if the aluminum substrate is clean, surface oxidized or covered ...
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Change of electronegativity of carbon atom by changing substituents

I was wondering how electronegativity and charge of carbon atom is affected by switching the substituents. For example what will be the difference in electronegativity of carbon atom in CF3, CCl3, ...
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Comparing electronegativities of aluminium and gallium

If I were to compare the electronegativities of Al and Ga, shouldn't I be saying that the electronegativity of elements (in general) decreases down the group, I say this by thinking of the position of ...
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Relative strengths of hydrogen bonds

Order of hydrogen bond strength: $\ce{O-H...N}$ > $\ce{O-H...O}$ > $\ce{N-H...N}$ > $\ce{N-H...O}$. Why is that so? According to me $\ce{O-H...O}$ should have the maximum strength while $\...
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In PCl2F3, why are two Cl atoms not on axial position? [duplicate]

According to these sites: Chemistry Help Molbase in $\ce{PCl2F3}$, both $\ce{Cl}$ and one $\ce{F}$ atom are on equatorial position, and other 2 $\ce{F}$ atoms are on axial position as follows: The ...
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In which all substituents does Inductive effect overpower Mesomeric effect?

In most substituents, the mesomeric effect is considered stronger and more dominating than the inductive effect. A notable exception are the halogens. The reason behind this has been well-...
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What is the oxidation state of carbon atoms in Ethanoic acid?

The oxidation states of $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ carbon in ethanoic acid are $-3$ if we do not consider the electronegativity difference of these two carbons due to their different hybridisation but this ...
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Why is carbon monoxide a monodentate ligand

Carbon monoxide has lone pairs on both the carbon and the oxygen atoms. However, I have never seen any complex where the oxygen atom or both the oxygen and the carbon atoms are the donors. I know ...
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Why does increasing orbital energy mean an electron can be more easily lost?

Why is the higher the orbital energy, the easier the electron lost? Also, if the distance between the electron and nucleus is getting father,the electronegativity is getting weaker, the electron is ...
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Why does electronegativity increase as effective nuclear charge increases?

I know that electronegativity is the ability to attract shared electrons and that effective nuclear charge is the pull of the nucleus on outer electrons based on my notes. But I'm not really sure ...
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What is the reason for the acidic character in phenols?

I came across this concerning phenols: The hydroxyl group, in phenol is directly attached to the $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridised carbon of benzene ring which acts as an electron withdrawing group. ...
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Carbonyl carbon electropositivity?

Is the carbon in a carbonyl functional group electropositive? I had a professor tell me so, but I immediately refuted him, because he defined electronegativity earlier as the ability to stabilize ...
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Calculating the electronegativity of an element from bond dissociation energies

Calculate the electronegativity of fluorine from the following data: $$\begin{align} \text{BDE}(\ce{H-H}) &= \pu{104.2 kcal/mol} \\ \text{BDE}(\ce{F-F}) &= \pu{36.6 kcal/mol} \\ \text{...
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Why is the polar-nonpolar electronegativity difference defined to be 0.4?

In introductory college chemistry, bonds between elements that have an electronegativity difference $\Delta EN > 0.4$ are generally consider to be polar (and thus have a dipole moment), while $\...
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Why is NH3 a nucleophile in NH3+CH3 -> H3NCH3

In the image below: $\ce{NH3}$ has no charge as it has a full octet. $\ce{CH3}$ needs 2 more electrons to form a full octet, so has a positive charge. Why does $\ce{N}$ of the $\ce{NH3}$ want to ...
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Is Pauling electronegativity well-defined?

Pauling's definition of electronegativity defines the difference of electronegativity between two elements. Suppose three elements A, B, and C. Then we can calculate $ϰ_a - ϰ_b$, $ϰ_b - ϰ_c$, and $...
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Why is an electropositive metal like Zinc capable of plating out?

I know that electronegative metals like copper or silver can electroplate out of an aqueous solution in electrolysis. However, I've also noticed $\ce{ZnSO4_(aq)}$ can electroplate out when ...
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electronegativity and how it relates to bond strength

my question is, if the strength of the bond between two atoms increases as the difference in electronegativity increases as well. so say, a H-F bond would be stronger than a O-H bond. I'm a little ...
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How to determine polarity of components in TLC

Estimate how a TLC-analysis would look like for the following reaction when you take a TLC at: a) the start of the reaction, b) after 65% conversion and c) after full conversion of A. (You may assume ...
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Dipole and size of a thioether relative to hydrocarbon

I am an enzymologist and I would like to check whether the consensus of how enzymes tell thioethers from hydrocarbons on substrates is a fact or fiction. So are any of these wrong? S–π ...
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Determine most electronegative element based on successive ionization energy data

X, Y and Z are three unknown elements whose first 5 ionization energies are given below. Which of the 3 is the most electronegative?$$ \begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|}\hline &\text{IE}_1&\text{IE}...
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List in order of increasing polarity?

I am doing some exam preparation and I came across this Question which I am finding challenging: List from least polar to most polar, the following molecules: Naphthalene, Phenol, 3-aminophenol and ...
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Hydrogen Bonding by Carbenes

A hydrogen bond is formed between hydrogen attached to highly electronegative atoms (nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine) which are small in size too and the non-bonding pair of electrons of another such ...
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Which substitutent should be placed on axial position in SCl2(OCH3)2?

According to Bent's rule, in $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ more electronegative element is placed on the axial position, so between $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{OCH3}$ in $\ce{SCl2(OCH3)2}$ which should be placed on axial ...
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Where will a H+ attack on 6-hydroxyhexan-2-one? [closed]

Where will a H+ attack on 6-hydroxyhexan-2-one? Protonation can take place either on the ketone or the alcohol. So where will it attack? In short, on which of the two oxygen atoms is electron density ...
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What measures of the dielectric constant mark whether the solution is ionic, polar and nonpolar? [closed]

At what numerical values of ε, then what organic compounds if any mark these thresholds. How is that only for a vacuum has ε=1? This is absolute lowest limit?
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Do some electrons transfer if I connect with a conductor 2 solid pieces of 2 different elements with different electronegativity? [closed]

Making some researches to answer my last post, I found this article. It explains that when a piece of zinc and a piece of copper are connected with a conductor, since copper is more elctronegative ...
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Tin (II) chloride is white while tin(II) iodide is red. Why?

Tin (II) chloride is white while tin(II) iodide is red. Why? The answer given in my book says: Bigger anion has higher polarizability; more polarization greater is the intensity of colour(...
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Why can't chlorine atoms form hydrogen bonds? [duplicate]

Why can't chlorine atoms form hydrogen bonds even though they have very similar electronegativity to nitrogen, which can? Electronegativities are as follows: $\ce{Cl} - 3.16$ $\ce{N} - 3.04$ Is it ...