Questions tagged [electronegativity]

Refers to ability for an atom in a covalent framework to attract electron density to itself. Do not conflate with electron affinity, which is the ability of a lone atom (or molecule) to attract an electron to itself. Both are measured in joules/mole.

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Displacement by more electropositive metal in non aqueous environment

The more electropositive element should displace metal from it's salts' solution. This can be seen in reaction of copper salts with iron. But, if you try using for example potassium metal as the more ...
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Why do the platinum group metals not follow the electronegativity trends? [closed]

I was looking at a list of the electronegativities of different elements of the periodic table. However, I noticed that the platinum group metals (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, and Pt) don't follow the trends ...
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What are the effects if fluorine distorts the adjacent bonds in molecules?

In class we were taught to treat fluorine as anomalous because it distorted the adjacent bonds in a molecule, like fluoromethane shown below as the electron cloud in C-H would move towards the ...
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Electronegativity (Oxygen and Phosphorus)

What makes an element electronegative. I understand, for example, $\ce{P(OR)3}$ is less basic than $\ce{PR3}$ because the oxygen in $\ce{P(OR)3}$ is more electronegative than P, so it pulls electron ...
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Does H2SO or H2CO have a higher dipole moment? [closed]

Given these two molecules, I realize that the molecules are pretty identical in terms of the individual atoms' electronegativities (with Sulfur only being a small bit higher than Carbon). So then, the ...
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Is KF the most ionic compound?

I saw somewhere (can't recall where) that KF is the most ionic compound. I expected CsF. Does the greater polarizability of Cs allow it to more easily form covalent bonds compared to K? Does this ...
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Determining which compound is more 'ionic'

I was going through my chemistry textbook (IB Pearson), and it explicitly stated that the higher the absolute difference between the electronegativity of elements in a binary compound, the more 'ionic'...
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Clearing my doubt over Electronegativity and oxidation state

I was doing a question in which we were required to find the oxidation state of $\ce{H3PO3}$. I knew the structure that is: Now, Phosphorus being less electronegative than oxygen get $+2,+1,+1$ ...
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Which substitutent should be placed on axial position in SCl2(OCH3)2?

According to Bent's rule, in $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ more electronegative element is placed on the axial position, so between $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{OCH3}$ in $\ce{SCl2(OCH3)2}$ which should be placed on axial ...
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Bent's rule: electronegativity and s character

I'm very much confused about Bent's rule. What I perceive from it is that more electronegative element occupies a position which has less s character. What I can infer from here is that s character ...
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How can I relate the reactivity series to electronegativity and ionization energy?

I am trying to figure out how the reactivity series comes about. My understanding is that elements with a higher electronegativity will be more reactive than elements with a lower electronegativity, ...
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The most acidic hydrogen of 4‐hydroxybutanenitrile

Identify the most acidic hydrogen atom in the compound below: $$\ce{NC-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH}$$ My teacher said that the $\ce{H}$ connected to $\ce{O}$ is the most acidic since $\ce{O}$ is more ...
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Hydrogen Bonding by Carbenes

A hydrogen bond is formed between hydrogen attached to highly electronegative atoms (nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine) which are small in size too and the non-bonding pair of electrons of another such ...
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Comparing Acidic Strength of H3PO4 and H3AsO4

The $pKa$ values for H3AsO4 and H3PO4 are $2.30$ and $2.12$ which indicate that H3PO4 is a stronger acid compared to H3AsO4. I looked up their electronegativity values to find that they are almost the ...
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Why is zinc more reactive than copper?

In terms of electronegativity, from what I understand electronegativity increases going across the period, so surely this should mean that zinc less readily loses its outer shell electrons than copper?...
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Why does attractive forces of nucleus increase more than shielding across groups?

When you study the electronegativity of the elements, the general trend is that it rises with increasing group number, and decreasing period. Supposedly this is because the attractive forces of the ...
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Electron distribution in a C-S bond

My lecturer said that in a $\ce{C-S}$ bond, sulfur is slightly $\delta^{-}$ and the carbon slightly $\delta^{+}$, although they have (almost) the same electronegativity. What is the cause of this ...
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Why is HCl not considered to have hydrogen bonding?

A molecule that has hydrogen bonding usually follows these two premises. 1.) There is a hydrogen atom involved 2.) Hydrogen must be bonded to a highly electronegative element which are ...
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What should be the oxidation state of oxygen in HOF (hypofluorous acid)?

What should be the oxidation state of oxygen in $\ce{HOF}$ (hypofluorous acid)? Sources on the internet have confused me. Most state its oxidation state to be 0, while the others state that it is -2 (...
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Electronegativity Considerations in Assigning Oxidation States

I have never seen anything other than a set of rules like these when textbooks present how to assign oxidation numbers. Such as these: However, if we keep in mind that oxidation numbers are simply ...
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Why must polar molecules be asymetrical? [duplicate]

As I understand, polarity in molecules comes from the difference in electronegativity or the ability of the atoms to attract eletrons so the electrons spend more time or are more probable to gravitate ...
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Relationship between electronegativity and atomic radius [closed]

Would someone please explain in detail the relationship between the two? I understand that atomic radius is related to ionisation energy but I can't see how atomic radius may be related to ...
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Reference for electronegativities of different metal oxidation states

A long time ago I was researching the effect of the self regulatory response in Fe and Co. I found that my results made sense based on the idea of the electronegativity of the ions considered. I found ...
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How to determine polarity of components in TLC

Estimate how a TLC-analysis would look like for the following reaction when you take a TLC at: a) the start of the reaction, b) after 65% conversion and c) after full conversion of A. (You may assume ...
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How is Al2Cl6 covalent and Al2O3 ionic?

I encountered a question where the type of bonding for various oxides are prompted. Two of which are $\ce{Al2Cl6}$ and $\ce{Al2O3}$. I thought that chlorine atoms are more electronegative than oxygen ...
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Why is HF the least acidic hydrogen halide?

Fluorine is the most electronegative halogen and therefore, there is larger difference in electronegativity between the atoms of $\ce{HF}$ than any other hydrogen halide, which means the positive ...
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Why do Hydrogen Halides(with the exception of HF) form mostly strong acids? [duplicate]

Why do Hydrogen Halides(with the exception of HF) form mostly strong acids? My guess is that the negatively charged Halide part of the molecule is attracted by the partially positive part of the water ...
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Confusion between electronegativity and electron affinity

Electronegativity is a chemical property that says how well an atom can attract electrons towards itself. The electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released ...
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Confusions about inductive effect and acid strength

If one of the hydrogens in the alkyl side chain of ethanoic acid is replaced with an atom of Chlorine, the acid has a larger Ka value. My book says this is since the Cl "borrows" electron density from ...
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What is the correlation between electronegativity and the sharing of electrons?

For example in a C-O bond, the electronegativity difference is 1.2. does this mean that the Oxygen has 1.2 of the shared electrons and Carbon 0.8 (or some other numbers)? Is there a specific equation ...
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Can an element have variable oxidation states in a compound?

Take propanoic acid for example. If I assign oxidation states to the 3 carbons in it using the idea that the more electronegative element gets all the electrons in the bonds it makes, the 3 carbons ...
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Why does electronegativity create a stronger acid, but so does greater electron distribution?

I just learned that: Acids get stronger with: Increasing electronegativity of atom bonded to $\ce{H}$. Size of atom bearing negative charge. Hybridization of negative charge (more s character, $\ce{...
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Difference between electropositivity and electronegativity

Sodium is more electropositive than hydrogen although they are in the same group. Why is the electronegative value of hydrogen greater than sodium (metal)?
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Why is the electronegativity of indium greater than that of thallium?

Why is the electronegativity of indium greater than that of thallium? One possibility which I had assumed was the poor shielding effect by the d and f orbitals which leads to an increase in the ...
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Does a C=C double bond donate electron or withdraw it?

I have learned that a $\ce{C=C}$ double bond is electron-rich because of the p-p overlap and hence can easily donate an electron pair: I agree with this statement. However, in a $\ce{C=C}$ double ...
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Relationship between effective nuclear load and periodic properties

The effective nuclear charge is defined as the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom. It can be calculated using the well-known Stars Rule. Once I have calculated ...
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Which Oxygen atom in HCOOH (formic/methanoic acid) does Carbon donate its electrons to, to obtain a partial positive charge?

I was wondering if the Carbon atom in HCOOH (methanoic/formic acid) forms a positive partial charge by donating its electrons to both the Oxygen atoms, since they both possess a higher ...
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electronegativity and how it relates to bond strength

my question is, if the strength of the bond between two atoms increases as the difference in electronegativity increases as well. so say, a H-F bond would be stronger than a O-H bond. I'm a little ...
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Strongest negative inductive effect group between trimethylammonium, ammonium and dimethylsulfonium groups

Which of the following group exerts the strongest -I effect? $\ce{-N(CH3)3+}$ $\ce{-NH3+}$ $\ce{-S(CH3)2+}$ $\ce{-F}$ My idea is that positive species exerts more -I effect than ...
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Why is carbon monoxide a monodentate ligand

Carbon monoxide has lone pairs on both the carbon and the oxygen atoms. However, I have never seen any complex where the oxygen atom or both the oxygen and the carbon atoms are the donors. I know ...
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Percentage ionic character when electronegativity is given

What is the ionic character of a bond, $\ce{A-B}$, in terms of the electronegativities of $\ce{A}$ and $\ce{B}$ ($\chi_\ce{A}$ and $\chi_\ce{B}$)? I have been taught that the percentage ionic ...
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Why are noble metals more electronegative then most metals?

I was researching about electronegativity when I looked up what a graph of electronegativity within the periodic table is. And, this appeared. I scanned it, matching up everything I knew about the ...
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Where will a H+ attack on 6-hydroxyhexan-2-one? [closed]

Where will a H+ attack on 6-hydroxyhexan-2-one? Protonation can take place either on the ketone or the alcohol. So where will it attack? In short, on which of the two oxygen atoms is electron density ...
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Why is hydrogen not very electronegative? [closed]

I looked at my reactivity series and I have just realized that hydrogen and carbon are both included in the series, even though they are non-metals. So why is hydrogen more electropositive than ...
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Why is fluorine one of the most electronegative atoms even though it doesn't have the largest effective nuclear charge?

Why doesn't electronegativity increase as the effective nuclear charge increases? Most atoms with a higher atomic number than fluorine have a higher effective nuclear charge. However, flourine is a ...
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Is the inductive effect always measured relative to hydrogen?

Wikipedia has defined the Inductive effect thus: "In Chemistry and Physics, the inductive effect is an experimentally observable effect of the transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a ...
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Calculating the electronegativity of an element from bond dissociation energies

Calculate the electronegativity of fluorine from the following data: $$\begin{align} \text{BDE}(\ce{H-H}) &= \pu{104.2 kcal/mol} \\ \text{BDE}(\ce{F-F}) &= \pu{36.6 kcal/mol} \\ \text{...
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Structures for NO+ (Nitrosonium)

There are two possible structures for Nitrosonium : In the first structure, there is a +1 Formal charge on Oxygen, whereas, In the second structure, there is a +1 Formal charge on Nitrogen. Q. ...
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Is there a mathematical formula for electronegativity?

If we lost all the numerical values we have for the electronegativity of elements, is there any mathematical formula that can be used to re-calculate them based on proton (and neutron) numbers alone? ...
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Relative strengths of hydrogen bonds

Order of hydrogen bond strength: $\ce{O-H...N}$ > $\ce{O-H...O}$ > $\ce{N-H...N}$ > $\ce{N-H...O}$. Why is that so? According to me $\ce{O-H...O}$ should have the maximum strength while $\...