Questions tagged [electricity]

For questions involving electricity in the scope of chemistry. Note that questions about electrical circuits, semi-conductor diodes, etc. are off topic and more suited for EE.SE or Phy.SE.

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34 views

What makes up the conduction band?

Prologue/Rant about online classes We have been taught the electron sea model to explain metallic bonding and conduction of electricity by metals. Then out of the blue, the band theory was introduced, ...
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1answer
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Why does it so long for a Lithium-ion battery to be charged from 98% to 100%? [closed]

Why does it so long for an Lithium-ion battery to be charged from 98% to 100%? It is not even comparable to the effort I exerce to pump my bike tires from 95 psi to (the minimally usable) 100 psi. ...
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1answer
783 views

What is the optimal voltage for storing a 3.7 V lithium polymer battery?

According to this website, storing a lithium polymer (LiPo) battery/cell at around 40% capacity would be more beneficial for the lifespan of the LiPo cell comparing storing the battery at 100% ...
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Electroplating: What exactly does an additive/ brightener do in the electrolyte?

A carrier or supressor is generally a poly-oxyalkyl compound that is instrumental in suppressing the electrolytic current. This is achieved by the formation of a diffusion layer when the additives ...
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1answer
48 views

Why do batteries drain so quickly if they are forced to draw more current than they normally do?

When a battery is pushed to use twice the current it normally does, it lasts for less than half as long before dying... In fact, batteries often come with a 'C' rating that gives you an idea of how ...
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1answer
65 views

Can chemical energy from food be stored in a battery? [closed]

Suppose you built a machine that digested food in a similar way as humans do. Would it be possible, in principle, to extract the chemical energy from the digested food, turn it into electricity, and ...
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2answers
480 views

How do ions conduct electricity? [closed]

I mean to ask what do ions actually do while conducting electricity? Do they simply take up the electrons and transport it? If it is so, I do not understand how anions can take up more electrons if ...
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1answer
118 views

Is electrical work equal to the change in enthalpy or internal energy?

A $\pu{0.5 A}$ current from a $\pu{20 V}$ supply is passed through a water sample. $\pu{0.9 g}$ of water is vapourised at $p = \pu{1 atm}$ and $T = \pu{373 K}$. Calculate $\Delta U$ and $\Delta H$ for ...
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1answer
60 views

A gram of salt added to pure (distilled) water introduces around $2 \times 10^{22}$ ions? [closed]

I am currently studying Practical Electronics For Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. Chapter 2.5.2 Resistivity and Conductivity, claims the following: Adding an ionic compound in the ...
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1answer
48 views

Why is distilled water such a poor conductor of electricity?

Water is composed of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions. Since ions do conduct electricity, why is distilled water such a poor conductor of electricity?
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2answers
135 views

Does voltage or current matter most when setting up an efficient water electrolyzer? [closed]

I am setting up a homemade water electrolyzer for producing hydrogen gas, which will solely be used by myself for experimental purposes, and have heard the wattage used has a large part to play in ...
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341 views

Are there ionic solids that conduct electricity?

We are taught in school that ionic substances don't conduct electricity, and when they do, it is either because they are in a molten state or because they are in solution. I understand these concepts. ...
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Oxidative phosphorylation analogue

Does the salt bridge in galvanic cells resemble the ATP pump in the inner mitochondrial membrane? And if yes than did someone use this pH difference in harvesting this energy?
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1answer
807 views

Kohlrausch Law and conductivity

Im writing up a lab report at the minute and part of it concerns ions in solution and how they affect conductivity. I've been doing lots of reading and I think ive got the grasp of most of it, but its ...
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190 views

Electric fields in a galvanic cell

I have read hat there is two types of electric fields exist in galvanic cell.I understand E because of charges accumulated on electrodes but what about other E -field? What does cause this field and ...
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1answer
62 views

General Oxidant - Reductant Battery

In general, is it true that if I connect an aqueous oxidant to an aqueous reductant via a wire then a current flows along the wire? In particular, does current flow in the following scenario? Imagine ...
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1answer
1k views

Amperage for the electrolysis of water?

I am electrolysing water using several different potential catalysts for my eight grade science fair project. The electrolysis will be running at 2 to 2.5 volts over nickel electrodes, as I do not ...
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2answers
178 views

What is the safest way to hook up car battery jump cables and why? [closed]

I know that when both connecting and disconnecting battery jumper cables between two car batteries there is a prescribed safe way to do it. I can never remember the correct way because I can’t ...
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1answer
57 views

Stritations in a discharge tube

I am reading about A cathode ray discharge tube and I still do not fully understand why that as you keep on lowering the pressure in the chamber it creates striations, Faraday's dark space and Crooke'...
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2answers
1k views

What happens when two galvanic cells are placed in series

I understand how a single galvanic cell works, and the relation of equilibrium and the Nernst equation. But this appears to contradict the higher voltage in a series configuration because it ...
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1answer
50 views

Salt Bridge for Microbial Fuel Cell: Full or Partly Full?

I'm making a microbial fuel cell out of benthic mud and salt water in containers. My salt bridge will be made of agar and table salt solidified in PVC pipes. Does the salt bridge connecting the anode (...
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2answers
508 views

Two cells are connected in series. If x g of silver are deposited in cell 1, what volume of oxygen is given off in cell 2? [closed]

I got the answer correct but I'm pretty sure my methodology was wrong. How would you solve such a question?
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1answer
170 views

What are we seeing in this AC salt-water copper-wire experiment?

There's a highly watched video on YouTube by "ElectroBoom" on the effects of passing AC (not DC) current through salt water. The water gets cloudy and at the end of the video we can see one of the ...
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Would an explosion of an electrically charged material be more powerful than if it were not charged?

I was recently reading a book titled "Hitler's Suppressed and Still Secret Weapons, Science and Technology". I came across this book because I saw it referenced by someone on another site. The book's ...
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1answer
448 views

How to measure the electrical conductivity of a substance? [closed]

Suppose you are given these substances: $\ce{NaOH(aq)}$ $\ce{HCl(aq) }$ $\ce{C6H12O6(aq) }$ $\ce{NH3(l)}$ Are there rules to figure out how conductive each compound is? Is it based on ...
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1answer
235 views

Can running water carry an electrical current indefinitely, and for long distances?

Okay, not a scientist, but doing a writing project that requires a little knowledge. My question is: If there's a constant source generating enough energy into running water (like a stream, surrounded ...
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717 views

Is electrolysis with AC current possible? [duplicate]

Optimizing everything else, would efficient electrolysis be possible with AC current? Most sources suggest to use DC, but can the water still be split/disassociated with AC?
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4answers
678 views

Is it possible to generate electricity by using two inert electrodes in a galvanic cell?

The Daniell cell has two active electrodes, meaning that both the copper and the zink electrodes participate in the redox reaction. However, in a lemon battery for example, the copper electrode is ...
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1answer
28 views

Atoms in Solar Cells

An electric field in solar cells is created through photons knocking electrons off of atoms. What happens to the positively charged atoms once the electrons have been knocked off? Furthermore, are the ...
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41 views

Question about the composition of a 1902 non-polarisable electrode diagram by Jagadis Bose

In his work, "Response in The Living and Non-living" (1902); page 6, Jagadis Bose describes a method for detecting nerve response. He explains that he uses iso-electric contacts with no current in the ...
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1answer
1k views

In the simplest terms, what is exchange current density?

what is exchange current density, and ideally how does it relate to overpotential I know it's related to the amount of dynamics in a reaction, so it can tell us how simple or complex a reaction ...
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290 views

Why do electrons not flow through the electrolyte? [duplicate]

Why do the electrons not flow through the electrolyte instead of the external circuit in a electrolytic cell connected to an external circuit? I mean, if an electrolyte is a conductor why would the ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the definition of current efficiency?

What is the exact definition of current efficiency of an electrolytic cell? I've looked online and there is no suitable answer to it. I thought current efficiency would be the amount of electrons ...
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1answer
6k views

Why is AC current used rather than DC current for calculating the conductance of a solution(see body)? [closed]

I was reading the answer of the above question from a book. it said that while using DC current, electrolysis occurs. Hence it affects the conductance of the solution. But if any gaseous product is ...
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51 views

Is it possible to have a fully opaque 'switch glass'?

Current switch glass (smart glass) technology permits for a transparent glass to become semi-transparent, i.e., translucent. For my application, I was wondering if it was possible to make a 'smart ...
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1answer
99 views

Why the DMM (multimeter) register negative resistance when measure a drop of hydrochloric acid [closed]

I noticed that when I put the multimeter electrodes (in the ohmmeter mode) in a drop of hydrochloric acid with mild concentration (15%) the multimeter displays negative values. Can someone explain ...
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1answer
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Do plasma globes generate ozone?

My kids and I were playing with a small plasma globe like this: After touching it we all noted a faint smell like that created by other high voltage static discharges, which I always understood to be ...
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1answer
210 views

If two atoms “fight over” one electron, who will win? [closed]

If two atoms of different elements are both missing exactly one electron in their valence shell so that they have a charge of +1 and we place an electron between them, exactly in the middle. Which ...
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844 views

Magnetic work and the first law of thermodynamics

We commonly encounter the first law of thermodynamics in the form $\mathrm{d}E = T\mathrm{d}S - p\mathrm{d}V + \mu\mathrm{d}N$, which notes the contribution of thermal, pressure-volume, and chemical ...
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1answer
65 views

Do electrons truly flow in circuit? [closed]

I know this sounds like a stupid question, but do electrons truly flow in a circuit? It doesn't seem logical for electrons to just break away from their atoms to go move through a circuit. If they did,...
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5answers
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Does chemistry change under high voltage?

Do chemical reactions change when you charge the entire reaction vessel plus or minus $\pu{1 MV}$ or more? Is there a name for such chemistry? I was looking at "electrochemistry" expecting to see a ...
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61 views

Chemistry of charging an insulator material

Earlier this year, I had learnt in Physics class that rubbing two different materials against each other can charge the materials (i.e. cause each material to either be positively-charged or ...
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1answer
522 views

What is the underlying chemistry behind the triboelectric effect?

I remember briefly studying the triboelectric effect in Physics but as I now approach the domain of Chemistry, I'd like to know what processes are involved (at the molecular level) when the the ...
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1answer
111 views

What is the effect of Helium-based surroundings (99% Helium) on electrochemical gas sensors?

I am currently working on a project measuring gas composition of car exhaust. In order to dilute the gas concentration down to something electrochemical sensors can read, I diluted the sample with ...
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1answer
3k views

How does a salt bridge in a galvanic cell neutralize each half cell? [closed]

I am not exactly sure what purpose the salt bridge has. In the above image, I understand that electrons flow from $\ce{Zn}$ through the wire to $\ce{Cu}$ due to the redox reaction. However, I do not ...
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2answers
7k views

How exactly are ions in a Mass Spectrometer accelerated?

After a molecule is ionised, the ion is accelerated by an electric plate up to a certain kinetic energy by the attraction of the ion to the electric plate. However, after the ion has passed the ...
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2answers
1k views

Why won't removing the salt bridge cause the battery to recharge?

If I understand correctly, the salt bridge in a battery is used to move positive ions towards the side that is becoming more negative, and negative ions towards the side that's becoming positively ...
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1answer
506 views

Electrochemical series - when not at standard conditions

Is there a reason why this question's answer is treating it as if it is at standard conditions? Isn't it using 0.2M aqueous solutions, so the electrochemical series won't be valid for this question? ...
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2answers
92 views

What are the ideal pair of (everyday) elements to pair in a thermocouple

I want to create a thermocouple (to carry out experiments on thermoelectricity). I want to use the pair of everyday* elements (e.g $\ce{CuO}$ and $\ce{Al}$ wires) to create the thermocouple. The ...
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2answers
5k views

Why is a silent electric discharge used for the preparation of ozone from oxygen?

I learnt that ozone is prepared by passing oxygen through a 'silent' electric discharge. Can someone please explain what is meant by a 'silent' discharge here, and why that helps? I couldn't get a ...