Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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1answer
44 views

Estimating protein binding and disassociation

I don't have a background in the area of drugs or pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics but I am trying to understand about protein binding. I was going through this paper. If $C_b$ is the ...
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1answer
368 views

Analysis of methylphenidate (Ritalin) HCl extended release tablets

For a project I have to determine the drug concentration release profile of self-made methylphenidate HCl (MHCl) extended release tablets (hydrophilic matrix). We are thus doing a dissolution test as ...
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1answer
825 views

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation?

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation? Can an extemporaneous preparation be labelled as the BP mixture?
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1answer
365 views

Why does clearance increase after phenytoin overdose?

I am finding it hard to envision how an overdose of phenytoin ultimately leads to an increase of the clearance of phenytoin after the enzymes that metabolize phenytoin stop getting saturated. I know ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the importance of using a pKa value instead of a pKb value when describing drug chemistry?

Why do we only consider the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{a}$ value of a drug regardless of whether it is an acid or base? Why do we not use the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{b}$ value?
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1answer
106 views

Meaning of "MS1 and MS2 resolution" and "MS1 and MS2: Unit" in a tandem mass-spectrometry parameter list

I'm translating a Certificate of Suitability that very briefly describes procedures used to measure several impurities in a drug substance. There is a short description of the parameters of a Gas ...
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1answer
106 views

Modification to improve antibacterial activity

I have difficulties with part b). For C, it's clear to make a bulky dimethoxybenzene group in order to block the C=O group from reacting with b-lactamase. However, in A, how does the structure of ...
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2answers
2k views

What is the specific functional group in MDMA that caused addictive effect on user? [closed]

First of all, the reason I'm asking this is because I'd just done an experiment detecting MDMA in a urine sample with GC-MS for my internship program. I'm having difficulties figuring the functional ...
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1answer
176 views

Can Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride react with lidocaine hydrochloride?

To anaesthetise the mucous membrane 2 separate drugs were given topically: Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and Lidocaine hydrochloride. The reason to use both of them seem to be beginning of action and ...
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1answer
2k views

Does DMT-Acetate become Polar in H2O, with added NaCl?

I'm extracting DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) from Acacia confusa via acid/base. I extracted the DMT with $\ce{H2O}$ and acetic acid, converting it to DMT-acetate. Here, I used a non polar solvent, ...
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0answers
31 views

Where to find the ChEMBL21 database in CSV format?

I come from an artificial intelligence (AI) background (and not from chemistry). However, my Ph.D. thesis is about Deep Reinforcement Learning for drug design. From one of the most famous papers in ...
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0answers
34 views

Why is Amphotericin B insoluble in water in the pH range that makes it zwitterionic?

Here is the structure of Amphotericin B, with its carboxylic acid and amine groups circled in red: According to this source, The carboxylic acid group has a pKa of 5.5 and the amine group has a pKa ...
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0answers
37 views

Reason for adding TFAA in this synthesis pathway?

I have included a short part from a synthetic pathway from: https://synarchive.com/syn/112 $\ce{Mg3N2}$ reacts with $\ce{MeOH}$ to liberate $\ce{NH3}$ which I believe is used in nucleophilic ...
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1answer
180 views

How does Combinatorial Chemistry differ from Rational Drug Design?

I stumbled on Vertex Pharmaceuticals - Wikipedia. It was one of the first biotech firms to use an explicit strategy of rational drug design rather than combinatorial chemistry. Then I looked up ...
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0answers
37 views

Does HI-6 form a covalent adduct with acetylcholinesterase?

According to sources provided below, the oxime HI-6, or Asoxime Dichloride, as it is also called, besides being a reactivator of acetylcholinesterase that has been inhibited by organophosphorus ...
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0answers
39 views

A dataset of drugs or molecules that failed the FDA approval process

I am looking for a dataset of bad drugs, the opposite of FDA approved drugs. There is this database of withdrawn drugs, but these drugs were withdrawn after making it into the market. Is there any ...
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0answers
43 views

Definition of throughput

I wonder what's the exact meaning of throughput in chemistry synthesis, eg. in organic synthesis or production of pharmaceutical products. For instance, what are their units? How are they measured? I'...
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0answers
85 views

How many natural products are there in existence? [closed]

Hi I'm doing a project on natural products and I'm wondering if somewhere there is at least an estimated number of how many exist? If this exists somewhere can you please provide a reference. ...
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0answers
48 views

How to characterise lipophilicity?

I was provided with a drug compound which is filling a hydrophobic pocket. The R group is changed and effects on the potency was measured; $\ce{R = -H, -CH3, -CH2F}$ were tested. As expected, the more ...
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0answers
61 views

How to find all published Pharmacophore Structure of a Drug target?

Other than literature review how do you find the structures of Pharmacophore of a drug target? I am searching Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors and I have reviewed lots of literature but ...
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0answers
83 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
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0answers
225 views

Absorption of Diazepam/Valium

Why diazepam absorbs quickly when taken with metoclopramide? Does it because diazepam is absorbed from intestine like acetaminophen? If it does, why presence of food increases the absorption of ...
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0answers
84 views

Microscale Experimentation vs. Preparative Synthesis during drug development

I'm trying to understand the drug development stages, techniques and procedures. My understanding on the subject: Microscale experimentation Is used on early stages to find compounds reacting with ...
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1answer
476 views

How do pharmaceutical manufacturers ensure 100% purity in their medications? [closed]

What purification measures are taken to ensure no side products are present in the medication? Because hardly any organic reaction is perfectly efficient, I'm guessing that multiple recrystallizations ...
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1answer
88 views

Conversion of barbituric acid to veronal

This is just out of curiosity. I have no intention or authority to do conversions. I am studying chemistry of tranquilizers, in that an important class is of barbiturates, which are also hypnotics. ...
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1answer
2k views

What kind of drugs can be absorbed through skin? [closed]

Some drugs such as nicotine can be administered through skin. I thought the layers of skin are designed to prevent in-flow of any chemical/germs. Not all drugs get absorbed in this fashion. So do ...
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1answer
1k views

Does limonene react with calcium hydroxide or acetic acid?

I can't find the results of too many experiments with Limonene. Which has many uses (e.g. making soap). I'm curious of the results of combining Limonene and Calcium Hydroxide (Lime) in one ...
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1answer
53 views

What antimicrobial can be readily synthesized in a school laboratory for a project on antimicrobial resistance? [closed]

I am currently a student studying at a high school hoping to do a project on antimicrobial compound synthesis to use in investigating antimicrobial resistance in E. coli strains. I am hoping to ...
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1answer
500 views

Is scopolamine same as scopolamine hydrobromide?

Is scopolamine extracted with methanol or acetone from Datura or Brugmansia scopolamine free base or scopolamine hydrobromide? If you take a look at the Wikipedia page for hyoscine, the Synonyms part ...
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1answer
922 views

Is there any difference between Meprobamate and Equanil?

My textbook mentions Meprobamate and Equanil separately, under Anxiolytic drugs and even provides two (not-so) different structures to back their claim. However, Wikipedia would beg to differ: ...
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1answer
3k views

Evaporate propylene glycol

I tried to make a cannabis infused e-liquid. I made a tincture with marijuana and vegetable glycerin, but it became to thick so a mixed in more propylene glycol than I'd originally planned. Now the e-...
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1answer
282 views

Why is the effect of competitive antagonist less than the effect of non-competetive antagonists?

Drugs can be provided as a competive or non-competitive form of agonists. But the effect of non-competitive antagonists is much more than the other, so what is the cause of that? And are there some ...
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2answers
97 views

Are ethyl iodophenylundecylate and Ethyl-10-(Iodophenylundecanoate) the same compound?

I have no understanding of chemistry, so these to chemical formulas mean nothing to me. What I am trying to ascertain is are these compounds the same? If not, what differences are there especially if ...
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2answers
224 views

How would one express pemoline in terms of phenethylamine?

Pemoline is a psychostimulant that is no longer used in most countries. Similarly to the psychostimulants amfetamine and methylphenidate I can clearly see a phenethylamine backbone to this compound. I ...
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1answer
81 views

can you explain the structure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin? where are the linker boundaries?

could someone help me to decipher the structure of this molecule? I am trying to understand the structure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin: The anti-CD33 antibody is acylated with the bifunctional AcBut ...
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2answers
303 views

Why are a calico strainer and chloroform used in a British Pharmacopoeia assay of milk of magnesia?

The following is an assay for milk of magnesia in the British Pharmacopoeia (emphasis added): Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in $\pu{150 cm^3}$ of purified water, add the light magnesium oxide, mix ...
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1answer
401 views

Sample preparation for UV analysis of drug content in capsules/tablets

I want to analyse the drug content of a sample of gelatin capsules filled with active drug (declared dose is known) and excipients such as lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose etc. with UV ...
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1answer
194 views

Do we get high on "methampetamine" naturally? [closed]

First off, I'm new here and I cant tell if this is a chemistry or a biology question. It's both and if I ask on biology forums, they say to ask on chemistry forums and vice versa. So sorry if this ...
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0answers
43 views

Translating from milligrams in the pill to Ki at the receptor

Many places (e.g. Wikipedia) report the action of a drug on the various receptors, transporters, ion channels, and the like in terms of the Ki(nM). (This is for drugs that act primarily through such ...
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0answers
25 views

What is the composition, function, and classification of “6-Thio-2-Deoxyguanosine” and “13-mer thio-phosphoramidate”? How do I learn more about them?

I am assigned the task of explaining a biomedical research paper, it is about telomere and telomerase , and it talks a lot about the molecule Thio-2-Deoxyguanosine , 13-mer thio-phosphoramidate and &...
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0answers
34 views

Racemic mixture vs enantiomers in drugs [duplicate]

a racemic mixture has 50-50% of the 2 different enantiomers. There are racemate drugs out there in the world. The misunderstanding I have is that usually 1 out of the 2 enantiomers molecules have a ...
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2answers
62 views

How to publish a review article on drugs in a reputed journal? [closed]

What are the things needed to publish a review article in a journal starting from scratch ? Is it possible if i am not associated to any institution ? How long does it take and what are all the ...
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1answer
129 views

What is the mechanism of paracetamol synthesis from N‐acetylsulfanilic acid? [closed]

C can be converted to D with NaOH and heating at 300 °C. What is the mechanism of the reaction?
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1answer
612 views

What is the solubility of quinine suphate in 98% ethanol?

I have a result from an experiment that really bothers me, yet I found no sources online that can explain the situation. While quinine is relatively soluble in ethanol because they are both non-...
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1answer
1k views

When can you use the direct flame of a Bunsen burner, and when must you boil a beaker of water first?

I'd like to ask when you would do the following: use the direct Bunsen flame to heat a substance; place the substance in a test tube, which is placed in a beaker of water, then boil the water with the ...
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1answer
52 views

Synthesis cost of Fomepizole

Fomepizole is essential drug for methanol poisoning, I observed it cost too much like in 1000's of dollar for couple of ml. Is cost due to patents, or due to synthesis cost,structure of molecule looks ...
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1answer
34 views

Protein drug conjugate exercise

I am supposed to draw the structure of a derivative of the following structure which could be used to make a protein drug conjugate. And then I should draw the reaction for the protein modification. ...
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1answer
1k views

Are there caffeine analogs or substituents, and what are they? [closed]

I have heard of designer chemists that would take well known drugs, change a hydrogen to a methyl group, and then see what the effect would be in people. So my question is, what happens in caffeine ...
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1answer
220 views

Effect on solubility by dissolution of other substance (no common ion)

In one of our recent classes on mass and momentum transfer, we studied qualitatively how blood drug concentrations vary after consuming a tablet containing that drug. We considered the following: ...
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1answer
2k views

Turn Solution to hcl salt [closed]

I have a liquid mixture in a bottle containing different substances dissolved from their salt forms (i.e. lidocaine hydrochloride, anhydrous caffeine). These compounds are dissolved in distilled water....