Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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2answers
75 views

Why would diclofenac have a higher skin permeability when formulated as diclofenac epolamine rather than diclofenac sodium?

There is a suggestion on the literature that the formation of ion pairs creates a permeation enhancement. Usually only non-ionised compounds penetrate the skin. Is it possible that the conjugate ...
3
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0answers
34 views

Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
3
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0answers
277 views

Combining amphetamine and MAOIs

Could combining amphetamine and a (possibly selective) MAOI (MonoAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) increase the amphetamines potency without serious toxic side effects? If so by what factor, and would this be ...
3
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0answers
1k views

What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
3
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0answers
193 views

How much hydrolysis will likely occur of the following bonds at pH 1-4 in the time period of 1-3 hours?

The bonds are: (I have given pictures of what I mean in case there's any ambiguity that I leave open in these questions. Also so that if you want to number the R groups you've got a head-start) ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse-engineered?
2
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1answer
270 views

Why do compounds with similar properties have different Stitch IDs?

I'm not from the Pharmacy or Chemistry background. I have been wondering why certain drug compounds have similar properties but each of them have different Stitch IDs in PubChem? For example: Stitch ...
2
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1answer
3k views

What is the industrial yield of paracetamol?

Anyone know how I can find out the typical yield of paracetamol (acetaminophen) from the acetylation of 4-aminophenol? Please provide the source if you happen to know!
2
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1answer
80 views

What compounds do Nor1 and Nor2 citalopram refer to?

In Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th Edition pg. 406, two drugs, nor1-citalopram and nor2-citalopram are referred to but I have no idea what they are. Could somebody ...
2
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1answer
694 views

BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
2
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1answer
351 views

name of a pharmaceutical drug used in dentistry that has Ionic bonding? and how this bounding is made?

Hello I am looking for this information and I did not find anything, the closest thing I have found it is Fluorocarbon, but I think it is wrong, does anybody know?. Help really appreciated I am still ...
2
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1answer
553 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...
2
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1answer
291 views

Theoretical synthesis of dimetinden

I tried to find a way to synthesize Dimetinden (N,N-dimethyl-2-[3-(1-phenylethyl)-1⁠H-inden-2-yl]ethan-1-amine) with an Indensynthesis https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10....
2
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1answer
500 views

In the graph provided, which of the substances is the most efficient in acting as an antacid?

If every dot represents the addition of 0.1 g of the respective base. I suppose that the best would be the one that reaches the highest pH, in the shortest time, for example Calcium Carbonate, but if ...
2
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1answer
273 views

What is the use/function of lithium chloride as an excipient in sofradex eardrops?

Certain drugs have lithium chloride as an excipient, eg. Caprilate, NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Dilutionen N Nr 97), NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Lingual Nr 97), Nisita. An excipient is not supposed to have a ...
2
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1answer
2k views

How does Melatonin put you to sleep? How is this compound radio-protective?

Melatonin (IUPAC semi-formal name: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced in humans, animals and some of plants. It's mainly famous for being the drug suggested to people with sleeping ...
2
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1answer
956 views

What happens to the structure of tetracyclines when they expire?

I need to explain (chemically) why expired tetracyclines should not be used, relating to the changes in tetracycline structure that occur. All I can find is that they cause nephrosis, but not why.
2
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0answers
22 views

Difference between docking and scoring?

I'm taking an undergraduate level class on computer based drug design. The class is more for biology students than people with a strong understanding in physics and computer science. With that said,...
2
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0answers
38 views

Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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0answers
21 views

Chemical interaction between Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside

Some supplement companies are putting a combinations of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene into the same capsule. Considering the stomach acid, water, body temperature, etc. I am wondering if ...
2
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0answers
22 views

Cleaning of chlorbutyl plungers

This is my first post, so please bear with me. At work I have some chlorobutyl plungers that I need to clean from any residual material that might be left after production. A colleague of mine told ...
2
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0answers
189 views

What is the most likely reaction between minocycline and tramadol in physiological conditions?

Minocyline (left) and Tramadol (right) are two commonly prescribed medications containing typical organic functional groups. What would an expert chemist surmise as the first or most-likely reaction ...
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0answers
1k views

Odd color reaction with Marquis and MDMA

The textbook colour reaction of Marquis reagent (mixture cc. $\ce{H2SO4}$ + formaldehyde, optionally with some methanol to slow down polymerization) with MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, the ...
2
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3answers
6k views

Determine from pKa if acid or base

I'm studying medicine, not chemistry, but I hope you can help me anyway. I just had to solve a question where it is given that the drug Propranolol has a $\text{p}K_{\text{a}}$ of 9.5 and the un-...
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2answers
1k views

How to represent a 3D model of cocaine?

For my AP Chemistry class we were told to make a molecular diagram that was "better than excellent" and the rest is up to us (we could choose the molecule and how we wanted to represent it). My group ...
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1answer
72 views

How does gefitinib affect the EGFR(ecptor) and why is there relapse

Gefitinib has been shown to be an effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor in a fraction (~$10$%) of non-small cell lung cancer patients. These patients are characterized as having a mutation (usually a ...
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1answer
91 views

What are aryl chlorides currently used for?

In a recent paper by Gustafson et al. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b02650) the authors open with the argument that aryl chlorides are both versatile synthetic handles and common functionalities in ...
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1answer
5k views

What is the boiling point and density of LSD?

I have tried to do a lot of research and didn't succeed to find the boiling point and density of LSD. I would want to know this information. In addition, I can't use Clausius–Clapeyron equation ...
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1answer
64 views

How do I get Mass spectrometry graph, history, and Infra-red spectroscopy graph for Secnidazole?

My chemistry teacher wants me to create an academic poster for a recently-discovered biologically important organic molecule with chirality that is relatively small and is also recent. Secnidazole (...
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1answer
290 views

Lipinski's Rule of 5 Oxygen Rules

I would like clarification on the role of oxygen as a hydrogen bond acceptor in Lipinski's Rule of 5 (for drug absorption). I have learned in my medicinal chemistry class that both electron pairs from ...
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1answer
41 views

Detecting the concentration of chlorpromazine

Is there a way to detect the concentration of chlorpromazine in a small sample ; ex: human saliva, using electro-chemical analysis? Does the sensor necessarily have to be a bulky piece of lab ...
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1answer
158 views

Psychoactive ingredients in this soap?

Could any ingredients from this product be psychoactive in some people, if the are sensitive to them? https://www.lush.co.uk/products/honey-i-washed-kids I have found the product to be relaxing as ...
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1answer
43 views

Drug design methods - docking software, binding affinity [closed]

Lately I've seen videos and some articles explaining drug design. I would also like to specifically cite this guy, who isn't the most credible guy in the planet, but some of the stuff in the video ...
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1answer
38 views

Estimating protein binding and disassociation

I don't have a background in the area of drugs or pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics but I am trying to understand about protein binding. I was going through this paper. If $C_b$ is the ...
1
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between povidone K29/32 and povidone K30?

I'm specifically looking at the two as inactive ingredients in the drug lamotrigine. How do the povidone K values differ chemically and/or in the context of lamotrigine? They're obviously designed ...
1
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1answer
338 views

Analysis of methylphenidate (Ritalin) HCl extended release tablets

For a project I have to determine the drug concentration release profile of self-made methylphenidate HCl (MHCl) extended release tablets (hydrophilic matrix). We are thus doing a dissolution test as ...
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1answer
653 views

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation?

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation? Can an extemporaneous preparation be labelled as the BP mixture?
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1answer
223 views

Why does clearance increase after phenytoin overdose?

I am finding it hard to envision how an overdose of phenytoin ultimately leads to an increase of the clearance of phenytoin after the enzymes that metabolize phenytoin stop getting saturated. I know ...
1
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1answer
103 views

Modification to improve antibacterial activity

I have difficulties with part b). For C, it's clear to make a bulky dimethoxybenzene group in order to block the C=O group from reacting with b-lactamase. However, in A, how does the structure of ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the specific functional group in MDMA that caused addictive effect on user? [closed]

First of all, the reason I'm asking this is because I'd just done an experiment detecting MDMA in a urine sample with GC-MS for my internship program. I'm having difficulties figuring the functional ...
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1answer
163 views

Can Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride react with lidocaine hydrochloride?

To anaesthetise the mucous membrane 2 separate drugs were given topically: Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and Lidocaine hydrochloride. The reason to use both of them seem to be beginning of action and ...
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1answer
1k views

Does DMT-Acetate become Polar in H2O, with added NaCl?

I'm extracting DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) from Acacia confusa via acid/base. I extracted the DMT with $\ce{H2O}$ and acetic acid, converting it to DMT-acetate. Here, I used a non polar solvent, ...
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1answer
769 views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the importance of using a pKa value instead of a pKb value when describing drug chemistry?

Why do we only consider the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{a}$ value of a drug regardless of whether it is an acid or base? Why do we not use the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{b}$ value?
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0answers
14 views

Find drugs that have a particular solvent in a database [closed]

Is there a database where I can filter drugs for animal/human use by what ingredients/solvents they have? I'm specifically looking for all the drugs with a specific solvent/chemical compound.
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0answers
65 views

How many natural products are there in existence? [closed]

Hi I'm doing a project on natural products and I'm wondering if somewhere there is at least an estimated number of how many exist? If this exists somewhere can you please provide a reference. ...
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0answers
653 views

What is LSD-1, …, LSD-24, LSD-26, …?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was formerly often referred to as ‘LSD-25’. If it really is a (Albert Hofmann / Sandoz)'s code name (and not a combination of ‘LSD’ and usual LSD (Delysid) dosage ...
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0answers
42 views

How to characterise lipophilicity?

I was provided with a drug compound which is filling a hydrophobic pocket. The R group is changed and effects on the potency was measured; $\ce{R = -H, -CH3, -CH2F}$ were tested. As expected, the more ...
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0answers
58 views

How to find all published Pharmacophore Structure of a Drug target?

Other than literature review how do you find the structures of Pharmacophore of a drug target? I am searching Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors and I have reviewed lots of literature but ...
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0answers
76 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...