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Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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3
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0answers
184 views

How much hydrolysis will likely occur of the following bonds at pH 1-4 in the time period of 1-3 hours?

The bonds are: (I have given pictures of what I mean in case there's any ambiguity that I leave open in these questions. Also so that if you want to number the R groups you've got a head-start) ...
2
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1answer
3k views

What is the industrial yield of paracetamol?

Anyone know how I can find out the typical yield of paracetamol (acetaminophen) from the acetylation of 4-aminophenol? Please provide the source if you happen to know!
2
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1answer
80 views

What compounds do Nor1 and Nor2 citalopram refer to?

In Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th Edition pg. 406, two drugs, nor1-citalopram and nor2-citalopram are referred to but I have no idea what they are. Could somebody ...
2
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1answer
604 views

BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
2
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1answer
239 views

Why do compounds with similar properties have different Stitch IDs?

I'm not from the Pharmacy or Chemistry background. I have been wondering why certain drug compounds have similar properties but each of them have different Stitch IDs in PubChem? For example: Stitch ...
2
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1answer
326 views

name of a pharmaceutical drug used in dentistry that has Ionic bonding? and how this bounding is made?

Hello I am looking for this information and I did not find anything, the closest thing I have found it is Fluorocarbon, but I think it is wrong, does anybody know?. Help really appreciated I am still ...
2
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1answer
513 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...
2
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1answer
267 views

Theoretical synthesis of dimetinden

I tried to find a way to synthesize Dimetinden (N,N-dimethyl-2-[3-(1-phenylethyl)-1⁠H-inden-2-yl]ethan-1-amine) with an Indensynthesis https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10....
2
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1answer
417 views

In the graph provided, which of the substances is the most efficient in acting as an antacid?

If every dot represents the addition of 0.1 g of the respective base. I suppose that the best would be the one that reaches the highest pH, in the shortest time, for example Calcium Carbonate, but if ...
2
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1answer
266 views

What is the use/function of lithium chloride as an excipient in sofradex eardrops?

Certain drugs have lithium chloride as an excipient, eg. Caprilate, NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Dilutionen N Nr 97), NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Lingual Nr 97), Nisita. An excipient is not supposed to have a ...
2
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1answer
2k views

How does Melatonin put you to sleep? How is this compound radio-protective?

Melatonin (IUPAC semi-formal name: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced in humans, animals and some of plants. It's mainly famous for being the drug suggested to people with sleeping ...
2
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1answer
810 views

What happens to the structure of tetracyclines when they expire?

I need to explain (chemically) why expired tetracyclines should not be used, relating to the changes in tetracycline structure that occur. All I can find is that they cause nephrosis, but not why.
2
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0answers
19 views

Chemical interaction between Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside

Some supplement companies are putting a combinations of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene into the same capsule. Considering the stomach acid, water, body temperature, etc. I am wondering if ...
2
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0answers
22 views

Cleaning of chlorbutyl plungers

This is my first post, so please bear with me. At work I have some chlorobutyl plungers that I need to clean from any residual material that might be left after production. A colleague of mine told ...
2
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0answers
162 views

What is the most likely reaction between minocycline and tramadol in physiological conditions?

Minocyline (left) and Tramadol (right) are two commonly prescribed medications containing typical organic functional groups. What would an expert chemist surmise as the first or most-likely reaction ...
2
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0answers
1k views

Odd color reaction with Marquis and MDMA

The textbook colour reaction of Marquis reagent (mixture cc. $\ce{H2SO4}$ + formaldehyde, optionally with some methanol to slow down polymerization) with MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, the ...
2
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3answers
5k views

Determine from pKa if acid or base

I'm studying medicine, not chemistry, but I hope you can help me anyway. I just had to solve a question where it is given that the drug Propranolol has a $\text{p}K_{\text{a}}$ of 9.5 and the un-...
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1answer
2k views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made and sold as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse engineered ?
1
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1answer
77 views

What are aryl chlorides currently used for?

In a recent paper by Gustafson et al. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b02650) the authors open with the argument that aryl chlorides are both versatile synthetic handles and common functionalities in ...
1
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1answer
5k views

What is the boiling point and density of LSD?

I have tried to do a lot of research and didn't succeed to find the boiling point and density of LSD. I would want to know this information. In addition, I can't use Clausius–Clapeyron equation ...
1
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1answer
57 views

How do I get Mass spectrometry graph, history, and Infra-red spectroscopy graph for Secnidazole?

My chemistry teacher wants me to create an academic poster for a recently-discovered biologically important organic molecule with chirality that is relatively small and is also recent. Secnidazole (...
1
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1answer
272 views

Lipinski's Rule of 5 Oxygen Rules

I would like clarification on the role of oxygen as a hydrogen bond acceptor in Lipinski's Rule of 5 (for drug absorption). I have learned in my medicinal chemistry class that both electron pairs from ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Detecting the concentration of chlorpromazine

Is there a way to detect the concentration of chlorpromazine in a small sample ; ex: human saliva, using electro-chemical analysis? Does the sensor necessarily have to be a bulky piece of lab ...
1
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1answer
152 views

Psychoactive ingredients in this soap?

Could any ingredients from this product be psychoactive in some people, if the are sensitive to them? https://www.lush.co.uk/products/honey-i-washed-kids I have found the product to be relaxing as ...
1
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between povidone K29/32 and povidone K30?

I'm specifically looking at the two as inactive ingredients in the drug lamotrigine. How do the povidone K values differ chemically and/or in the context of lamotrigine? They're obviously designed ...
1
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1answer
319 views

Analysis of methylphenidate (Ritalin) HCl extended release tablets

For a project I have to determine the drug concentration release profile of self-made methylphenidate HCl (MHCl) extended release tablets (hydrophilic matrix). We are thus doing a dissolution test as ...
1
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1answer
583 views

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation?

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation? Can an extemporaneous preparation be labelled as the BP mixture?
1
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1answer
174 views

Why does clearance increase after phenytoin overdose?

I am finding it hard to envision how an overdose of phenytoin ultimately leads to an increase of the clearance of phenytoin after the enzymes that metabolize phenytoin stop getting saturated. I know ...
1
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1answer
99 views

Modification to improve antibacterial activity

I have difficulties with part b). For C, it's clear to make a bulky dimethoxybenzene group in order to block the C=O group from reacting with b-lactamase. However, in A, how does the structure of ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the specific functional group in MDMA that caused addictive effect on user? [closed]

First of all, the reason I'm asking this is because I'd just done an experiment detecting MDMA in a urine sample with GC-MS for my internship program. I'm having difficulties figuring the functional ...
1
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1answer
159 views

Can Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride react with lidocaine hydrochloride?

To anaesthetise the mucous membrane 2 separate drugs were given topically: Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and Lidocaine hydrochloride. The reason to use both of them seem to be beginning of action and ...
1
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1answer
980 views

Does DMT-Acetate become Polar in H2O, with added NaCl?

I'm extracting DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) from Acacia confusa via acid/base. I extracted the DMT with $\ce{H2O}$ and acetic acid, converting it to DMT-acetate. Here, I used a non polar solvent, ...
1
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1answer
686 views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the importance of using a pKa value instead of a pKb value when describing drug chemistry?

Why do we only consider the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{a}$ value of a drug regardless of whether it is an acid or base? Why do we not use the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{b}$ value?
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0answers
38 views

How many natural products are there in existence? [closed]

Hi I'm doing a project on natural products and I'm wondering if somewhere there is at least an estimated number of how many exist? If this exists somewhere can you please provide a reference. ...
1
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0answers
411 views

What is LSD-1, …, LSD-24, LSD-26, …?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was formerly often referred to as ‘LSD-25’. If it really is a (Albert Hofmann / Sandoz)'s code name (and not a combination of ‘LSD’ and usual LSD (Delysid) dosage ...
1
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0answers
38 views

How to characterise lipophilicity?

I was provided with a drug compound which is filling a hydrophobic pocket. The R group is changed and effects on the potency was measured; $\ce{R = -H, -CH3, -CH2F}$ were tested. As expected, the more ...
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0answers
57 views

How to find all published Pharmacophore Structure of a Drug target?

Other than literature review how do you find the structures of Pharmacophore of a drug target? I am searching Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors and I have reviewed lots of literature but ...
1
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0answers
76 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
1
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0answers
191 views

Absorption of Diazepam/Valium

Why diazepam absorbs quickly when taken with metoclopramide? Does it because diazepam is absorbed from intestine like acetaminophen? If it does, why presence of food increases the absorption of ...
1
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0answers
74 views

Microscale Experimentation vs. Preparative Synthesis during drug development

I'm trying to understand the drug development stages, techniques and procedures. My understanding on the subject: Microscale experimentation Is used on early stages to find compounds reacting with ...
1
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1answer
465 views

How to Experimentally Quantify the Response of a Receptor to a Ligand?

In medicinal chemistry, there are multiple reasons why one would want to experimentally determine the effect of a particular molecule on a receptor e.g. measuring how 'strongly' that molecule brings ...
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2answers
1k views

How to represent a 3D model of cocaine?

For my AP Chemistry class we were told to make a molecular diagram that was "better than excellent" and the rest is up to us (we could choose the molecule and how we wanted to represent it). My group ...
0
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1answer
124 views

How do pharmaceutical manufacturers ensure 100% purity in their medications? [closed]

What purification measures are taken to ensure no side products are present in the medication? Because hardly any organic reaction is perfectly efficient, I'm guessing that multiple recrystallizations ...
0
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1answer
651 views

What kind of drugs can be absorbed through skin? [closed]

Some drugs such as nicotine can be administered through skin. I thought the layers of skin are designed to prevent in-flow of any chemical/germs. Not all drugs get absorbed in this fashion. So do ...
0
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1answer
877 views

Does limonene react with calcium hydroxide or acetic acid?

I can't find the results of too many experiments with Limonene. Which has many uses (e.g. making soap). I'm curious of the results of combining Limonene and Calcium Hydroxide (Lime) in one ...
0
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1answer
122 views

Is scopolamine same as scopolamine hydrobromide?

Is scopolamine extracted with methanol or acetone from Datura or Brugmansia scopolamine free base or scopolamine hydrobromide? If you take a look at the Wikipedia page for hyoscine, the Synonyms part ...
0
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1answer
438 views

Is there any difference between Meprobamate and Equanil?

My textbook mentions Meprobamate and Equanil separately, under Anxiolytic drugs and even provides two (not-so) different structures to back their claim. However, Wikipedia would beg to differ: ...
0
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1answer
2k views

Evaporate propylene glycol

I tried to make a cannabis infused e-liquid. I made a tincture with marijuana and vegetable glycerin, but it became to thick so a mixed in more propylene glycol than I'd originally planned. Now the e-...
0
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1answer
206 views

Why is the effect of competitive antagonist less than the effect of non-competetive antagonists?

Drugs can be provided as a competive or non-competitive form of agonists. But the effect of non-competitive antagonists is much more than the other, so what is the cause of that? And are there some ...