Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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3
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1answer
188 views

What are the physicochemical properties related to medical drugs in the PubChem database?

I am not a chemist, in fact, I come from a computer science background. However, I am involved in a project related to artificial intelligence-based drug discovery. For this, I am trying to make a ...
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2answers
3k views

Chirality on Propranolol

I'm a bit confused when asked to specify the chiral carbons on this sketch of Propranolol as I'm not sure how the $\ce{H3C}$ and $\ce{CH3}$ play in if they are reversed in the name like that...Does ...
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2answers
2k views

What is LSD-1, …, LSD-24, LSD-26, …?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was formerly often referred to as ‘LSD-25’. If it really is a (Albert Hofmann / Sandoz)'s code name (and not a combination of ‘LSD’ and usual LSD (Delysid) dosage ...
3
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1answer
6k views

Degredation of Anusol and Sunscreen

Hopefully this is not TMI. I mistakenly used some expired Anusol recently, and noticed that the product is 12 years expired. One of the listed ingredients is Zinc Oxide, which is also used in ...
3
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1answer
174 views

Is there a difference between anti-anxiety and anti-depression drugs? [closed]

[PREFACE- I've already asked this on Health.SE, but I've drawn a blank there. The place is practically deserted. Also, this is NOT a personal medical question; I'm simply trying to understand the ...
3
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1answer
200 views

Does hydroxytyrosol have the same neurotoxicity potential as dopamine?

It has the catechol group, and it's the oxidation of the catechol group that makes dopamine produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxytyrosol isn't that different from dopamine (the distal N ...
3
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1answer
999 views

Why does the US not manufacture sodium thiopental themselves?

A shortage of a given chemical (sodium thiopendal) has prompted Utah to allow firing squads for executions. This shortage is due to mostly European chemical factories refusing to export the drug to ...
3
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1answer
4k views

Determine compound acidity based on structure

In an exercise I have the following structures Moclobemide: Paracetamol: Hexobarbital: I know for example by heart that paracetamol is an acid. What is the best approach in determination of ...
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50 views

How are cyclodextrins used to form inclusion complexes with drug molecules?

I'm talking about practical application. A cyclodextrin molecule hosts a drug molecule inside of it in order to increase solubility and stability of the drug. But how do we make sure this inclusion ...
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0answers
116 views

How stable is Remdesivir when vial vacuum is broken and/or it is reconstituted with sterile water?

I was recently looking at how long can Remdesivir be stored in its different forms. I came up across several articles provided by the FDA and Gilead Sciences and others. What caught my eye was the ...
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77 views

How to make Lithium medication from scratch

I take lithium carbonate as a medication. I was watching an "apocalypse-style" movie recently, which made me wonder how hard it would be to make my medication from scratch if I could no ...
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48 views

Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
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0answers
291 views

Combining amphetamine and MAOIs

Could combining amphetamine and a (possibly selective) MAOI (MonoAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) increase the amphetamines potency without serious toxic side effects? If so by what factor, and would this be ...
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0answers
1k views

What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
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0answers
203 views

How much hydrolysis will likely occur of the following bonds at pH 1-4 in the time period of 1-3 hours?

The bonds are: (I have given pictures of what I mean in case there's any ambiguity that I leave open in these questions. Also so that if you want to number the R groups you've got a head-start) ...
2
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1answer
356 views

Lipinski's Rule of 5 Oxygen Rules

I would like clarification on the role of oxygen as a hydrogen bond acceptor in Lipinski's Rule of 5 (for drug absorption). I have learned in my medicinal chemistry class that both electron pairs from ...
2
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1answer
315 views

Why do compounds with similar properties have different Stitch IDs?

I'm not from the Pharmacy or Chemistry background. I have been wondering why certain drug compounds have similar properties but each of them have different Stitch IDs in PubChem? For example: Stitch ...
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1answer
3k views

What is the industrial yield of paracetamol?

Anyone know how I can find out the typical yield of paracetamol (acetaminophen) from the acetylation of 4-aminophenol? Please provide the source if you happen to know!
2
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1answer
85 views

What compounds do Nor1 and Nor2 citalopram refer to?

In Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th Edition pg. 406, two drugs, nor1-citalopram and nor2-citalopram are referred to but I have no idea what they are. Could somebody ...
2
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1answer
835 views

BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
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1answer
1k views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
2
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1answer
507 views

name of a pharmaceutical drug used in dentistry that has Ionic bonding? and how this bounding is made?

Hello I am looking for this information and I did not find anything, the closest thing I have found it is Fluorocarbon, but I think it is wrong, does anybody know?. Help really appreciated I am still ...
2
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1answer
693 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...
2
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1answer
328 views

Theoretical synthesis of dimetinden

I tried to find a way to synthesize Dimetinden (N,N-dimethyl-2-[3-(1-phenylethyl)-1⁠H-inden-2-yl]ethan-1-amine) with an Indensynthesis https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10....
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1answer
642 views

In the graph provided, which of the substances is the most efficient in acting as an antacid?

If every dot represents the addition of 0.1 g of the respective base. I suppose that the best would be the one that reaches the highest pH, in the shortest time, for example Calcium Carbonate, but if ...
2
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1answer
298 views

What is the use/function of lithium chloride as an excipient in sofradex eardrops?

Certain drugs have lithium chloride as an excipient, eg. Caprilate, NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Dilutionen N Nr 97), NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Lingual Nr 97), Nisita. An excipient is not supposed to have a ...
2
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1answer
2k views

How does Melatonin put you to sleep? How is this compound radio-protective?

Melatonin (IUPAC semi-formal name: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced in humans, animals and some of plants. It's mainly famous for being the drug suggested to people with sleeping ...
2
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1answer
34 views

API formulations - are excipients required

I have the following API's Itraconazole, Ivermectin, Fenofibrate, Pyrvinium Pamoate,  Sulfasalazine, Artesunate,  All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Doxycycline,  Atovaquone,  Extremestane, Syrosingopine and ...
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1answer
1k views

What happens to the structure of tetracyclines when they expire?

I need to explain (chemically) why expired tetracyclines should not be used, relating to the changes in tetracycline structure that occur. All I can find is that they cause nephrosis, but not why.
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18 views

Biocompatible positively charged functional groups on the pH range 5–9

In drugs and biomolecules, there are quite a few groups that are negatively charged around neutral pH (pH 5 to 9): carboxylates, sulfates, sulfonates, phosphates, phosphonates, tetrazoles, certain ...
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27 views

About the acidity of Sultiame [closed]

Why is sulthiam base even hough sulfur can accept the electron by resonance from nitrogen like carbonyl group do?
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0answers
54 views

Difference between docking and scoring?

I'm taking an undergraduate level class on computer based drug design. The class is more for biology students than people with a strong understanding in physics and computer science. With that said,...
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0answers
58 views

Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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0answers
24 views

Chemical interaction between Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside

Some supplement companies are putting a combinations of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene into the same capsule. Considering the stomach acid, water, body temperature, etc. I am wondering if ...
2
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0answers
28 views

Cleaning of chlorbutyl plungers

This is my first post, so please bear with me. At work I have some chlorobutyl plungers that I need to clean from any residual material that might be left after production. A colleague of mine told ...
2
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0answers
242 views

What is the most likely reaction between minocycline and tramadol in physiological conditions?

Minocyline (left) and Tramadol (right) are two commonly prescribed medications containing typical organic functional groups. What would an expert chemist surmise as the first or most-likely reaction ...
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0answers
2k views

Odd color reaction with Marquis and MDMA

The textbook colour reaction of Marquis reagent (mixture cc. $\ce{H2SO4}$ + formaldehyde, optionally with some methanol to slow down polymerization) with MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, the ...
2
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1answer
567 views

How to Experimentally Quantify the Response of a Receptor to a Ligand?

In medicinal chemistry, there are multiple reasons why one would want to experimentally determine the effect of a particular molecule on a receptor e.g. measuring how 'strongly' that molecule brings ...
2
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3answers
7k views

Determine from pKa if acid or base

I'm studying medicine, not chemistry, but I hope you can help me anyway. I just had to solve a question where it is given that the drug Propranolol has a $\text{p}K_{\text{a}}$ of 9.5 and the un-...
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2answers
2k views

How to represent a 3D model of cocaine?

For my AP Chemistry class we were told to make a molecular diagram that was "better than excellent" and the rest is up to us (we could choose the molecule and how we wanted to represent it). My group ...
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1answer
128 views

Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine?

FIDE (the governing body of international chess competition) says here: The most relevant banned substances for chess are: • Amphetamines – e.g. Adderall, Ritalin (...) Image: I think either ...
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1answer
111 views

What are aryl chlorides currently used for?

In a recent paper by Gustafson et al. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b02650) the authors open with the argument that aryl chlorides are both versatile synthetic handles and common functionalities in ...
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1answer
82 views

How does gefitinib affect the EGFR(ecptor) and why is there relapse

Gefitinib has been shown to be an effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor in a fraction (~$10$%) of non-small cell lung cancer patients. These patients are characterized as having a mutation (usually a ...
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1answer
7k views

What is the boiling point and density of LSD?

I have tried to do a lot of research and didn't succeed to find the boiling point and density of LSD. I would want to know this information. In addition, I can't use Clausius–Clapeyron equation ...
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1answer
81 views

How do I get Mass spectrometry graph, history, and Infra-red spectroscopy graph for Secnidazole?

My chemistry teacher wants me to create an academic poster for a recently-discovered biologically important organic molecule with chirality that is relatively small and is also recent. Secnidazole (...
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1answer
4k views

What's the difference between povidone K29/32 and povidone K30?

I'm specifically looking at the two as inactive ingredients in the drug lamotrigine. How do the povidone K values differ chemically and/or in the context of lamotrigine? They're obviously designed ...
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1answer
47 views

Detecting the concentration of chlorpromazine

Is there a way to detect the concentration of chlorpromazine in a small sample ; ex: human saliva, using electro-chemical analysis? Does the sensor necessarily have to be a bulky piece of lab ...
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1answer
176 views

Psychoactive ingredients in this soap?

Could any ingredients from this product be psychoactive in some people, if the are sensitive to them? https://www.lush.co.uk/products/honey-i-washed-kids I have found the product to be relaxing as ...
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1answer
911 views

Number of chiral centers in penicillin V

I have often seen that in many drugs chirality plays a role. So I was trying to analyze the structure of Penicillin V. What is number of chiral centers in the structure of penicillin V? Is the ...
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1answer
71 views

Drug design methods - docking software, binding affinity [closed]

Lately I've seen videos and some articles explaining drug design. I would also like to specifically cite this guy, who isn't the most credible guy in the planet, but some of the stuff in the video ...