Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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6
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2answers
224 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Regarding the mechanism for biological activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine

Graham Patrick explains the mechanism for the activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine in his book Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry as follows: Some amines such as tyramine , amphetamine ...
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0answers
289 views

Combining amphetamine and MAOIs

Could combining amphetamine and a (possibly selective) MAOI (MonoAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) increase the amphetamines potency without serious toxic side effects? If so by what factor, and would this be ...
4
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1answer
834 views

How does the acidity of soft drinks not affect certain drugs, such as opiates? What about drugs and stomach acid?

Here's a very random introduction. I heard the term, "dirty Sprite" (it's some rap album/slang term) on a YouTube advertisement. I Googled "dirty Sprite", and it's apparently a recreational drug: ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Effect of enatiomers in pharmaceuticals [closed]

Often (or always?) one enantiomer of a certain drug will be effective and the other ineffective or harmful. The famous example is thalidomide, where one enantiomer caused mutilation of the unborn ...
8
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2answers
2k views

Can I successfully use a humidifier to distribute caffeine to wake someone up without the usual morning drowsiness?

Would I have any success putting coffee in a humidifier? Or perhaps water mixed with caffeine powder? So I could wake up without a jolting alarm clock, feeling like I already had a cup of coffee? I ...
-3
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1answer
424 views

Ph of acid would be one? [closed]

I am interested in the chemical lsd or "acid". I wanted to know if lsd is acid in its pure form would that mean it is water?
1
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1answer
171 views

Can Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride react with lidocaine hydrochloride?

To anaesthetise the mucous membrane 2 separate drugs were given topically: Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and Lidocaine hydrochloride. The reason to use both of them seem to be beginning of action and ...
1
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1answer
2k views

Does DMT-Acetate become Polar in H2O, with added NaCl?

I'm extracting DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) from Acacia confusa via acid/base. I extracted the DMT with $\ce{H2O}$ and acetic acid, converting it to DMT-acetate. Here, I used a non polar solvent, ...
4
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0answers
575 views

degradation of sertraline

The picture above is a drug called Setraline. Suggest a likely mode of degradation of sertraline hydrochloride alone in aqueous solution, giving likely structures of the degradation products. From my ...
4
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1answer
2k views

Why is acetylsalicylic acid still more acid than benzoic acid?

In this question, it is explained why salicylic acid is a stronger acid than benzoic acid. So, why acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), whose conjugate base cannot hydrogen bond since there is no hydrogen, ...
0
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2answers
96 views

Are ethyl iodophenylundecylate and Ethyl-10-(Iodophenylundecanoate) the same compound?

I have no understanding of chemistry, so these to chemical formulas mean nothing to me. What I am trying to ascertain is are these compounds the same? If not, what differences are there especially if ...
11
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3answers
848 views

Can we prolong life? [closed]

This is rather a bunch of questions that I decided to post on Chemistry StackExchange since I thought the chemists would have the most knowledge about the chemical processes of life. So recently I ...
3
votes
1answer
978 views

Why does the US not manufacture sodium thiopental themselves?

A shortage of a given chemical (sodium thiopendal) has prompted Utah to allow firing squads for executions. This shortage is due to mostly European chemical factories refusing to export the drug to ...
14
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3answers
1k views

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease?

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease without damaging other parts of the body? If so, would the liquefied plaque be eliminated as regular fluid is through ...
1
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2answers
1k views

How to represent a 3D model of cocaine?

For my AP Chemistry class we were told to make a molecular diagram that was "better than excellent" and the rest is up to us (we could choose the molecule and how we wanted to represent it). My group ...
3
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2answers
3k views

Chirality on Propranolol

I'm a bit confused when asked to specify the chiral carbons on this sketch of Propranolol as I'm not sure how the $\ce{H3C}$ and $\ce{CH3}$ play in if they are reversed in the name like that...Does ...
2
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1answer
2k views

How does Melatonin put you to sleep? How is this compound radio-protective?

Melatonin (IUPAC semi-formal name: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced in humans, animals and some of plants. It's mainly famous for being the drug suggested to people with sleeping ...
5
votes
2answers
302 views

What is the origin of the naming of deoxycorticosterone acetate?

Deoxy- means the compound misses an oxygen comparing to the name without the prefix. Acetate means ethanoate in IUPAC language. Many biologists still abide old rules and call it acetate. And finally, ...
22
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2answers
19k views

Why formulate drugs as HCl salts when HCl is in stomach acid?

I know there are issues of formulation and industrial processing that make it advantageous to produce many amine containing drugs as their salts rather than as freebases. And if giving the drug ...
3
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0answers
1k views

What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
2
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0answers
1k views

Odd color reaction with Marquis and MDMA

The textbook colour reaction of Marquis reagent (mixture cc. $\ce{H2SO4}$ + formaldehyde, optionally with some methanol to slow down polymerization) with MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, the ...
1
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1answer
43 views

Detecting the concentration of chlorpromazine

Is there a way to detect the concentration of chlorpromazine in a small sample ; ex: human saliva, using electro-chemical analysis? Does the sensor necessarily have to be a bulky piece of lab ...
0
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2answers
214 views

How would one express pemoline in terms of phenethylamine?

Pemoline is a psychostimulant that is no longer used in most countries. Similarly to the psychostimulants amfetamine and methylphenidate I can clearly see a phenethylamine backbone to this compound. I ...
10
votes
1answer
443 views

What general uses do beta-lactam functional groups have?

I am currently working on a mechanistic study that deals with stereoselective $\beta$-lactam formation. I am well aware that there is a class of antibiotics, that involve this particular functional ...
3
votes
1answer
197 views

Does hydroxytyrosol have the same neurotoxicity potential as dopamine?

It has the catechol group, and it's the oxidation of the catechol group that makes dopamine produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxytyrosol isn't that different from dopamine (the distal N ...
2
votes
1answer
909 views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
2
votes
1answer
533 views

How to Experimentally Quantify the Response of a Receptor to a Ligand?

In medicinal chemistry, there are multiple reasons why one would want to experimentally determine the effect of a particular molecule on a receptor e.g. measuring how 'strongly' that molecule brings ...
1
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1answer
169 views

Psychoactive ingredients in this soap?

Could any ingredients from this product be psychoactive in some people, if the are sensitive to them? https://www.lush.co.uk/products/honey-i-washed-kids I have found the product to be relaxing as ...
5
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2answers
785 views

What is the active ingredient in this “stimulant?”

It is an easily defensible argument that this is a medical question rather than a chemistry one, however, I feel that it leans ever so slightly towards chemistry, and so I posted it here. There is a "...
3
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1answer
2k views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse-engineered?
3
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0answers
197 views

How much hydrolysis will likely occur of the following bonds at pH 1-4 in the time period of 1-3 hours?

The bonds are: (I have given pictures of what I mean in case there's any ambiguity that I leave open in these questions. Also so that if you want to number the R groups you've got a head-start) ...
11
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3answers
27k views

What is the difference between doxycycline HCl and doxycycline hyclate?

I would like to ask what are the main differences between doxycycline HCl and hyclate? I work in the pharmaceutical/veterinary raw materials industry and some clients are saying that they prefer ...
2
votes
1answer
466 views

name of a pharmaceutical drug used in dentistry that has Ionic bonding? and how this bounding is made?

Hello I am looking for this information and I did not find anything, the closest thing I have found it is Fluorocarbon, but I think it is wrong, does anybody know?. Help really appreciated I am still ...
13
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3answers
3k views

What chemical properties make LSD so psychoactive?

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a well known hallucinogen and (usually) illegal psychoactive drug with the structure below: The drug is active is doses measured in micrograms in contrast to many ...
16
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the mechanism of action of anaesthetics?

A range of very different compounds are used in medicine as anaesthetics. They don't seem to have much in common chemically but they all seem to keep people asleep while medics are doing nasty things ...
3
votes
1answer
4k views

Determine compound acidity based on structure

In an exercise I have the following structures Moclobemide: Paracetamol: Hexobarbital: I know for example by heart that paracetamol is an acid. What is the best approach in determination of ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

What is the importance of using a pKa value instead of a pKb value when describing drug chemistry?

Why do we only consider the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{a}$ value of a drug regardless of whether it is an acid or base? Why do we not use the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{b}$ value?
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What happens to the structure of tetracyclines when they expire?

I need to explain (chemically) why expired tetracyclines should not be used, relating to the changes in tetracycline structure that occur. All I can find is that they cause nephrosis, but not why.
4
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2answers
2k views

Why do pharmaceutical drugs have a expiration date?

Every now and then you reach into the bathroom cabinet to find that some pill or ointment you where planning to use has gone past its expiration date. I am interested whether this expiration date has ...
4
votes
1answer
427 views

What is the reaction mechanism for the hydrolysis of Amifostine?

I have to do research on a drug called Amifostine: 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylsulfanyl phosphonic acid. I'm supposed to say how the organic reaction works inside the body. I understand that it's ...
5
votes
1answer
152 views

In Goodman and Gilman what does R,S-citalopram refer to?

In Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12e R,S-citalopram is referred to. The problem is that from what I am aware of citalopram only has one stereocentre, and hence I am ...
2
votes
1answer
83 views

What compounds do Nor1 and Nor2 citalopram refer to?

In Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th Edition pg. 406, two drugs, nor1-citalopram and nor2-citalopram are referred to but I have no idea what they are. Could somebody ...
6
votes
1answer
483 views

Where did the INN name of fentanyl come from?

Fentanyl is a potent anilidopiperidine opioid. Where did its INN name come from? Figure 1: Fentanyl I know that the INN name of paracetamol came from its chemical name para-acetylaminophenol (par-...
17
votes
1answer
1k views

Why does the sulfone ring in tazobactam open when the lactam is hydrolyzed?

One of the drugs I work with is a beta-lactam (4-membered ring with an amide bond) fused to a sulfone ring, tazobactam. It's relatively stable in water; the lactam is not significantly hydrolyzed ...
22
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3answers
2k views

What are known examples of drugs that racemize/stereoconvert in vivo, and how are they converted?

It is known that although only the (S)-enantiomer of the infamous sedative thalidomide possesses teratogenic properties, it is not very useful to administer the pure (R)-enantiomer since it is ...

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