Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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6
votes
2answers
933 views

Effect of direct exposure to sunlight on various drugs

Today, we were discussing optical activity in class and our teacher said that some drugs are kept in dark coloured bottles to avoid direct exposure to sunlight. Same is the case with some other drugs ...
16
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2answers
5k views

Difference between Sildenafil and Sildenafil citrate

The data I found seems to show no difference between Sildenafil and Sildenafil citrate. But if they are the same things, why Pfizer use Sildenafil citrate instead of Sildenafil as their product Viagra?...
6
votes
1answer
235 views

Could muscarine be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

According to Wikipedia, "Muscarine poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, ...
-1
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1answer
205 views

Effect on solubility by dissolution of other substance (no common ion)

In one of our recent classes on mass and momentum transfer, we studied qualitatively how blood drug concentrations vary after consuming a tablet containing that drug. We considered the following: ...
8
votes
2answers
817 views

How is molecular orbital theory used in drug research?

I was reading up on MO theory and came across a particular section: Application: Computational Chemistry In Drug Design While the descriptions of bonding described in this chapter involve many ...
-3
votes
1answer
111 views

What chemicals are in anesthetic drugs [closed]

What chemicals are there in an anesthetic drug and how it reduces the pain of a person? Are the chemicals used in it safely, dangerous or both?
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

Which poison was used in the failed attempt to assassinate Khaled Mashal of Hamas?

This question is both historical and chemistry-related, but I'm posting it here because I am more interested in the chemical part: In 1997, Israel tried to assassinate Khaled Mashal, a high-rank ...
2
votes
0answers
221 views

What is the most likely reaction between minocycline and tramadol in physiological conditions?

Minocyline (left) and Tramadol (right) are two commonly prescribed medications containing typical organic functional groups. What would an expert chemist surmise as the first or most-likely reaction ...
2
votes
1answer
634 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...
2
votes
1answer
767 views

BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
2
votes
1answer
319 views

Theoretical synthesis of dimetinden

I tried to find a way to synthesize Dimetinden (N,N-dimethyl-2-[3-(1-phenylethyl)-1⁠H-inden-2-yl]ethan-1-amine) with an Indensynthesis https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10....
2
votes
3answers
6k views

Determine from pKa if acid or base

I'm studying medicine, not chemistry, but I hope you can help me anyway. I just had to solve a question where it is given that the drug Propranolol has a $\text{p}K_{\text{a}}$ of 9.5 and the un-...
1
vote
1answer
356 views

Analysis of methylphenidate (Ritalin) HCl extended release tablets

For a project I have to determine the drug concentration release profile of self-made methylphenidate HCl (MHCl) extended release tablets (hydrophilic matrix). We are thus doing a dissolution test as ...
-2
votes
1answer
98 views

What does penicillin react with? [closed]

Just wondering what penicillin reacts with and if so, can you please write a word equation. I've tried to do some research on it but had no luck. would mean a lot if someone could help me out
-8
votes
1answer
3k views

What is the chemical equation for penicillin? [closed]

For our chemistry homework, we have to write the chemical equation for Penicillin.
1
vote
1answer
761 views

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation?

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation? Can an extemporaneous preparation be labelled as the BP mixture?
0
votes
1answer
274 views

Why are a calico strainer and chloroform used in a British Pharmacopoeia assay of milk of magnesia?

The following is an assay for milk of magnesia in the British Pharmacopoeia (emphasis added): Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in $\pu{150 cm^3}$ of purified water, add the light magnesium oxide, mix ...
-1
votes
1answer
2k views

Turn Solution to hcl salt [closed]

I have a liquid mixture in a bottle containing different substances dissolved from their salt forms (i.e. lidocaine hydrochloride, anhydrous caffeine). These compounds are dissolved in distilled water....
1
vote
2answers
2k views

What is the specific functional group in MDMA that caused addictive effect on user? [closed]

First of all, the reason I'm asking this is because I'd just done an experiment detecting MDMA in a urine sample with GC-MS for my internship program. I'm having difficulties figuring the functional ...
0
votes
1answer
383 views

Sample preparation for UV analysis of drug content in capsules/tablets

I want to analyse the drug content of a sample of gelatin capsules filled with active drug (declared dose is known) and excipients such as lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose etc. with UV ...
2
votes
1answer
580 views

In the graph provided, which of the substances is the most efficient in acting as an antacid?

If every dot represents the addition of 0.1 g of the respective base. I suppose that the best would be the one that reaches the highest pH, in the shortest time, for example Calcium Carbonate, but if ...
0
votes
1answer
176 views

Do we get high on “methampetamine” naturally? [closed]

First off, I'm new here and I cant tell if this is a chemistry or a biology question. It's both and if I ask on biology forums, they say to ask on chemistry forums and vice versa. So sorry if this ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

What are aryl chlorides currently used for?

In a recent paper by Gustafson et al. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b02650) the authors open with the argument that aryl chlorides are both versatile synthetic handles and common functionalities in ...
11
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2answers
1k views

Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
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votes
1answer
196 views

How is the selectivity of a drug ensured? [closed]

How is a drug created that would target a particular site? I always wonder when I take a pill for headache, how the pill knows that its my head and not my knee. Or is it that it interacts with all ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Does limonene react with calcium hydroxide or acetic acid?

I can't find the results of too many experiments with Limonene. Which has many uses (e.g. making soap). I'm curious of the results of combining Limonene and Calcium Hydroxide (Lime) in one ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

General Alkaloid Extraction Process

I'm getting into alkaloid extraction from various ethnobotanicals. It is a bit frustrating trying to extract alkaloids from ethnobotanicals without good guides out there, and I wanted to make my own ...
2
votes
1answer
330 views

Lipinski's Rule of 5 Oxygen Rules

I would like clarification on the role of oxygen as a hydrogen bond acceptor in Lipinski's Rule of 5 (for drug absorption). I have learned in my medicinal chemistry class that both electron pairs from ...
0
votes
1answer
741 views

Is there any difference between Meprobamate and Equanil?

My textbook mentions Meprobamate and Equanil separately, under Anxiolytic drugs and even provides two (not-so) different structures to back their claim. However, Wikipedia would beg to differ: ...
3
votes
1answer
165 views

Is there a difference between anti-anxiety and anti-depression drugs? [closed]

[PREFACE- I've already asked this on Health.SE, but I've drawn a blank there. The place is practically deserted. Also, this is NOT a personal medical question; I'm simply trying to understand the ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Why can curcumin cross the blood-brain barrier, but not congo red?

I've read that both congo red and curcumin are able to inhibit the clumping together of amyloid $\mathrm{β_{42}}$ in the brain, which would otherwise result in Alzheimer's disease. Apparently, congo ...
3
votes
1answer
6k views

Degredation of Anusol and Sunscreen

Hopefully this is not TMI. I mistakenly used some expired Anusol recently, and noticed that the product is 12 years expired. One of the listed ingredients is Zinc Oxide, which is also used in ...
13
votes
3answers
10k views

What does it mean for meth or any other compound to be 'pure'?

In Breaking Bad, Walter White can cook $99.1\%$ pure meth. In general what does it mean for a substance to be pure? In this case, what exactly does it mean for meth to be pure? Does higher purity mean ...
4
votes
1answer
866 views

Structure of aminoglycosides

Attached is the structure of one aminoglycosides, kanamycin. I understand that the ring binds to 4 position of 2-DOS is numbered with prime (') and sugar that links to 4 or 5 position of 2-DOS is ...
11
votes
0answers
84 views

Is there a structured data source containing information on the World Health Organisation's Stability Testing Policies?

Hoping to automate some product testing guidance software, I've been attempting to find a (hopefully live, up-to-date) Database, Web-service, or other structured data source containing the ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

Evaporate propylene glycol

I tried to make a cannabis infused e-liquid. I made a tincture with marijuana and vegetable glycerin, but it became to thick so a mixed in more propylene glycol than I'd originally planned. Now the e-...
1
vote
1answer
306 views

Why does clearance increase after phenytoin overdose?

I am finding it hard to envision how an overdose of phenytoin ultimately leads to an increase of the clearance of phenytoin after the enzymes that metabolize phenytoin stop getting saturated. I know ...
10
votes
2answers
4k views

Is ciprofloxacin acidic or basic?

I would expect an aqueous solution of ciprofloxacin to be basic for the following reasons: The carboxyl group has pKa = 6.09 and the secondary amino group has pKa = 8.74. Because 8.74 is further from ...
2
votes
1answer
296 views

Why do compounds with similar properties have different Stitch IDs?

I'm not from the Pharmacy or Chemistry background. I have been wondering why certain drug compounds have similar properties but each of them have different Stitch IDs in PubChem? For example: Stitch ...
1
vote
0answers
217 views

Absorption of Diazepam/Valium

Why diazepam absorbs quickly when taken with metoclopramide? Does it because diazepam is absorbed from intestine like acetaminophen? If it does, why presence of food increases the absorption of ...
1
vote
0answers
79 views

Microscale Experimentation vs. Preparative Synthesis during drug development

I'm trying to understand the drug development stages, techniques and procedures. My understanding on the subject: Microscale experimentation Is used on early stages to find compounds reacting with ...
0
votes
1answer
260 views

Why is the effect of competitive antagonist less than the effect of non-competetive antagonists?

Drugs can be provided as a competive or non-competitive form of agonists. But the effect of non-competitive antagonists is much more than the other, so what is the cause of that? And are there some ...
14
votes
1answer
2k views

What was the lithium concentration in 1940's 7-Up?

I just came across this article in the New York Times, where lithium (or more correctly, lithium salts), a known anti-depressant had been added to beverages in the 1940's. They also mention that a ...
11
votes
1answer
193 views

How can I tell which parts of this example drug are necessary parts of its pharmacophore?

$\hspace{10mm}$ $\hspace{10mm}$(Click image for larger version) This picture identifies a generic drug-enzyme complex taken from an exam script. There is no name given. One part of the exam question ...
6
votes
2answers
634 views

Software for compound database creation\enumeration

The only program I have found is Plexus Suite from chemaxon. (I asked for trial, but no answer to me yet). The task is: create variation of compounds, where is scaffold and different substituents: ...
1
vote
1answer
7k views

What is the boiling point and density of LSD?

I have tried to do a lot of research and didn't succeed to find the boiling point and density of LSD. I would want to know this information. In addition, I can't use Clausius–Clapeyron equation ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

What is the industrial yield of paracetamol?

Anyone know how I can find out the typical yield of paracetamol (acetaminophen) from the acetylation of 4-aminophenol? Please provide the source if you happen to know!
2
votes
1answer
290 views

What is the use/function of lithium chloride as an excipient in sofradex eardrops?

Certain drugs have lithium chloride as an excipient, eg. Caprilate, NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Dilutionen N Nr 97), NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Lingual Nr 97), Nisita. An excipient is not supposed to have a ...
6
votes
2answers
224 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...