Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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16
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1answer
1k views

Why does the sulfone ring in tazobactam open when the lactam is hydrolyzed?

One of the drugs I work with is a beta-lactam (4-membered ring with an amide bond) fused to a sulfone ring, tazobactam. It's relatively stable in water; the lactam is not significantly hydrolyzed ...
1
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0answers
57 views

How to find all published Pharmacophore Structure of a Drug target?

Other than literature review how do you find the structures of Pharmacophore of a drug target? I am searching Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors and I have reviewed lots of literature but ...
1
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2answers
1k views

What is the importance of using a pKa value instead of a pKb value when describing drug chemistry?

Why do we only consider the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{a}$ value of a drug regardless of whether it is an acid or base? Why do we not use the $\mathrm{p}K_\text{b}$ value?
6
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1answer
206 views

Could muscarine be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

According to Wikipedia, "Muscarine poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, ...
3
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1answer
4k views

Determine compound acidity based on structure

In an exercise I have the following structures Moclobemide: Paracetamol: Hexobarbital: I know for example by heart that paracetamol is an acid. What is the best approach in determination of ...
3
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1answer
946 views

Why does the US not manufacture sodium thiopental themselves?

A shortage of a given chemical (sodium thiopendal) has prompted Utah to allow firing squads for executions. This shortage is due to mostly European chemical factories refusing to export the drug to ...
5
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1answer
889 views

Regarding the mechanism for biological activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine

Graham Patrick explains the mechanism for the activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine in his book Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry as follows: Some amines such as tyramine , amphetamine ...
3
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2answers
3k views

Chirality on Propranolol

I'm a bit confused when asked to specify the chiral carbons on this sketch of Propranolol as I'm not sure how the $\ce{H3C}$ and $\ce{CH3}$ play in if they are reversed in the name like that...Does ...
21
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3answers
2k views

What are known examples of drugs that racemize/stereoconvert in vivo, and how are they converted?

It is known that although only the (S)-enantiomer of the infamous sedative thalidomide possesses teratogenic properties, it is not very useful to administer the pure (R)-enantiomer since it is ...
2
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1answer
900 views

What happens to the structure of tetracyclines when they expire?

I need to explain (chemically) why expired tetracyclines should not be used, relating to the changes in tetracycline structure that occur. All I can find is that they cause nephrosis, but not why.
6
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1answer
299 views

How does Rosuvastatin 5 S-lactone form in human body?

I've searched lots of free resources online but cannot find the answer. the top compound is Rosuvastatin. Some websites say it is metabolized by the enzyme CYP2C9, but I can't figure out how a ...
15
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3answers
1k views

What is the mechanism of action of anaesthetics?

A range of very different compounds are used in medicine as anaesthetics. They don't seem to have much in common chemically but they all seem to keep people asleep while medics are doing nasty things ...
6
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2answers
925 views

Effect of direct exposure to sunlight on various drugs

Today, we were discussing optical activity in class and our teacher said that some drugs are kept in dark coloured bottles to avoid direct exposure to sunlight. Same is the case with some other drugs ...
-1
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1answer
171 views

Effect on solubility by dissolution of other substance (no common ion)

In one of our recent classes on mass and momentum transfer, we studied qualitatively how blood drug concentrations vary after consuming a tablet containing that drug. We considered the following: ...
2
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3answers
5k views

Determine from pKa if acid or base

I'm studying medicine, not chemistry, but I hope you can help me anyway. I just had to solve a question where it is given that the drug Propranolol has a $\text{p}K_{\text{a}}$ of 9.5 and the un-...
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0answers
76 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
2
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0answers
181 views

What is the most likely reaction between minocycline and tramadol in physiological conditions?

Minocyline (left) and Tramadol (right) are two commonly prescribed medications containing typical organic functional groups. What would an expert chemist surmise as the first or most-likely reaction ...
2
votes
1answer
280 views

Theoretical synthesis of dimetinden

I tried to find a way to synthesize Dimetinden (N,N-dimethyl-2-[3-(1-phenylethyl)-1⁠H-inden-2-yl]ethan-1-amine) with an Indensynthesis https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10....
2
votes
1answer
545 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...
4
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0answers
520 views

degradation of sertraline

The picture above is a drug called Setraline. Suggest a likely mode of degradation of sertraline hydrochloride alone in aqueous solution, giving likely structures of the degradation products. From my ...
10
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2answers
970 views

Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
2
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1answer
656 views

BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
2
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1answer
336 views

name of a pharmaceutical drug used in dentistry that has Ionic bonding? and how this bounding is made?

Hello I am looking for this information and I did not find anything, the closest thing I have found it is Fluorocarbon, but I think it is wrong, does anybody know?. Help really appreciated I am still ...
1
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1answer
333 views

Analysis of methylphenidate (Ritalin) HCl extended release tablets

For a project I have to determine the drug concentration release profile of self-made methylphenidate HCl (MHCl) extended release tablets (hydrophilic matrix). We are thus doing a dissolution test as ...
-2
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1answer
96 views

What does penicillin react with? [closed]

Just wondering what penicillin reacts with and if so, can you please write a word equation. I've tried to do some research on it but had no luck. would mean a lot if someone could help me out
0
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1answer
230 views

Why is the effect of competitive antagonist less than the effect of non-competetive antagonists?

Drugs can be provided as a competive or non-competitive form of agonists. But the effect of non-competitive antagonists is much more than the other, so what is the cause of that? And are there some ...
1
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2answers
1k views

What is the specific functional group in MDMA that caused addictive effect on user? [closed]

First of all, the reason I'm asking this is because I'd just done an experiment detecting MDMA in a urine sample with GC-MS for my internship program. I'm having difficulties figuring the functional ...
0
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1answer
242 views

Why are a calico strainer and chloroform used in a British Pharmacopoeia assay of milk of magnesia?

The following is an assay for milk of magnesia in the British Pharmacopoeia (emphasis added): Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in $\pu{150 cm^3}$ of purified water, add the light magnesium oxide, mix ...
1
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1answer
628 views

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation?

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation? Can an extemporaneous preparation be labelled as the BP mixture?
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1answer
1k views

Turn Solution to hcl salt [closed]

I have a liquid mixture in a bottle containing different substances dissolved from their salt forms (i.e. lidocaine hydrochloride, anhydrous caffeine). These compounds are dissolved in distilled water....
0
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1answer
356 views

Sample preparation for UV analysis of drug content in capsules/tablets

I want to analyse the drug content of a sample of gelatin capsules filled with active drug (declared dose is known) and excipients such as lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose etc. with UV ...
1
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1answer
85 views

What are aryl chlorides currently used for?

In a recent paper by Gustafson et al. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b02650) the authors open with the argument that aryl chlorides are both versatile synthetic handles and common functionalities in ...
3
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1answer
155 views

Is there a difference between anti-anxiety and anti-depression drugs? [closed]

[PREFACE- I've already asked this on Health.SE, but I've drawn a blank there. The place is practically deserted. Also, this is NOT a personal medical question; I'm simply trying to understand the ...
-3
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1answer
193 views

How is the selectivity of a drug ensured? [closed]

How is a drug created that would target a particular site? I always wonder when I take a pill for headache, how the pill knows that its my head and not my knee. Or is it that it interacts with all ...
0
votes
1answer
944 views

Does limonene react with calcium hydroxide or acetic acid?

I can't find the results of too many experiments with Limonene. Which has many uses (e.g. making soap). I'm curious of the results of combining Limonene and Calcium Hydroxide (Lime) in one ...
5
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2answers
584 views

Software for compound database creation\enumeration

The only program I have found is Plexus Suite from chemaxon. (I asked for trial, but no answer to me yet). The task is: create variation of compounds, where is scaffold and different substituents: ...
1
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1answer
285 views

Lipinski's Rule of 5 Oxygen Rules

I would like clarification on the role of oxygen as a hydrogen bond acceptor in Lipinski's Rule of 5 (for drug absorption). I have learned in my medicinal chemistry class that both electron pairs from ...
0
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1answer
528 views

Is there any difference between Meprobamate and Equanil?

My textbook mentions Meprobamate and Equanil separately, under Anxiolytic drugs and even provides two (not-so) different structures to back their claim. However, Wikipedia would beg to differ: ...
4
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2answers
1k views

Why can curcumin cross the blood-brain barrier, but not congo red?

I've read that both congo red and curcumin are able to inhibit the clumping together of amyloid $\mathrm{β_{42}}$ in the brain, which would otherwise result in Alzheimer's disease. Apparently, congo ...
3
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1answer
4k views

Degredation of Anusol and Sunscreen

Hopefully this is not TMI. I mistakenly used some expired Anusol recently, and noticed that the product is 12 years expired. One of the listed ingredients is Zinc Oxide, which is also used in ...
4
votes
1answer
631 views

Structure of aminoglycosides

Attached is the structure of one aminoglycosides, kanamycin. I understand that the ring binds to 4 position of 2-DOS is numbered with prime (') and sugar that links to 4 or 5 position of 2-DOS is ...
12
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3answers
2k views

What chemical properties make LSD so psychoactive?

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a well known hallucinogen and (usually) illegal psychoactive drug with the structure below: The drug is active is doses measured in micrograms in contrast to many ...
0
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1answer
2k views

Evaporate propylene glycol

I tried to make a cannabis infused e-liquid. I made a tincture with marijuana and vegetable glycerin, but it became to thick so a mixed in more propylene glycol than I'd originally planned. Now the e-...
2
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1answer
253 views

Why do compounds with similar properties have different Stitch IDs?

I'm not from the Pharmacy or Chemistry background. I have been wondering why certain drug compounds have similar properties but each of them have different Stitch IDs in PubChem? For example: Stitch ...
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0answers
199 views

Absorption of Diazepam/Valium

Why diazepam absorbs quickly when taken with metoclopramide? Does it because diazepam is absorbed from intestine like acetaminophen? If it does, why presence of food increases the absorption of ...
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0answers
75 views

Microscale Experimentation vs. Preparative Synthesis during drug development

I'm trying to understand the drug development stages, techniques and procedures. My understanding on the subject: Microscale experimentation Is used on early stages to find compounds reacting with ...
11
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1answer
176 views

How can I tell which parts of this example drug are necessary parts of its pharmacophore?

$\hspace{10mm}$ $\hspace{10mm}$(Click image for larger version) This picture identifies a generic drug-enzyme complex taken from an exam script. There is no name given. One part of the exam question ...
1
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1answer
5k views

What is the boiling point and density of LSD?

I have tried to do a lot of research and didn't succeed to find the boiling point and density of LSD. I would want to know this information. In addition, I can't use Clausius–Clapeyron equation ...
1
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1answer
160 views

Can Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride react with lidocaine hydrochloride?

To anaesthetise the mucous membrane 2 separate drugs were given topically: Oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and Lidocaine hydrochloride. The reason to use both of them seem to be beginning of action and ...
2
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1answer
268 views

What is the use/function of lithium chloride as an excipient in sofradex eardrops?

Certain drugs have lithium chloride as an excipient, eg. Caprilate, NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Dilutionen N Nr 97), NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Lingual Nr 97), Nisita. An excipient is not supposed to have a ...