Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine?

FIDE says here: The most relevant banned substances for chess are: • Amphetamines – e.g. Adderall, Ritalin (...) Image: I think either Ritalin should be in a separate category called ...
13
votes
3answers
11k views

What does it mean for meth or any other compound to be 'pure'?

In Breaking Bad, Walter White can cook $99.1\%$ pure meth. In general what does it mean for a substance to be pure? In this case, what exactly does it mean for meth to be pure? Does higher purity mean ...
3
votes
1answer
183 views

What are the physicochemical properties related to medical drugs in the PubChem database?

I am not a chemist, in fact, I come from a computer science background. However, I am involved in a project related to artificial intelligence-based drug discovery. For this, I am trying to make a ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Biocompatible positively charged functional groups on the pH range 5–9

In drugs and biomolecules, there are quite a few groups that are negatively charged around neutral pH (pH 5 to 9): carboxylates, sulfates, sulfonates, phosphates, phosphonates, tetrazoles, certain ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Where to find the ChEMBL21 database in CSV format?

I come from an artificial intelligence (AI) background (and not from chemistry). However, my Ph.D. thesis is about Deep Reinforcement Learning for drug design. From one of the most famous papers in ...
-1
votes
1answer
124 views

What is the mechanism of paracetamol synthesis from N‐acetylsulfanilic acid? [closed]

C can be converted to D with NaOH and heating at 300 °C. What is the mechanism of the reaction?
0
votes
1answer
53 views

What antimicrobial can be readily synthesized in a school laboratory for a project on antimicrobial resistance? [closed]

I am currently a student studying at a high school hoping to do a project on antimicrobial compound synthesis to use in investigating antimicrobial resistance in E. coli strains. I am hoping to ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Why is Amphotericin B insoluble in water in the pH range that makes it zwitterionic?

Here is the structure of Amphotericin B, with its carboxylic acid and amine groups circled in red: According to this source, The carboxylic acid group has a pKa of 5.5 and the amine group has a pKa ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Reason for adding TFAA in this synthesis pathway?

I have included a short part from a synthetic pathway from: https://synarchive.com/syn/112 $\ce{Mg3N2}$ reacts with $\ce{MeOH}$ to liberate $\ce{NH3}$ which I believe is used in nucleophilic ...
6
votes
2answers
243 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...
-1
votes
1answer
33 views

Protein drug conjugate exercise

I am supposed to draw the structure of a derivative of the following structure which could be used to make a protein drug conjugate. And then I should draw the reaction for the protein modification. ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Translating from milligrams in the pill to Ki at the receptor

Many places (e.g. Wikipedia) report the action of a drug on the various receptors, transporters, ion channels, and the like in terms of the Ki(nM). (This is for drugs that act primarily through such ...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

How are cyclodextrins used to form inclusion complexes with drug molecules?

I'm talking about practical application. A cyclodextrin molecule hosts a drug molecule inside of it in order to increase solubility and stability of the drug. But how do we make sure this inclusion ...
5
votes
1answer
39 views

Carbon 11 radiolabeled inhaled Beta-2 agonist or corticosteroids, is it possible?

Background Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive imaging modality that can provide in vivo quantitative information of biological processes at a biochemical level. PET relies upon ...
3
votes
0answers
114 views

How stable is Remdesivir when vial vacuum is broken and/or it is reconstituted with sterile water?

I was recently looking at how long can Remdesivir be stored in its different forms. I came up across several articles provided by the FDA and Gilead Sciences and others. What caught my eye was the ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

About the acidity of Sultiame [closed]

Why is sulthiam base even hough sulfur can accept the electron by resonance from nitrogen like carbonyl group do?
29
votes
1answer
3k views

Why is heroin a more potent drug than morphine, despite having a similar structure?

The structures of heroin and morphine are quite similar, with heroin being formed by acetylation of morphine: Why is heroin so much more potent than morphine, when their structures are so similar? ...
8
votes
2answers
253 views

Why are drugs mixed with their sodium salts?

I have come across quite a few drugs that are of the form $\ce{HA + NaA}$, where $\ce{A}$ is your target organic compound. A few examples of this are: Carmicide which is a mixture of Sodium Citrate ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

API formulations - are excipients required

I have the following API's Itraconazole, Ivermectin, Fenofibrate, Pyrvinium Pamoate,  Sulfasalazine, Artesunate,  All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Doxycycline,  Atovaquone,  Extremestane, Syrosingopine and ...
1
vote
1answer
157 views

How does Combinatorial Chemistry differ from Rational Drug Design?

I stumbled on Vertex Pharmaceuticals - Wikipedia. It was one of the first biotech firms to use an explicit strategy of rational drug design rather than combinatorial chemistry. Then I looked up ...
0
votes
2answers
97 views

Are ethyl iodophenylundecylate and Ethyl-10-(Iodophenylundecanoate) the same compound?

I have no understanding of chemistry, so these to chemical formulas mean nothing to me. What I am trying to ascertain is are these compounds the same? If not, what differences are there especially if ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What is the composition, function, and classification of “6-Thio-2-Deoxyguanosine” and “13-mer thio-phosphoramidate”? How do I learn more about them?

I am assigned the task of explaining a biomedical research paper, it is about telomere and telomerase , and it talks a lot about the molecule Thio-2-Deoxyguanosine , 13-mer thio-phosphoramidate and &...
11
votes
3answers
28k views

What is the difference between doxycycline HCl and doxycycline hyclate?

I would like to ask what are the main differences between doxycycline HCl and hyclate? I work in the pharmaceutical/veterinary raw materials industry and some clients are saying that they prefer ...
27
votes
2answers
3k views

The importance of the cold chain in the food and the pharmaceutical industry

There are these everyday things that one should know as a scientist and especially as a chemist, but which never come to light in an academic curriculum — at least not in mine. One such thing is the ...
1
vote
1answer
852 views

Number of chiral centers in penicillin V

I have often seen that in many drugs chirality plays a role. So I was trying to analyze the structure of Penicillin V. What is number of chiral centers in the structure of penicillin V? Is the ...
-1
votes
1answer
50 views

Synthesis cost of Fomepizole

Fomepizole is essential drug for methanol poisoning, I observed it cost too much like in 1000's of dollar for couple of ml. Is cost due to patents, or due to synthesis cost,structure of molecule looks ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

What is LSD-1, …, LSD-24, LSD-26, …?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was formerly often referred to as ‘LSD-25’. If it really is a (Albert Hofmann / Sandoz)'s code name (and not a combination of ‘LSD’ and usual LSD (Delysid) dosage ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Does HI-6 form a covalent adduct with acetylcholinesterase?

According to sources provided below, the oxime HI-6, or Asoxime Dichloride, as it is also called, besides being a reactivator of acetylcholinesterase that has been inhibited by organophosphorus ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

A dataset of drugs or molecules that failed the FDA approval process

I am looking for a dataset of bad drugs, the opposite of FDA approved drugs. There is this database of withdrawn drugs, but these drugs were withdrawn after making it into the market. Is there any ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Definition of throughput

I wonder what's the exact meaning of throughput in chemistry synthesis, eg. in organic synthesis or production of pharmaceutical products. For instance, what are their units? How are they measured? I'...
3
votes
0answers
74 views

How to make Lithium medication from scratch

I take lithium carbonate as a medication. I was watching an "apocalypse-style" movie recently, which made me wonder how hard it would be to make my medication from scratch if I could no ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

Meaning of "MS1 and MS2 resolution" and "MS1 and MS2: Unit" in a tandem mass-spectrometry parameter list

I'm translating a Certificate of Suitability that very briefly describes procedures used to measure several impurities in a drug substance. There is a short description of the parameters of a Gas ...
2
votes
1answer
997 views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
-1
votes
1answer
1k views

When can you use the direct flame of a Bunsen burner, and when must you boil a beaker of water first?

I'd like to ask when you would do the following: use the direct Bunsen flame to heat a substance; place the substance in a test tube, which is placed in a beaker of water, then boil the water with the ...
4
votes
1answer
437 views

What is the reaction mechanism for the hydrolysis of Amifostine?

I have to do research on a drug called Amifostine: 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylsulfanyl phosphonic acid. I'm supposed to say how the organic reaction works inside the body. I understand that it's ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

can you explain the structure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin? where are the linker boundaries?

could someone help me to decipher the structure of this molecule? I am trying to understand the structure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin: The anti-CD33 antibody is acylated with the bifunctional AcBut ...
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
5
votes
0answers
197 views

Interference of Ca-EDTA with fluoride delivery in mouthwash

The goal of fluoride mouthwash is to deliver $\ce{F-}$ to the surface of the teeth to turn hydroxyapatite in the dental enamel into fluorapatite. Typically sodium fluoride or stannous fluoride are ...
-1
votes
1answer
691 views

Wouldn't a better term for smoking Crystal meth be condensing or vaporizing?

There isn't actually any chemical reaction taking place. The meth is heated, first it melts, then it vaporizes, but in the process it doesn't mix with other chemicals. It just merely changes state. ...
0
votes
1answer
191 views

Do we get high on "methampetamine" naturally? [closed]

First off, I'm new here and I cant tell if this is a chemistry or a biology question. It's both and if I ask on biology forums, they say to ask on chemistry forums and vice versa. So sorry if this ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse-engineered?
9
votes
2answers
640 views

Synthetic route to hydroxychloroquine

This drug hydroxychloroquine has become a new burning topic of discussion as a chemistry enthusiast: I know that in an industrial preparation we need to account fpr a lot of factors like temperature, ...
-1
votes
2answers
62 views

How to publish a review article on drugs in a reputed journal? [closed]

What are the things needed to publish a review article in a journal starting from scratch ? Is it possible if i am not associated to any institution ? How long does it take and what are all the ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

Difference between docking and scoring?

I'm taking an undergraduate level class on computer based drug design. The class is more for biology students than people with a strong understanding in physics and computer science. With that said,...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Drug design methods - docking software, binding affinity [closed]

Lately I've seen videos and some articles explaining drug design. I would also like to specifically cite this guy, who isn't the most credible guy in the planet, but some of the stuff in the video ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

How does gefitinib affect the EGFR(ecptor) and why is there relapse

Gefitinib has been shown to be an effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor in a fraction (~$10$%) of non-small cell lung cancer patients. These patients are characterized as having a mutation (usually a ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views

Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Estimating protein binding and disassociation

I don't have a background in the area of drugs or pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics but I am trying to understand about protein binding. I was going through this paper. If $C_b$ is the ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

Conversion of barbituric acid to veronal

This is just out of curiosity. I have no intention or authority to do conversions. I am studying chemistry of tranquilizers, in that an important class is of barbiturates, which are also hypnotics. ...
15
votes
1answer
3k views

What was the lithium concentration in 1940's 7-Up?

I just came across this article in the New York Times, where lithium (or more correctly, lithium salts), a known anti-depressant had been added to beverages in the 1940's. They also mention that a ...