Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

22
votes
2answers
15k views

Why formulate drugs as HCl salts when HCl is in stomach acid?

I know there are issues of formulation and industrial processing that make it advantageous to produce many amine containing drugs as their salts rather than as freebases. And if giving the drug ...
22
votes
3answers
2k views

What are known examples of drugs that racemize/stereoconvert in vivo, and how are they converted?

It is known that although only the (S)-enantiomer of the infamous sedative thalidomide possesses teratogenic properties, it is not very useful to administer the pure (R)-enantiomer since it is ...
16
votes
1answer
1k views

Why does the sulfone ring in tazobactam open when the lactam is hydrolyzed?

One of the drugs I work with is a beta-lactam (4-membered ring with an amide bond) fused to a sulfone ring, tazobactam. It's relatively stable in water; the lactam is not significantly hydrolyzed ...
15
votes
2answers
3k views

Difference between Sildenafil and Sildenafil citrate

The data I found seems to show no difference between Sildenafil and Sildenafil citrate. But if they are the same things, why Pfizer use Sildenafil citrate instead of Sildenafil as their product Viagra?...
15
votes
3answers
910 views

What is the mechanism of action of anaesthetics?

A range of very different compounds are used in medicine as anaesthetics. They don't seem to have much in common chemically but they all seem to keep people asleep while medics are doing nasty things ...
15
votes
3answers
918 views

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease?

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease without damaging other parts of the body? If so, would the liquefied plaque be eliminated as regular fluid is through ...
14
votes
0answers
386 views

What was the lithium concentration in 1940's 7-Up?

I just came across this article in the New York Times, where lithium (or more correctly, lithium salts), a known anti-depressant had been added to beverages in the 1940's. They also mention that a ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

Why do most drugs (eg: oxycodone) have seemingly arbitrary names?

How do some medicines derive their names? For instance, is the name oxycodone somewhat arbitrary? I am not well-versed in Chemistry (1st semester student) but does the prefix oxy- imply some ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

What chemical properties make LSD so psychoactive?

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a well known hallucinogen and (usually) illegal psychoactive drug with the structure below: The drug is active is doses measured in micrograms in contrast to many ...
11
votes
3answers
837 views

Can we prolong life? [closed]

This is rather a bunch of questions that I decided to post on Chemistry StackExchange since I thought the chemists would have the most knowledge about the chemical processes of life. So recently I ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

Effect of enatiomers in pharmaceuticals [closed]

Often (or always?) one enantiomer of a certain drug will be effective and the other ineffective or harmful. The famous example is thalidomide, where one enantiomer caused mutilation of the unborn ...
11
votes
1answer
162 views

How can I tell which parts of this example drug are necessary parts of its pharmacophore?

$\hspace{10mm}$ $\hspace{10mm}$(Click image for larger version) This picture identifies a generic drug-enzyme complex taken from an exam script. There is no name given. One part of the exam question ...
10
votes
3answers
8k views

What does it mean for meth or any other compound to be 'pure'?

In Breaking Bad, Walter White can cook $99.1\%$ pure meth. In general what does it mean for a substance to be pure? In this case, what exactly does it mean for meth to be pure? Does higher purity mean ...
10
votes
2answers
3k views

Is ciprofloxacin acidic or basic?

I would expect an aqueous solution of ciprofloxacin to be basic for the following reasons: The carboxyl group has pKa = 6.09 and the secondary amino group has pKa = 8.74. Because 8.74 is further from ...
10
votes
1answer
377 views

What general uses do beta-lactam functional groups have?

I am currently working on a mechanistic study that deals with stereoselective $\beta$-lactam formation. I am well aware that there is a class of antibiotics, that involve this particular functional ...
10
votes
2answers
697 views

Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
10
votes
1answer
200 views

Why is there a comparative lack of variety in positive counterions in drugs?

Pharmaceutical salts are important in the process of drug development. Using different chemical species to neutralise the parent drug can produce a diverse series of compounds, and this process is ...
10
votes
0answers
80 views

Is there a structured data source containing information on the World Health Organisation's Stability Testing Policies?

Hoping to automate some product testing guidance software, I've been attempting to find a (hopefully live, up-to-date) Database, Web-service, or other structured data source containing the ...
8
votes
3answers
23k views

What is the difference between doxycycline HCl and doxycycline hyclate?

I would like to ask what are the main differences between doxycycline HCl and hyclate? I work in the pharmaceutical/veterinary raw materials industry and some clients are saying that they prefer ...
8
votes
2answers
566 views

How is molecular orbital theory used in drug research?

I was reading up on MO theory and came across a particular section: Application: Computational Chemistry In Drug Design While the descriptions of bonding described in this chapter involve many ...
8
votes
2answers
808 views

Can I successfully use a humidifier to distribute caffeine to wake someone up without the usual morning drowsiness?

Would I have any success putting coffee in a humidifier? Or perhaps water mixed with caffeine powder? So I could wake up without a jolting alarm clock, feeling like I already had a cup of coffee? I ...
6
votes
2answers
918 views

Effect of direct exposure to sunlight on various drugs

Today, we were discussing optical activity in class and our teacher said that some drugs are kept in dark coloured bottles to avoid direct exposure to sunlight. Same is the case with some other drugs ...
6
votes
1answer
186 views

Could muscarine be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

According to Wikipedia, "Muscarine poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, ...
6
votes
1answer
423 views

Where did the INN name of fentanyl come from?

Fentanyl is a potent anilidopiperidine opioid. Where did its INN name come from? Figure 1: Fentanyl I know that the INN name of paracetamol came from its chemical name para-acetylaminophenol (par-...
6
votes
1answer
215 views

How does Rosuvastatin 5 S-lactone form in human body?

I've searched lots of free resources online but cannot find the answer. the top compound is Rosuvastatin. Some websites say it is metabolized by the enzyme CYP2C9, but I can't figure out how a ...
5
votes
2answers
527 views

Software for compound database creation\enumeration

The only program I have found is Plexus Suite from chemaxon. (I asked for trial, but no answer to me yet). The task is: create variation of compounds, where is scaffold and different substituents: ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Which poison was used in the failed attempt to assassinate Khaled Mashal of Hamas?

This question is both historical and chemistry-related, but I'm posting it here because I am more interested in the chemical part: In 1997, Israel tried to assassinate Khaled Mashal, a high-rank ...
5
votes
1answer
143 views

In Goodman and Gilman what does R,S-citalopram refer to?

In Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12e R,S-citalopram is referred to. The problem is that from what I am aware of citalopram only has one stereocentre, and hence I am ...
5
votes
2answers
718 views

What is the active ingredient in this “stimulant?”

It is an easily defensible argument that this is a medical question rather than a chemistry one, however, I feel that it leans ever so slightly towards chemistry, and so I posted it here. There is a "...
4
votes
1answer
595 views

General Alkaloid Extraction Process

I'm getting into alkaloid extraction from various ethnobotanicals. It is a bit frustrating trying to extract alkaloids from ethnobotanicals without good guides out there, and I wanted to make my own ...
4
votes
2answers
899 views

Why can curcumin cross the blood-brain barrier, but not congo red?

I've read that both congo red and curcumin are able to inhibit the clumping together of amyloid $\mathrm{β_{42}}$ in the brain, which would otherwise result in Alzheimer's disease. Apparently, congo ...
4
votes
1answer
735 views

Regarding the mechanism for biological activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine

Graham Patrick explains the mechanism for the activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine in his book Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry as follows: Some amines such as tyramine , amphetamine ...
4
votes
1answer
717 views

How does the acidity of soft drinks not affect certain drugs, such as opiates? What about drugs and stomach acid?

Here's a very random introduction. I heard the term, "dirty Sprite" (it's some rap album/slang term) on a YouTube advertisement. I Googled "dirty Sprite", and it's apparently a recreational drug: ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Determine compound acidity based on structure

In an exercise I have the following structures Moclobemide: Paracetamol: Hexobarbital: I know for example by heart that paracetamol is an acid. What is the best approach in determination of ...
4
votes
0answers
465 views

degradation of sertraline

The picture above is a drug called Setraline. Suggest a likely mode of degradation of sertraline hydrochloride alone in aqueous solution, giving likely structures of the degradation products. From my ...
3
votes
2answers
283 views

What is the origin of the naming of deoxycorticosterone acetate?

Deoxy- means the compound misses an oxygen comparing to the name without the prefix. Acetate means ethanoate in IUPAC language. Many biologists still abide old rules and call it acetate. And finally, ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Why do pharmaceutical drugs have a expiration date?

Every now and then you reach into the bathroom cabinet to find that some pill or ointment you where planning to use has gone past its expiration date. I am interested whether this expiration date has ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Chirality on Propranolol

I'm a bit confused when asked to specify the chiral carbons on this sketch of Propranolol as I'm not sure how the $\ce{H3C}$ and $\ce{CH3}$ play in if they are reversed in the name like that...Does ...
3
votes
1answer
503 views

Structure of aminoglycosides

Attached is the structure of one aminoglycosides, kanamycin. I understand that the ring binds to 4 position of 2-DOS is numbered with prime (') and sugar that links to 4 or 5 position of 2-DOS is ...
3
votes
1answer
143 views

Is there a difference between anti-anxiety and anti-depression drugs? [closed]

[PREFACE- I've already asked this on Health.SE, but I've drawn a blank there. The place is practically deserted. Also, this is NOT a personal medical question; I'm simply trying to understand the ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is acetylsalicylic acid still more acid than benzoic acid?

In this question, it is explained why salicylic acid is a stronger acid than benzoic acid. So, why acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), whose conjugate base cannot hydrogen bond since there is no hydrogen, ...
3
votes
1answer
191 views

Does hydroxytyrosol have the same neurotoxicity potential as dopamine?

It has the catechol group, and it's the oxidation of the catechol group that makes dopamine produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxytyrosol isn't that different from dopamine (the distal N ...
3
votes
1answer
357 views

What is the reaction mechanism for the hydrolysis of Amifostine?

I have to do research on a drug called Amifostine: 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylsulfanyl phosphonic acid. I'm supposed to say how the organic reaction works inside the body. I understand that it ...
3
votes
2answers
69 views

Why would diclofenac have a higher skin permeability when formulated as diclofenac epolamine rather than diclofenac sodium?

There is a suggestion on the literature that the formation of ion pairs creates a permeation enhancement. Usually only non-ionised compounds penetrate the skin. Is it possible that the conjugate ...
3
votes
2answers
178 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...
3
votes
0answers
234 views

Combining amphetamine and MAOIs

Could combining amphetamine and a (possibly selective) MAOI (MonoAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) increase the amphetamines potency without serious toxic side effects? If so by what factor, and would this be ...
3
votes
0answers
1k views

What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
3
votes
0answers
180 views

How much hydrolysis will likely occur of the following bonds at pH 1-4 in the time period of 1-3 hours?

The bonds are: (I have given pictures of what I mean in case there's any ambiguity that I leave open in these questions. Also so that if you want to number the R groups you've got a head-start) ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the industrial yield of paracetamol?

Anyone know how I can find out the typical yield of paracetamol (acetaminophen) from the acetylation of 4-aminophenol? Please provide the source if you happen to know!
2
votes
1answer
79 views

What compounds do Nor1 and Nor2 citalopram refer to?

In Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th Edition pg. 406, two drugs, nor1-citalopram and nor2-citalopram are referred to but I have no idea what they are. Could somebody ...