Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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2
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1answer
797 views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
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1answer
49 views

When can you use the direct flame of a Bunsen burner, and when must you boil a beaker of water first?

I'd like to ask when you would do the following: use the direct Bunsen flame to heat a substance; place the substance in a test tube, which is placed in a beaker of water, then boil the water with the ...
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0answers
34 views

How is acetylsalicylic acid, which is used to manufacture aspirin tablets, obtained industrially? [closed]

I'm currently doing a research paper into methods to synthesize acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) under the premise of green chemistry. I've decided to base the 'worthiness' of my investigation on ...
4
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1answer
406 views

What is the reaction mechanism for the hydrolysis of Amifostine?

I have to do research on a drug called Amifostine: 2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylsulfanyl phosphonic acid. I'm supposed to say how the organic reaction works inside the body. I understand that it's ...
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0answers
10 views

Structural formula conventions used in drug companies [duplicate]

Can someone tell me what that cross like double line represents in this structural formula? And what is that tripplet of lines all about, between O and HC?
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1answer
29 views

can you explain the structure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin? where are the linker boundaries?

could someone help me to decipher the structure of this molecule? I am trying to understand the structure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin: The anti-CD33 antibody is acylated with the bifunctional AcBut ...
3
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0answers
35 views

Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
5
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0answers
112 views

Interference of Ca-EDTA with fluoride delivery in mouthwash

The goal of fluoride mouthwash is to deliver $\ce{F-}$ to the surface of the teeth to turn hydroxyapatite in the dental enamel into fluorapatite. Typically sodium fluoride or stannous fluoride are ...
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1answer
28 views

Wouldn't a better term for smoking Crystal meth be condensing or vaporizing?

There isn't actually any chemical reaction taking place. The meth is heated, first it melts, then it vaporizes, but in the process it doesn't mix with other chemicals. It just merely changes state. ...
0
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1answer
161 views

Do we get high on “methampetamine” naturally? [closed]

First off, I'm new here and I cant tell if this is a chemistry or a biology question. It's both and if I ask on biology forums, they say to ask on chemistry forums and vice versa. So sorry if this ...
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1answer
2k views

Crystal meth in Breaking Bad [closed]

Can good quality crystal meth really be made as in Breaking Bad? Can a pharmaceutical drug really be reverse-engineered?
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2answers
323 views

Synthetic route to hydroxychloroquine

This drug hydroxychloroquine has become a new burning topic of discussion as a chemistry enthusiast: I know that in an industrial preparation we need to account fpr a lot of factors like temperature, ...
5
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2answers
195 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...
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2answers
51 views

How to publish a review article on drugs in a reputed journal? [closed]

What are the things needed to publish a review article in a journal starting from scratch ? Is it possible if i am not associated to any institution ? How long does it take and what are all the ...
4
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2answers
155 views

Why are drugs mixed with their sodium salts?

I have come across quite a few drugs that are of the form $\ce{HA + NaA}$, where $\ce{A}$ is your target organic compound. A few examples of this are: Carmicide which is a mixture of Sodium Citrate ...
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0answers
22 views

Difference between docking and scoring?

I'm taking an undergraduate level class on computer based drug design. The class is more for biology students than people with a strong understanding in physics and computer science. With that said,...
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1answer
46 views

Drug design methods - docking software, binding affinity [closed]

Lately I've seen videos and some articles explaining drug design. I would also like to specifically cite this guy, who isn't the most credible guy in the planet, but some of the stuff in the video ...
1
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1answer
72 views

How does gefitinib affect the EGFR(ecptor) and why is there relapse

Gefitinib has been shown to be an effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor in a fraction (~$10$%) of non-small cell lung cancer patients. These patients are characterized as having a mutation (usually a ...
2
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0answers
39 views

Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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0answers
14 views

Find drugs that have a particular solvent in a database [closed]

Is there a database where I can filter drugs for animal/human use by what ingredients/solvents they have? I'm specifically looking for all the drugs with a specific solvent/chemical compound.
1
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1answer
38 views

Estimating protein binding and disassociation

I don't have a background in the area of drugs or pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics but I am trying to understand about protein binding. I was going through this paper. If $C_b$ is the ...
0
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1answer
73 views

Conversion of barbituric acid to veronal

This is just out of curiosity. I have no intention or authority to do conversions. I am studying chemistry of tranquilizers, in that an important class is of barbiturates, which are also hypnotics. ...
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0answers
30 views

Understanding Overage in Tablet coating process

I understand that overage is included in preparation of tablets to account for losses in the delivery lines. But how do I apply them into calculations ? For example, I am trying to find out the amount ...
14
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1answer
951 views

What was the lithium concentration in 1940's 7-Up?

I just came across this article in the New York Times, where lithium (or more correctly, lithium salts), a known anti-depressant had been added to beverages in the 1940's. They also mention that a ...
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0answers
23 views

(API) Assay & (API) Content Uniformity on tablets weight in pharmaceutical processes

From what know, Both assay and content uniformity are directly proportional to tablet weight. I want to know what’s the difference in these two different forms of API testing in tablets. I only know ...
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2answers
2k views

Effect of enatiomers in pharmaceuticals [closed]

Often (or always?) one enantiomer of a certain drug will be effective and the other ineffective or harmful. The famous example is thalidomide, where one enantiomer caused mutilation of the unborn ...
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0answers
30 views

Racemic mixture vs enantiomers in drugs [duplicate]

a racemic mixture has 50-50% of the 2 different enantiomers. There are racemate drugs out there in the world. The misunderstanding I have is that usually 1 out of the 2 enantiomers molecules have a ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the chemical equation for penicillin? [closed]

For our chemistry homework, we have to write the chemical equation for Penicillin.
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21 views

Chemical interaction between Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside

Some supplement companies are putting a combinations of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene into the same capsule. Considering the stomach acid, water, body temperature, etc. I am wondering if ...
6
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1answer
2k views

Which poison was used in the failed attempt to assassinate Khaled Mashal of Hamas?

This question is both historical and chemistry-related, but I'm posting it here because I am more interested in the chemical part: In 1997, Israel tried to assassinate Khaled Mashal, a high-rank ...
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0answers
22 views

Cleaning of chlorbutyl plungers

This is my first post, so please bear with me. At work I have some chlorobutyl plungers that I need to clean from any residual material that might be left after production. A colleague of mine told ...
7
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1answer
115 views

Preparation of Effexor

I take venlafaxine (Effexor) as medication, and having wrapped up 2 semesters of Organic Chemistry I thought it might be fun to design a synthesis for it. A picture of venlafaxine: I came up with the ...
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1answer
226 views

Is scopolamine same as scopolamine hydrobromide?

Is scopolamine extracted with methanol or acetone from Datura or Brugmansia scopolamine free base or scopolamine hydrobromide? If you take a look at the Wikipedia page for hyoscine, the Synonyms part ...
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1answer
106 views

What chemicals are in anesthetic drugs [closed]

What chemicals are there in an anesthetic drug and how it reduces the pain of a person? Are the chemicals used in it safely, dangerous or both?
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0answers
83 views

Is there a structured data source containing information on the World Health Organisation's Stability Testing Policies?

Hoping to automate some product testing guidance software, I've been attempting to find a (hopefully live, up-to-date) Database, Web-service, or other structured data source containing the ...
3
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2answers
75 views

Why would diclofenac have a higher skin permeability when formulated as diclofenac epolamine rather than diclofenac sodium?

There is a suggestion on the literature that the formation of ion pairs creates a permeation enhancement. Usually only non-ionised compounds penetrate the skin. Is it possible that the conjugate ...
2
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1answer
503 views

In the graph provided, which of the substances is the most efficient in acting as an antacid?

If every dot represents the addition of 0.1 g of the respective base. I suppose that the best would be the one that reaches the highest pH, in the shortest time, for example Calcium Carbonate, but if ...
6
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1answer
466 views

Where did the INN name of fentanyl come from?

Fentanyl is a potent anilidopiperidine opioid. Where did its INN name come from? Figure 1: Fentanyl I know that the INN name of paracetamol came from its chemical name para-acetylaminophenol (par-...
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2answers
1k views

How to represent a 3D model of cocaine?

For my AP Chemistry class we were told to make a molecular diagram that was "better than excellent" and the rest is up to us (we could choose the molecule and how we wanted to represent it). My group ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Can I successfully use a humidifier to distribute caffeine to wake someone up without the usual morning drowsiness?

Would I have any success putting coffee in a humidifier? Or perhaps water mixed with caffeine powder? So I could wake up without a jolting alarm clock, feeling like I already had a cup of coffee? I ...
3
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2answers
296 views

What is the origin of the naming of deoxycorticosterone acetate?

Deoxy- means the compound misses an oxygen comparing to the name without the prefix. Acetate means ethanoate in IUPAC language. Many biologists still abide old rules and call it acetate. And finally, ...
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0answers
68 views

How many natural products are there in existence? [closed]

Hi I'm doing a project on natural products and I'm wondering if somewhere there is at least an estimated number of how many exist? If this exists somewhere can you please provide a reference. ...
10
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2answers
4k views

Is ciprofloxacin acidic or basic?

I would expect an aqueous solution of ciprofloxacin to be basic for the following reasons: The carboxyl group has pKa = 6.09 and the secondary amino group has pKa = 8.74. Because 8.74 is further from ...
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2answers
86 views

Are ethyl iodophenylundecylate and Ethyl-10-(Iodophenylundecanoate) the same compound?

I have no understanding of chemistry, so these to chemical formulas mean nothing to me. What I am trying to ascertain is are these compounds the same? If not, what differences are there especially if ...
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1answer
331 views

What is the solubility of quinine suphate in 98% ethanol?

I have a result from an experiment that really bothers me, yet I found no sources online that can explain the situation. While quinine is relatively soluble in ethanol because they are both non-...
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0answers
684 views

What is LSD-1, …, LSD-24, LSD-26, …?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was formerly often referred to as ‘LSD-25’. If it really is a (Albert Hofmann / Sandoz)'s code name (and not a combination of ‘LSD’ and usual LSD (Delysid) dosage ...
4
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1answer
814 views

General Alkaloid Extraction Process

I'm getting into alkaloid extraction from various ethnobotanicals. It is a bit frustrating trying to extract alkaloids from ethnobotanicals without good guides out there, and I wanted to make my own ...
13
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2answers
3k views

Why do most drugs (eg: oxycodone) have seemingly arbitrary names?

How do some medicines derive their names? For instance, is the name oxycodone somewhat arbitrary? I am not well-versed in Chemistry (1st semester student) but does the prefix oxy- imply some ...
11
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3answers
10k views

What does it mean for meth or any other compound to be 'pure'?

In Breaking Bad, Walter White can cook $99.1\%$ pure meth. In general what does it mean for a substance to be pure? In this case, what exactly does it mean for meth to be pure? Does higher purity mean ...
1
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1answer
65 views

How do I get Mass spectrometry graph, history, and Infra-red spectroscopy graph for Secnidazole?

My chemistry teacher wants me to create an academic poster for a recently-discovered biologically important organic molecule with chirality that is relatively small and is also recent. Secnidazole (...