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Questions tagged [distillation]

For questions about the process of distillation. For the distillation process used in metal refining, also use the [metallurgy] tag.

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Un-denaturing industrial alcohol

I have a question regarding the denaturation of industrial ethanol with methanol to discourage its consumption. The boiling point of methanol is 64.7 °C, while the boiling point of ethanol is 78.37 °...
René's user avatar
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12 votes
2 answers
9k views

Proper use of vacuum pump during vacuum distillation

I am preparing to do a vacuum distillation and am unsure exactly how to manage the vacuum. The vacuum pump I have is a two-stage rotary vane pump which is capable of 250 microns or lower. It has a ...
Shaka Boom's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
2k views

Enrichment of D2O

The Wikipedia page for deuterium oxide (heavy water) says that its boiling point is 374.5 K and the one for ordinary water is 373.13 K. Is there a way of distillation which we can use to enrich ...
Santosh Kumar's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
602 views

Do light and heavy water form an azeotrope?

(Interested in the general principle too, not just for water and its variants, but with particular emphasis on it.) When you distill a weak ethanol-in-water solution, you get a condensate that's ...
Bernd Jendrissek's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Vacuum distillation apparatus selection and configuration

I want to assemble a "hobbyist-level" vacuum distillation apparatus for extracting small volumes of "typical" solvents (e.g., water, alcohols, ketones, diols). I already have standard lab glassware ...
feetwet's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why is NMP developing a yellow color after distillation?

I got an aqueous mother liquor of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) from some reaction I was running and when I redistilled it under vacuum, it came out colorless but turned yellow the next day. I am ...
Pulkit Sharma's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
197 views

Distilling milligram quantities of oil like it's late 1970s

In a currently retracted* manuscript by Tomas Hudlicky [1, Retraction Watch] the following has been noted: Fifty years ago professors took an active part in all laboratory instructions and they ...
andselisk's user avatar
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6 votes
3 answers
15k views

Isopropyl alcohol forming peroxides

I read in many MSDS that Isopropyl alcohol tends to form peroxides (by reacting to air OR light) which may explode when they reach a given concentration. For example: http://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/...
user51166's user avatar
  • 457
6 votes
2 answers
319 views

Alcohol (ethanol) distillation: mystery congener

I regularly home-distil small amounts of potable alcohol (ethanol), mainly from fermented sugar(s) solutions (the 'wash'). My still is a box standard, $4.5\mathrm{L}$ electrically heated (safety!), ...
Gert's user avatar
  • 1,927
6 votes
4 answers
530 views

To heat or not to heat; distillation?

One of the questions in a recent past paper I completed was: One way to make water from the reservoir suitable for drinking is by distillation. Describe how water is distilled. And I answered ...
minseong's user avatar
  • 223
6 votes
1 answer
951 views

steam distillation of 4-bromoaniline , why render it basic prior

In the multistage synthesis of 4-bromobenzenamine, why must the solution be rendered alkaline prior to the steam distillation after the hydrolysis of 4-bromo-N-ethanoylbenzenamine?
user16513's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
14k views

How to increase the concentration of HCl

Today I have purchased some $\ce{HCl(aq)}$ on my local market with a concentration of 23%. However, I need to obtain a concentration of 37% in order to perform an experiment. Can I use distillation ...
creekorful's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
3k views

Does distilled water still have ions in it? Does deionized water lack ions, but still have other "stuff" in it?

This isn't a question about the difference between Deionized and Distilled water, my hope is that for once it's actually a chemistry question related to this topic. Distilled water is created by ...
petlahk's user avatar
  • 67
5 votes
1 answer
139 views

N2O production vs air distillation

After producing nitrogen by distilling air, how is that nitrogen used with the oxygen to yield nitrous oxide ($\ce{N2O}$)? I see $\ce{N2O}$ available in different purities from various suppliers, but ...
jbthebullfrog's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
801 views

Why is ethanol distilled off before adding water in the first step of a malonic synthesis?

I am doing a malonic synthesis shown below, and I wonder why I should distill ethanol off before adding water in the first step of the reaction (First I add absolute ethanol and solid sodium).
Tino Petersson's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
282 views

Drying a distillate liquid

So I'm carrying out the distillation of some essential oil and I have to remove the water content in it. The usual method is using diethyl ether but I'm looking for a greener method. What can I do?
Ari Ben Canaan's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
11k views

How to calculate mole ratio of two volatile compounds in distillation?

I have two volatile compounds (such as ethyl acetate and ethyl propionate). I am going to separate these compounds by simple and fractional distillation. How do I calculate mole ratios of the two ...
Rachel Thai's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
3k views

Condenser length?

I notice that Graham condensers tend to come in three main sizes: 200mm, 300mm and 400mm. What are the relative merits of each size? My typical application is vacuum distillation of organic solvents ...
Shaka Boom's user avatar
  • 2,324
4 votes
2 answers
3k views

Internal vs external steam distillation

To extract essential oils from plant matter (amongst other purposes), steam distillation is often used. I've seen a lot of different glassware setups for this. I've sometimes seen them broken into two ...
rlkw1024's user avatar
  • 141
4 votes
2 answers
3k views

Choosing a vacuum pump for fractional distillation

I have a fractional distillation setup. I would like to purify a small mixture ($\pu{\approx 100-150 mL}$) of high boiling point compounds (between $200$ and $\pu{300^\circ C}$). The one that ...
klaus's user avatar
  • 71
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Simple distillation & azeotropes

In my organic chemistry lab, we recently had an experiment where we were given a mixture of 50:50 ethanol & ethylene glycol. We were supposed to perform a simple distillation to calculate the ...
lalalalalla's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
222 views

NMR and dienes to isolate certain isotopes?

I am looking to achieve isotope separation using transition states. In the rxn of dienes with halogens, based on the temperature, the dienes can create a thermodynamic product or a kinetic product. ...
Young Jun Lee's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
752 views

Stratification of gasses by mass [closed]

Suppose a homogenous mixture of mutually non-reactive gases is isolated in a container so that there are no external kinetic forces (vibration or rotation) that create turbulence or other mixing ...
feetwet's user avatar
  • 3,300
3 votes
1 answer
347 views

How can I read an Anschütz/Bennert manometer and how can I make sense of it?

Recently I have come across a mercury-filled manometer for vacuum distillation that somewhat resembles a U-tube shaped manometer, but with one arm sealed and completely filled with mercury. Searching ...
Fractal's user avatar
  • 402
3 votes
1 answer
489 views

Freeze distillation: Does efficiency depend on solubility?

I was surprised to learn that freeze distillation has the same inefficiencies as vapor distillation: Namely, that it is impossible to get two miscible fluids to fully separate in one "pass" of ...
feetwet's user avatar
  • 3,300
3 votes
1 answer
299 views

Fractional distillation of a product differs from the components listed in the SDS. What am I doing wrong?

I recently bought a product called Prestone De-Icer for Windows and Wipers which claimed to contain Methanol. I was puzzled when using it to note that it did not smell much like Methanol so I looked ...
Kintekobo's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

Does yeast, sugar and water really produce any noticable/significant amounts of methanol?

I just read this question on Quora about distilling during pre-industrial age, which reminded me about multiple discussions I have heard or read during the years about whether the fermentation process ...
d-b's user avatar
  • 217
3 votes
1 answer
340 views

Distillation: temperature not reaching azeotrope boiling point

I ran a simple distillation of $\ce{HBr}$/water mixture because I wanted to purify it. Boiling point of azeotropic hydrobromic acid is approx. $\pu{124 ^\circ C}$, however my distillation ran almost ...
Halo's user avatar
  • 69
3 votes
1 answer
3k views

Isopropyl alcohol still leaves evaporation residue after distillation

I just finished distilling two liters of IPA because evaporating 5 ml on a watch glass revealed it to contain quite a bit of dissolved impurities. However, it still leaves some residue, even though I ...
user62840's user avatar
  • 101
3 votes
1 answer
270 views

Separation of methanol–water mix in a plate distillation column

I conducted an experiment to separate methanol and water. I am trying to determine the mole fraction of the distillate collected but having a little trouble with the calculation. The flow rate was $\...
Emm's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
1 answer
88 views

How does electrophoretic separation work in terms of separating soil into minerals?

I found this diagram and would like to know how it works with soil. Google searches yield protein/biology things, anyone know how this method would work with soil?
eromod's user avatar
  • 305
3 votes
0 answers
302 views

Is it possible to vacuum distill citric acid?

I'm wondering if it is at all possible to vacuum distill citric acid without the slightest decomposition; it is something that can easily be done in a small lab with widely available equipment. I've ...
Hans's user avatar
  • 1,097
3 votes
0 answers
177 views

Do theoretical plates required to obtain a pure product decrease under vacuum distillation?

For this question I am using Ethanol as an example. The following is the vapor-liquid equilibrium diagram for Ethanol under atmospheric pressures. Under reduced pressures do the number of theoretical ...
SubZero's user avatar
  • 139
3 votes
1 answer
2k views

Laboratory setup for the distillation of sulfuric acid

Purification of Laboratory Chemicals, 5th Edition, by Armarego, reads (p. 53): Reagents such as water, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, perchloric acid, and sulfuric acid can be purified via ...
Hans's user avatar
  • 1,097
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Vacuum-jacketed distilling column

I was looking for some distillation equipment on Sigma Aldrich because I wanted to perform some vacuum distillation, when I came across a vacuum-jacketed distilling column. Now as far as I understood ...
Jori's user avatar
  • 6,203
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Deuterium depleted water through fractional distilation

Could a packed fractional still of the same type used to distill ethanol to 95% be used to produce deuterium depleted drinking water? The still has a 1000 watt electric heating element and has a ...
L Pottle's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
173 views

Could fluorinated gases be removed from the atmosphere? [closed]

Background Among all the discussion of 'greenhouse gas removal' (GGR) to aid climate change mitigation, almost all is concerned with removal of carbon dioxide. There are one or two mentions of ...
Cedric Knight's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
734 views

Distilling small volume

I have 50 ml of a compound I would like to purify. Since the impurities presents have close boiling points (b.p.), I have to use fractional distillation. Am I going to lose significant quantity of my ...
klaus's user avatar
  • 71
2 votes
1 answer
219 views

Does Dean Kamen's Slingshot really filter virtually everything?

According to Dean Kamen (in the movie http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3242934/) and on the Net (http://www.popsci.com/article/science/pure-genius-how-dean-kamens-invention-could-bring-clean-water-millions)...
Peter Fleix's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
90 views

Synthesis of phosphonate salt not working

I have tried four times in the past few weeks to synthesise 2-ethoxyvinyl phosphonyl dichloride by reacting ethyl vinyl ether with phosphorus pentachloride in toluene. I have been following the ...
because_its_science's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
13k views

Cracking of dicyclopentadiene - was my simple Liebig condenser distillation setup adequate?

I recently did a distillation of dicyclopentadiene (bp 166 °C) to get cyclopentadiene (bp 40 °C). The setup as instructed by my supervisor consisted of a simple water-cooled Liebig condenser. Oil bath ...
Reto Höhener's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
249 views

How does steam distillation work to extract a substance from a mixture, below its boiling point?

This is a small confusion I have regarding steam distillation. Let us consider a sample of water mixed with an organic compound that is insoluble in water. Let us also consider that the boiling point ...
donthababakka's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
119 views

Fractional Distillation Question

We're covering fractional distillation in my physical chemistry class. I'm confused regarding this diagram: From your starting point, you heat the binary mixture (in this case benzene and toluene) to ...
GMoss's user avatar
  • 311
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

How can I remove water vapor from an airstream without a cold trap?

I'm trying to perform vacuum distillation at home with a rotary vane vacuum pump. In order to not ruin my vacuum pump, solvent vapor (in my case, water) should be removed from the air before it ...
honeybees's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
4k views

Most efficient way to purify household vinegar: distillation or freezing?

I am aware that there are better ways to purify acetic acid out of a water-acid mixture than these, but which one out of distillation (using heat) and fractional freezing (using cold) would gain a ...
sadljkfhalskdjfh's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
98 views

Does the distillation of alcohol cause the fractioning of isotopes and carbon-12 enrichment?

In water, distillation causes fractioning of the $\ce{^{18}O}/\ce{^{16}O}$ oxygen isotopes (Wikipedia). Does something similar happen to the $\ce{^{13}C}/\ce{^{12}C}$ and possibly $\ce{^{14}C}$ ...
HannesH's user avatar
  • 483
2 votes
1 answer
168 views

Will distillation do the job of purifying the water?

I asked about my sophisticated water purification system for a generation ship on Worldbuilding Stack Exchange, and somebody mentioned this: If you're gonna go to all the trouble of distilling it, ...
Caters's user avatar
  • 2,113
2 votes
1 answer
145 views

Double surface in the pressure temperature concentration curve for a binary mixture

In the 3 dimensional diagram given, when a constant pressure plane intersects with the double surface, it produces a looped curve without a maxima or minima. What is the double surface and how is the ...
Sambuddha Mookherji's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
166 views

What is this glassware between flask and condenser to collect liquid?

I've been trying to identify this piece of glassware for ages now. I've been combing the internet and can't seem find anything similar. It looks like some kind of adapter/collecter/trap that sits on ...
j.doe's user avatar
  • 31
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Troubles with cinnemaldehyde extraction - A few general questions

I'm trying to do a cinnemaldehyde extraction. I've tried both a simple and a steam distillation. I'm using the video: [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDoaPIKT_Xg] - as a guide. One of the main ...
Shane's user avatar
  • 35