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Questions tagged [distillation]

For questions about the process of distillation. For the distillation process used in metal refining, also use the [metallurgy] tag.

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Do theoretical plates required to obtain a pure product decrease under vacuum distillation?

For this question I am using Ethanol as an example. The following is the vapor-liquid equilibrium diagram for Ethanol under atmospheric pressures. Under reduced pressures do the number of theoretical ...
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Is there a way to form only ortho product without using fractional distillation?

Using benzene and ethane as your only source of carbon in the final molecule, synthesize the following using any useful reagents. Reaction must form pure ortho compound. I have to form the ...
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298 views

Why is ethanol distilled off before adding water in the first step of a malonic synthesis?

I am doing a malonic synthesis shown below, and I wonder why I should distill ethanol off before adding water in the first step of the reaction (First I add absolute ethanol and solid sodium).
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Is it possible to fractionally distill a compound made up of substances with very similar boiling points?

Let's say I have a solution that is made up of substances that have very similar boiling points, say less than 5 degrees apart. Is it even possible to fractionally distill those substances, say, using ...
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How to handle CO2 being evolved during vacuum distillation?

Setup: vacuum aspirator pump, distillation apparatus with stirring (instead of a bubbler). Partial vacuum around 5" Hg. What would you suggest to hold the vacuum set-point?
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Azeotropic Distillation - Am I interpreting this VLE diagram correctly?

I've been looking at ways to re-concentrate a formic acid-water binary mixture with the VLE diagram below. Am I correct in saying that to concentrate a solution of say , 40% formic acid by weight I ...
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Does the distillation of alcohol cause the fractioning of isotopes and carbon-12 enrichment?

In water, distillation causes fractioning of the $\ce{^{18}O}/\ce{^{16}O}$ oxygen isotopes (Wikipedia). Does something similar happen to the $\ce{^{13}C}/\ce{^{12}C}$ and possibly $\ce{^{14}C}$ ...
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Distillation of oxalyl chloride

May I use water as a condensing medium while distilling out oxalyl chloride? As oxalyl chloride reacts with water and the products are $\ce{HCl},$ $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO2},$ when there is a leak or ...
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What causes both components of a binary gas mix to condensate at the same time for a given composition

Okay, so recently I encountered the temperature - mole fraction diagrams for binary vapour-liquid equilibrium. For now, I only consider two-component systems where the components are very similar and ...
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Distillery Transfer Hoses

I was hoping an actual person could offer me some advice. I work in a craft distillery and I'm getting a lot of mixed information on how compatible PVC is with high-proof alcohol. It definitely seems ...
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697 views

How to get anhydrous triflic acid from triflic anhydride?

I require a small amount of triflic acid, and while other research groups do not have any, I did locate some trflic anhydride. Does anyone have a published protocol for obtaining the anhydrous acid ...
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Distillation for separating very close boiling components

When components of a mixture have very similar Boiling Points, say 2 C is distillation ever a viable separation procedure at industrial scale? Assuming one were willing to install a very tall column,...
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Can I use a Liebig condenser for condensing sulfuric acid?

I have a Liebig condenser but I read that the air cooled condenser is preferred for high temperature boiling points. My question is whether I can still use my Liebig with minimal risk... Should I just ...
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When to use chromatographic separation vs vacuum-assisted rectification distillation?

I'm trying to understand a bit more about industrial scale separation processes. One particular element I'm interested in is the question as to when chromatography (HPLC or Simulated Moving Bed) may ...
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367 views

Column pressure control in distillation

In the industry , it's important to maintain the column pressure control in the distillation column . " Pressure alterations will alter column vapour loads and temperature profiles. . So when using ...
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Will there be some ethanol evaporating before the boiling point of azeotrope? And will it bring some water with it because of the hydrogen bond?

Before the specific temperature, even if the temperature doesn't reach the boiling point of azeotrope or ethanol or water, we know that there are still some ethanol evaporate. In this time(before the ...