Questions tagged [distillation]

For questions about the process of distillation. For the distillation process used in metal refining, also use the [metallurgy] tag.

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18 views

Is the width of a Soxhlet Condenser Inherent to its Function?

Soxhlet extractors are often coupled to a specifically designed condenser with a very large lower joint. Is this inherent to it's function as a condenser in the apparatus or only because the Soxhlet ...
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52 views

What material to use to connect the vacuum pump to the glassware in a distillation?

I would like some advice on the material for a tube, to be used to connect a vacuum pump to the glassware for a vacuum distillation. It would serve a tube that does not disperse the gases (it does not ...
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3answers
7k views

How to increase the concentration of HCl

Today I have purchased some $\ce{HCl(aq)}$ on my local market with a concentration of 23%. However, I need to obtain a concentration of 37% in order to perform an experiment. Can I use distillation ...
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1answer
42 views

Laboratory setup for the distillation of sulfuric acid

Purification of Laboratory Chemicals, 5th Edition, by Armarego, reads (p. 53): Reagents such as water, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, perchloric acid, and sulfuric acid can be purified via ...
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1answer
61 views

When to use chromatographic separation vs vacuum-assisted rectification distillation?

I'm trying to understand a bit more about industrial scale separation processes. One particular element I'm interested in is the question as to when chromatography (HPLC or Simulated Moving Bed) may ...
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110 views

Distilling milligram quantities of oil like it's late 1970s

In a currently retracted* manuscript by Tomas Hudlicky [1, Retraction Watch] the following has been noted: Fifty years ago professors took an active part in all laboratory instructions and they ...
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1answer
365 views

Why is ethanol distilled off before adding water in the first step of a malonic synthesis?

I am doing a malonic synthesis shown below, and I wonder why I should distill ethanol off before adding water in the first step of the reaction (First I add absolute ethanol and solid sodium).
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44 views

can i use an isobutane stove (like jetboil) or butane blowtorch with borosilicate glass?

I don't have a bunsen burner, but have a camping stove (similar to https://www.amazon.com/Stansport-183-B-Isobutane-Backpack-Stove/dp/B004EPWM5S) and a blow torch. I'd like to do some distillation ...
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2answers
5k views

Denatured Ethyl Alcohol Purification

I have denatured ethyl alcohol which was obtained this formula; In 100 L ethyl alcohol there is 0.8 gr denatonium benzoate and 78 gr tert-Butyl alcohol. Is there any way to obtain absolute ethyl ...
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1answer
3k views

Distillation of aniline/water mixture

I read from a source that aniline and water can be separated by steam distillation. But isn't this senseless as steam distillation will simply add more water and make separation more difficult?
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Does the distillation of alcohol cause the fractioning of isotopes and carbon-12 enrichment?

In water, distillation causes fractioning of the $\ce{^{18}O}/\ce{^{16}O}$ oxygen isotopes (Wikipedia). Does something similar happen to the $\ce{^{13}C}/\ce{^{12}C}$ and possibly $\ce{^{14}C}$ ...
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1answer
2k views

Most efficient way to purify household vinegar: distillation or freezing?

I am aware that there are better ways to purify acetic acid out of a water-acid mixture than these, but which one out of distillation (using heat) and fractional freezing (using cold) would gain a ...
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94 views

When exactly does the first drop of distillate appear in a distillation?

The below image (source: here) is from a fractional distillation of a mixture of two liquids, one with a boiling point of 69 degrees celsius and the other with a boiling point of 98 degrees celsius. ...
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30 views

Reason for rounded fitting at the top end of Allihn Condenser

I am purchasing an essential oil distillation setup. The Allihn Condenser at the top end, and the attached glassware, are rounded. It is supposedly 24/40. I have never seen this. If one of them broke, ...
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1answer
42 views

Why is the composition of a liquified vapor the same as that of the vapor?

In Organic Chemistry Lab Techniques (Nichols), I found this diagram. I understand that when going from Point $a$ to Point $b$, the composition becomes richer in the more volatile component (component ...
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37 views

How to handle CO2 being evolved during vacuum distillation?

Setup: vacuum aspirator pump, distillation apparatus with stirring (instead of a bubbler). Partial vacuum around 5" Hg. What would you suggest to hold the vacuum set-point?
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1answer
67 views

Why does adding salt to water help distillation?

I've been looking at instructions on how to get lanolin from fleece and a lot of the instructions mention that adding salt to the water before distillation will increase the lanolin yield. Why is this?...
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Azeotropic Distillation - Am I interpreting this VLE diagram correctly?

I've been looking at ways to re-concentrate a formic acid-water binary mixture with the VLE diagram below. Am I correct in saying that to concentrate a solution of say , 40% formic acid by weight I ...
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1answer
91 views

Distillation of methanol and water - Temperature Change

We tried the synthesis of methyl benzoate in the lab via the Fischer Esterification reaction with excess starting methanol. After 1 hour of refluxing the reactants we immediately set up a simple ...
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56 views

Distillation of oxalyl chloride

May I use water as a condensing medium while distilling out oxalyl chloride? As oxalyl chloride reacts with water and the products are $\ce{HCl},$ $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO2},$ when there is a leak or ...
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1answer
79 views

Will distillation do the job of purifying the water?

I asked about my sophisticated water purification system for a generation ship on Worldbuilding Stack Exchange, and somebody mentioned this: If you're gonna go to all the trouble of distilling it, ...
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107 views

Will there be some ethanol evaporating before the boiling point of azeotrope? And will it bring some water with it because of the hydrogen bond?

Before the specific temperature, even if the temperature doesn't reach the boiling point of azeotrope or ethanol or water, we know that there are still some ethanol evaporate. In this time(before the ...
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1answer
42 views

Separate less volatile component from distilling a mixture [closed]

Is it a strict rule that when we boil a mixture of two liquids, with one being less volatile than the other, the more volatile vapour has to form the greater portion of the total vapours? If it is so,...
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2answers
142 views

Can you heat something at alcohol bath?

I have a mixture of $\ce{Et2O},$ $\ce{EtOH}$ and water, and I want to distill off the ether. I am using a water bath so not much water is distilled over, as the boiling water is 100 °C, and the ...
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8k views

Un-denaturing industrial alcohol

I have a question regarding the denaturation of industrial ethanol with methanol to discourage its consumption. The boiling point of methanol is 64.7 °C, while the boiling point of ethanol is 78.37 °...
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241 views

Glass joint stuck in flask

I am doing distillation using system of glassware including a flask and a glass joint. Recently I've faced a problem: the glass joint stuck in the flask. I tried to remove it but it broke and hurted ...
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1answer
538 views

Distilling small volume

I have 50 ml of a compound I would like to purify. Since the impurities presents have close boiling points (b.p.), I have to use fractional distillation. Am I going to lose significant quantity of my ...
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1answer
71 views

Why does steam distillation work?

I'm aware that there is a similar question here but it didn't really answer my specific questions. I understand that steam distillation is used to separate an insoluble liquid from an aqueous solution,...
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1answer
70 views

What are the components of a labware setup for short-path distillation?

I've recently become interested in short-path distillation and have found that most kits are in the thousands of dollars. So I thought that I would compile the labware myself. I understand the theory ...
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1answer
389 views

Can I determine purity of isopropanol with a hydrometer?

Assuming I start with a known 99.8% purity of isopropanol, after recovery with a distillation apparatus, could I use a hydrometer to test for water content? If so, is there a special one I should use?
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59 views

Is there a way to form only ortho product without using fractional distillation?

Using benzene and ethane as your only source of carbon in the final molecule, synthesize the following using any useful reagents. Reaction must form pure ortho compound. I have to form the product ...
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2answers
2k views

Fractional distillation of crude oil and resulting fuel ratios

I understand from the diagram below that different fuels condense at different temperatures. But I don't know anything about crude oil (and very little about chemistry in general). Could I simply ...
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1answer
805 views

Is 99% Isopropyl Alcohol sold in stores really 99%?

My understanding is that an azeotropic mixture of isopropanol and water is 91%. This makes sense as to why there are so many brands of rubbing alcohol sold at 91%. There are also some sold as 99%, ...
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2answers
314 views

At what position in the distillation apparatus does the temperature match the boiling point of the distilled substance?

A student is separating $\ce{CHCl3}$ (bp = $\pu{61 ^{\circ}C}$) from $\ce{CHCl2CHCl2}$ (bp = $\pu{146 ^{\circ}C}$) by distillation. She has just begun to collect the first distillate in the receiving ...
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1answer
123 views

Distillation: temperature not reaching azeotrope boiling point

I ran a simple distillation of $\ce{HBr}$/water mixture because I wanted to purify it. Boiling point of azeotropic hydrobromic acid is approx. $\pu{124 ^\circ C}$, however my distillation ran almost ...
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2k views

Use of fractional distillation in organic chemistry [closed]

Can fractional distillation be used to distinguish between: 1) d/l form of a compound 2) geometrical isomers of a compoun (Cis and Trans)
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2answers
127 views

Why we don't we save water by boiling the contaminated water to get the pure steam?

I see lot of drinkable water wasted in household and industrial activities, water usually gets contaminated with detergents(and other household materials),chemical effluents released from factories . ...
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1answer
53 views

Removing water/moisture from car exhaust [closed]

I know that car exhaust is almost entirely nitrogen, water and carbon dioxide. How would I go about removing the water? Would I have to condense it off? Any devices already exist for doing so?
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1answer
70 views

Double surface in the pressure temperature concentration curve for a binary mixture

In the 3 dimensional diagram given, when a constant pressure plane intersects with the double surface, it produces a looped curve without a maxima or minima. What is the double surface and how is the ...
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1answer
252 views

Last step of nicotine extraction using DCM

After using hydro-distillation method with distilled water and NaOH, separating the extract with dichloromethane, distillate it at 40 °C/104 °F, I'm left with some yellow pale oil. I'm just wondering ...
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157 views

What is the difference, if there is, between this two distillation methods?

Reading about water vapor distillation, I found two differents approaches: Direct one Indirect one. The first has an arrange like: Here the chamber contains water and the plant. It is cooled and ...
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1answer
1k views

Isopropyl alcohol still leaves evaporation residue after distillation

I just finished distilling two liters of IPA because evaporating 5 ml on a watch glass revealed it to contain quite a bit of dissolved impurities. However, it still leaves some residue, even though I ...
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1answer
473 views

What is this glassware for a distillation apparatus called?

I'm messing around with building a solar distillation apparatus, and one of the parts I think I need looks kind of like the following, except I have no idea what it is called (and thus can't look it ...
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90 views

Do theoretical plates required to obtain a pure product decrease under vacuum distillation?

For this question I am using Ethanol as an example. The following is the vapor-liquid equilibrium diagram for Ethanol under atmospheric pressures. Under reduced pressures do the number of theoretical ...
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0answers
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What is the future of water treatment, and why we don't use enough purified sea and freshwater? [closed]

I understand thermal and membrane distillation are very expensive and that slowed down their usage, but now we can bring 100% clean energy to power them. Except the set-up, the price of materials and ...
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84 views

What causes both components of a binary gas mix to condensate at the same time for a given composition

Okay, so recently I encountered the temperature - mole fraction diagrams for binary vapour-liquid equilibrium. For now, I only consider two-component systems where the components are very similar and ...
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Enrichment of D2O

The Wikipedia page for deuterium oxide (heavy water) says that its boiling point is 374.5 K and the one for ordinary water is 373.13 K. Is there a way of distillation which we can use to enrich ...
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1answer
37 views

Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium

I have been studying flash distillation, and I am reading the VLE tables my textbook has provided. I am looking at these tables and I am not understanding the data, I think. Why is the vapour mole ...
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1k views

Distillation for separating very close boiling components

When components of a mixture have very similar Boiling Points, say 2 C is distillation ever a viable separation procedure at industrial scale? Assuming one were willing to install a very tall column,...
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390 views

Do light and heavy water form an azeotrope?

(Interested in the general principle too, not just for water and its variants, but with particular emphasis on it.) When you distill a weak ethanol-in-water solution, you get a condensate that's ...