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Questions tagged [distillation]

For questions about the process of distillation. For the distillation process used in metal refining, also use the [metallurgy] tag.

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Steam distillation [closed]

When I did the experiment of steam distillation of 15 ml bromobenzene and 25 ml water, I collected the volume of bromobenzene two times the first one is when the volume of the mixture is 25 ml and ...
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1answer
48 views

Is 99% Isopropyl Alcohol sold in stores really 99%?

My understanding is that an azeotropic mixture of isopropanol and water is 91%. This makes sense as to why there are so many brands of rubbing alcohol sold at 91%. There are also some sold as 99%, ...
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2answers
38 views

At what position in the distillation apparatus does the temperature match the boiling point of the distilled substance?

A student is separating $\ce{CHCl3}$ (bp = $\pu{61 ^{\circ}C}$) from $\ce{CHCl2CHCl2}$ (bp = $\pu{146 ^{\circ}C}$) by distillation. She has just begun to collect the first distillate in the receiving ...
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1answer
50 views

Distillation: temperature not reaching azeotrope boiling point

I ran a simple distillation of $\ce{HBr}$/water mixture because I wanted to purify it. Boiling point of azeotropic hydrobromic acid is approx. $\pu{124 ^\circ C}$, however my distillation ran almost ...
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2answers
184 views

Use of fractional distillation in organic chemistry [closed]

Can fractional distillation be used to distinguish between: 1) d/l form of a compound 2) geometrical isomers of a compoun (Cis and Trans)
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2answers
76 views

Why we don't we save water by boiling the contaminated water to get the pure steam?

I see lot of drinkable water wasted in household and industrial activities, water usually gets contaminated with detergents(and other household materials),chemical effluents released from factories . ...
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1answer
32 views

Removing water/moisture from car exhaust [closed]

I know that car exhaust is almost entirely nitrogen, water and carbon dioxide. How would I go about removing the water? Would I have to condense it off? Any devices already exist for doing so?
2
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1answer
49 views

Double surface in the pressure temperature concentration curve for a binary mixture

In the 3 dimensional diagram given, when a constant pressure plane intersects with the double surface, it produces a looped curve without a maxima or minima. What is the double surface and how is the ...
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1answer
130 views

Last step of nicotine extraction using DCM

After using hydro-distillation method with distilled water and NaOH, separating the extract with dichloromethane, distillate it at 40 °C/104 °F, I'm left with some yellow pale oil. I'm just wondering ...
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1answer
64 views

What is the difference, if there is, between this two distillation methods?

Reading about water vapor distillation, I found two differents approaches: Direct one Indirect one. The first has an arrange like: Here the chamber contains water and the plant. It is cooled and ...
3
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0answers
48 views

Do theoretical plates required to obtain a pure product decrease under vacuum distillation?

For this question I am using Ethanol as an example. The following is the vapor-liquid equilibrium diagram for Ethanol under atmospheric pressures. Under reduced pressures do the number of theoretical ...
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0answers
31 views

What is the future of water treatment, and why we don't use enough purified sea and freshwater? [closed]

I understand thermal and membrane distillation are very expensive and that slowed down their usage, but now we can bring 100% clean energy to power them. Except the set-up, the price of materials and ...
3
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1answer
200 views

Isopropyl alcohol still leaves evaporation residue after distillation

I just finished distilling two liters of IPA because evaporating 5 ml on a watch glass revealed it to contain quite a bit of dissolved impurities. However, it still leaves some residue, even though I ...
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0answers
69 views

What causes both components of a binary gas mix to condensate at the same time for a given composition

Okay, so recently I encountered the temperature - mole fraction diagrams for binary vapour-liquid equilibrium. For now, I only consider two-component systems where the components are very similar and ...
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2answers
884 views

Enrichment of D2O

The Wikipedia page for deuterium oxide (heavy water) says that its boiling point is 374.5 K and the one for ordinary water is 373.13 K. Is there a way of distillation which we can use to enrich ...
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1answer
29 views

Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium

I have been studying flash distillation, and I am reading the VLE tables my textbook has provided. I am looking at these tables and I am not understanding the data, I think. Why is the vapour mole ...
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2answers
257 views

Do light and heavy water form an azeotrope?

(Interested in the general principle too, not just for water and its variants, but with particular emphasis on it.) When you distill a weak ethanol-in-water solution, you get a condensate that's ...
2
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0answers
52 views

Is it possible to fractionally distill a compound made up of substances with very similar boiling points?

Let's say I have a solution that is made up of substances that have very similar boiling points, say less than 5 degrees apart. Is it even possible to fractionally distill those substances, say, using ...
2
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1answer
95 views

What is this glassware between flask and condenser to collect liquid?

I've been trying to identify this piece of glassware for ages now. I've been combing the internet and can't seem find anything similar. It looks like some kind of adapter/collecter/trap that sits on ...
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0answers
30 views

Distillery Transfer Hoses

I was hoping an actual person could offer me some advice. I work in a craft distillery and I'm getting a lot of mixed information on how compatible PVC is with high-proof alcohol. It definitely seems ...
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0answers
305 views

Column pressure control in distillation

In the industry , it's important to maintain the column pressure control in the distillation column . " Pressure alterations will alter column vapour loads and temperature profiles. . So when using ...
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1answer
2k views

Distillation of aniline/water mixture

I read from a source that aniline and water can be separated by steam distillation. But isn't this senseless as steam distillation will simply add more water and make separation more difficult?
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1answer
629 views

How can I remove water vapor from an airstream without a cold trap?

I'm trying to perform vacuum distillation at home with a rotary vane vacuum pump. In order to not ruin my vacuum pump, solvent vapor (in my case, water) should be removed from the air before it ...
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2answers
4k views

How to increase the concentration of HCl

Today I have purchased some $\ce{HCl(aq)}$ on my local market with a concentration of 23%. However, I need to obtain a concentration of 37% in order to perform an experiment. Can I use distillation ...
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1answer
43 views

Can liquids be made a lot purer than by fractional distilation?

Suppose you have a fused quartz tube with one closed end coiled into a spiral with a diameter of more than 10 m and you submerge it into a mixture of water and ethanol in a way that gets rid of all ...
3
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1answer
56 views

How does electrophoretic separation work in terms of separating soil into minerals?

I found this diagram and would like to know how it works with soil. Google searches yield protein/biology things, anyone know how this method would work with soil?
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1answer
124 views

Would distilling a sodium fluoride solution generate hydrogen fluoride to any noticeable extent?

If you have a solution of NaF, and you boil it (to get pure water by distillation) can the fluoride ions in water separate from sodium ions and combine with hydrogen ions to form HF? ...
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0answers
573 views

How to get anhydrous triflic acid from triflic anhydride?

I require a small amount of triflic acid, and while other research groups do not have any, I did locate some trflic anhydride. Does anyone have a published protocol for obtaining the anhydrous acid ...
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5answers
4k views

Un-denaturing industrial alcohol

I have a question regarding the denaturation of industrial ethanol with methanol to discourage its consumption. The boiling point of methanol is 64.7 °C, while the boiling point of ethanol is 78.37 °...
3
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2answers
1k views

Condenser length?

I notice that Graham condensers tend to come in three main sizes: 200mm, 300mm and 400mm. What are the relative merits of each size? My typical application is vacuum distillation of organic solvents ...
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0answers
1k views

Distillation for separating very close boiling components

When components of a mixture have very similar Boiling Points, say 2 C is distillation ever a viable separation procedure at industrial scale? Assuming one were willing to install a very tall column,...
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4answers
127 views

To heat or not to heat; distillation?

One of the questions in a recent past paper I completed was: One way to make water from the reservoir suitable for drinking is by distillation. Describe how water is distilled. And I answered ...
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1answer
240 views

How to separate benzyl alcohol and meta-cresol

Benzyl alcohol and meta-cresol boiling point's are not so different, the fractional distillation will be very difficult, what can i do for separate this two composites ?
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1answer
833 views

Most efficient way to purify household vinegar: distillation or freezing?

I am aware that there are better ways to purify acetic acid out of a water-acid mixture than these, but which one out of distillation (using heat) and fractional freezing (using cold) would gain a ...
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2answers
1k views

Fractional distillation of crude oil and resulting fuel ratios

I understand from the diagram below that different fuels condense at different temperatures. But I don't know anything about crude oil (and very little about chemistry in general). Could I simply ...
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2answers
3k views

Denatured Ethyl Alcohol Purification

I have denatured ethyl alcohol which was obtained this formula; In 100 L ethyl alcohol there is 0.8 gr denatonium benzoate and 78 gr tert-Butyl alcohol. Is there any way to obtain absolute ethyl ...
3
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1answer
646 views

Deuterium depleted water through fractional distilation

Could a packed fractional still of the same type used to distill ethanol to 95% be used to produce deuterium depleted drinking water? The still has a 1000 watt electric heating element and has a ...
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1answer
431 views

distilling small volume?

i have 50ml of a compound i would like to purify, since the impurities presents have close BP, i have to use fractional distillation. i would like to know if im gonna lose significant quantity of my ...
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2answers
2k views

Choosing a vacuum pump for fractional distillation

I have a fractional distillation setup. I would like to purify a small mixture ($\pu{\approx 100-150 mL}$) of high boiling point compounds (between $200$ and $\pu{300^\circ C}$). The one that ...
3
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1answer
164 views

Fractional distillation of a product differs from the components listed in the SDS. What am I doing wrong?

I recently bought a product called Prestone De-Icer for Windows and Wipers which claimed to contain Methanol. I was puzzled when using it to note that it did not smell much like Methanol so I looked ...
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2answers
187 views

overall energy and the boiling point

i need help with the fractional distillation method of a couple of substances at least more than two substances , just like air actually what am i looking for is that why do substances in air with a ...
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2answers
2k views

boiling point and distillation relation

i need help with the fractional distillation method of a couple of substances at least more than two substances , just like air actually what am i looking for is that why do substances in air with a ...
3
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1answer
186 views

Does Dean Kamen's Slingshot really filter virtually everything?

According to Dean Kamen (in the movie http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3242934/) and on the Net (http://www.popsci.com/article/science/pure-genius-how-dean-kamens-invention-could-bring-clean-water-millions)...
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1answer
67 views

opperating a distillation column far from flooding

I know that flooding will ruin the performance of a distillation column. There are many correlations (Eckert, kister, billet, etc.) that will tell you when a column will flood based on your fluid ...
3
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1answer
71 views

Synthesis of phosphonate salt not working

I have tried four times in the past few weeks to synthesise 2-ethoxyvinyl phosphonyl dichloride by reacting ethyl vinyl ether with phosphorus pentachloride in toluene. I have been following the ...
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1answer
705 views

Troubles with cinnemaldehyde extraction - A few general questions

I'm trying to do a cinnemaldehyde extraction. I've tried both a simple and a steam distillation. I'm using the video: [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDoaPIKT_Xg] - as a guide. One of the main ...
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1answer
2k views

Steam Distillation - Condensate not going through condenser

Basically what the title says. I set my equipment up exactly like pretty much every diagram I could find. There's condensation through the claisen adapter and into the distillation adapter, but for ...
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3answers
7k views

Cracking of dicyclopentadiene - was my simple Liebig condenser distillation setup adequate?

I recently did a distillation of dicyclopentadiene (bp 166 °C) to get cyclopentadiene (bp 40 °C). The setup as instructed by my supervisor consisted of a simple water-cooled Liebig condenser. Oil bath ...
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1answer
823 views

Simple distillation & azeotropes

In my organic chemistry lab, we recently had an experiment where we were given a mixture of 50:50 ethanol & ethylene glycol. We were supposed to perform a simple distillation to calculate the ...
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1answer
100 views

Is the 'sweat' on the side of bottles distilled water?

Are the water droplets that form on the side of water bottles (or other drink containers) distilled water? Assume that the sides of the container are completely clean.