Questions tagged [dipole]

For questions about the dipole moment of a bond or a molecule; its calculation, comparison with other bonds or molecules, affect on molecular properties, etc.

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How is dipole moment of ammonia less than sulphur dioxide? [closed]

Sulphur dioxide has only two bonds at 180º so shouldn't the dipole moment of molecule be 0 and as ammonia has 1 lone pair so it's dipole can't be 0 so how Sulphur dioxide has more dipole moment than ...
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1answer
30 views

How does this rotation minimize the dipole moment?

A paper I'm reading says: The low energy conformation of 3 minimizes the overall dipole moment of the compound and thus rotates the exocyclic amide 180° from desired conformation, as can been seen in ...
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4answers
357 views

Why does ozone have a dipole moment different than 0 [duplicate]

First of all, I know that the reason for this is the bent structure of the molecule. However, we were taught in my class that the dipole moment of a molecule is equal to the vector sum of the dipole ...
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3answers
560 views

Dipole moment of (1s,2s,3s)-1,2,3-trichlorocyclopropane

Which of the following compounds has a zero dipole moment? Only one of the options is correct According to me, it looks like both options (c) and (d) are right. Since the dipole moments of option (c) ...
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1answer
64 views

Estimation of dipole moments in aromatic compounds

If it asks to compare dipole moment in aromatic compounds then do we see inductive or resonance effects or do we see a mix of both? E.g. we have to compare dipole moment in pyrrole and furan then in ...
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1answer
59 views

Relative strength of intermolecular forces [duplicate]

My attempt at a solution: First I look for hydrogen bonds: The only compounds with hydrogen bonds are the second and fourth ones, so they have the strongest intermolecular forces. The second must have ...
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0answers
25 views

Dipole moments of cis and gem alkenes [duplicate]

The procedure for comparing dipole moments for cis- and trans-alkenes is quite easy, but how to compare dipole moments of 1,1 dichloroethene (1); and cis-dichloroethene (2)? My teacher told me that ...
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0answers
31 views

Factors dominating forces between acetone and chloroform

What type of interaction is present between acetone and chloroform? According to me, acetone has weak hydrogen-bonds with chloroform, the hydrogen on an electronegative atom has electron density that ...
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1answer
110 views

Why HBr has stronger attraction between molecules than CH3NH2?

Which of the following compounds exhibits dipole-dipole forces as its strongest attraction between molecules? a) $\ce{CO2}$ b) $\ce{CH3NH2}$ c) $\ce{Kr}$ d) $\ce{H2}$ e) $\ce{HBr}$ From what I ...
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2answers
308 views

Why is CH4 Nonpolar but CH2Cl2 is polar?

I keep reading that the reason why $\ce{CH2Cl2}$ is polar because due to its tetrahedral shape, the dipoles can not cancel each other out but doesn't $\ce{CH4}$ also have tetrahedral shape too? I ...
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0answers
24 views

What is the link between the classical and quantum definition of the symmetry number?

From what I understand, the symmetry number for a molecule can be defined in 2 ways: 1. The quantum mechanical symmetry number corrects for overcounting the number of possible rotational states of a ...
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32 views

Deriving the absorption coefficient from state transitions

This source states that the absorption coefficient $\gamma$ is proportional to the difference in particle number density $\Delta n$ per unit volume between the initial and the final rotational state ...
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0answers
160 views

Why does 1,4-diiodobenzene have a non-zero dipole moment?

From this answer, I came to know that 1,4-diiodobenzene has a dipole moment of $0.19~\rm D$ in benzene at $20\ ^\circ\rm C$. On the basis of symmetry, I'd expect the bond moments due to the difference ...
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1answer
128 views

Dipole Moment of p-dibromobenzene

What is the dipole moment of p-dibromobenzene? I know that p-dichlorobenzene has zero dipole moment, but my teacher said that this is not the case for bromine. I am still confused and feel its dipole ...
4
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3answers
256 views

The meaning of permanent dipole moment

I was asked in one question that which of all given molecules have a permanent dipole moment? And $\ce{XeF6}$ was given as a correct answer quoting that it is a distorted octahedral, and hence the ...
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2answers
63 views

How do you explain partial charges in molecules that have a dipole? [closed]

For example if i have hydrogen and fluorine covalently bonded with each other, it would result in a polar molecule with the valence electrons being pulled closer to the fluorine than it is to the ...
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1answer
33 views

Raman scattering and “electron and proton center” of molecule

I am currently studying the textbook Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, 2nd edition, by Peter Larkin. In a section entitled The Raman Scattering Process, the author says the following: Light scattering ...
2
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2answers
469 views

Which has greater dipole moment: cis-1,2-dichloroethylene or 1,1-dichloroethylene?

Which has greater dipole moment: cis-1,2-dichloroethylene or 1,1-dichloroethylene? I know that dipole moment depends upon the strength of dipole and angle between the dipoles. 1,1-Dichloroethylene ...
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0answers
97 views

Why is the net dipole moment of carbon dioxide equals zero [closed]

Why is the net dipole moment of carbon dioxide equal to zero? And what is the partial charge of carbon in co2? Is it +2 because it forms two polar bonds or if they cancel the effect of each other due ...
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0answers
75 views

Different direction of dipole moment in physics and chemistry [duplicate]

In chemistry, we learn that dipole moment tells us about measure of polarity in a molecule. In books, it is written that "conventionlly the direction of dipole moment is from electropositive to ...
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1answer
40 views

it is possible for the hydrogen bond to form between the hydrogen chloride molecule, HCl? [duplicate]

Recently I'm doing my work, and I can't find what it is the answer. Can you guys help me?
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5answers
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Is the carbon atom in the carbon dioxide molecule partially positive?

I had a question about nonpolar molecules that have symmetrical dipole vectors. Let's take $\ce{CO2}$ as an example. Each of the $\ce{C=O}$ bonds are pulling in the opposite way. My teacher says that ...
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0answers
64 views

Effect of ionization on dipole moment

Suppose we have a non-dipolar molecule such as carbon dioxide. If carbon dioxide is ionized by some means in the gas-phase, will it develop a dipole moment? I am asking with reference to microwave ...
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1answer
235 views

Comparison of the dipole moments of CHCl3 and CBrCl3 [closed]

Consider compounds $\ce{CHCl3}$ and $\ce{CBrCl3}$: Which compound has the larger dipole moment? Explain your choice. Okay, so I've been trying to figure it out and I thought dipole moment had to do ...
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0answers
161 views

Dipole Moment of the following organic compounds [closed]

Question: Which of the following compounds will show highest dipole moment and why? I figured out that, (4)th compound is very symmetric - so net dipole moment on the compound must be null. How ...
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1answer
184 views

Which has a greater dipole moment: methylamine or methanol? [closed]

Which has a greater dipole moment: methylamine $(\ce{CH3NH2})$ or methanol $(\ce{CH3OH})?$
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1answer
231 views

Why is the Sulphur Dioxide molecule polar? [closed]

I am in 12th standard and was revising the concept of determining which polyatomic molecule can be polar and which can be non polar. So when this example was given we were told that vertical dipole ...
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2answers
111 views

Why does dipole must lie parallel to a rotation symmetry axis?

While studying group theory, I've got confused by the following statement: For a molecule to have a permanent dipole moment, it must have an asymmetric charge distribution. The point group of the ...
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0answers
49 views

Why London force dominates in Alkyl Halides

Why London Force is greater than dipole-dipole interactions in Alkyl Halides? As we know that most of the time London force is weaker than other forces. Then why in this case it's not so? ...
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2answers
358 views

Link between centrosymmetry, dipole moment and chirality

What is the relationship between the three concepts in the title? I know all centrosymmetric molecules are achiral, but not all achiral molecules are centrosymmetric. Thus, there are no molecules ...
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0answers
54 views

Theoretically predict the density of water

Is it possible to predict the density of water having just its molecular structure (basically obtain 1 g/cm3 at 3.96 °C)? Are you aware of research/textbook that dive into this topic? Is it able to ...
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0answers
47 views

Do I understand correctly that simulation volume influences relative permittivity calculations? If so, how is the result useful?

I am having a lot of trouble understanding the influence of volume on relative permittivity/static dielectric constant. I'm not a chemist, but am using molecular dynamics to calculate relative ...
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0answers
93 views

Dipole moments of dibromoethene isomers

There was an exercise in my textbook asking to compare the dipole moments of 1,1-dibromoethene and 1,2-dibromoethene(Z). The answer in the textbook says that the dipole moment of 1,1-dibromoethene is ...
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2answers
672 views

Dipole moment of water using the definition [closed]

In many Chemistry books, the dipole moment of molecules is calculated through algebraic formulas. However, another definition of the dipole moment is $$\vec{\mu} = \sum_i q_i \, \vec{r}_i$$ So, how ...
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0answers
804 views

Why is the dipole moment of XeF$_6$ zero? [duplicate]

In Concise Inorganic Chemistry by JD Lee (4th edition; adapted by Sudarshan Guha), page 73 under the section 3.6 (VSEPR Theory chapter Chemical Bonding): ...according to this theory, the position of ...
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1answer
2k views

Why does the dipole moment order of group 15 hydrides increase down the group?

The order given in my book is $$\ce{NH3} > \ce{SbH3} > \ce{AsH3} > \ce{PH3}$$ Phosphorous is more electronegative than arsenic and antimony. Then shouldn't the dipole moment be more in ...
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2answers
2k views

Why is the dipole moment of acetone higher than ethanol?

It is true that acetone is less polar than ethanol. I thought the dipole moment is proportional to polarity, and if so, the dipole moment of acetone should be lower than ethanol. But the dipole ...
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0answers
64 views

Why is there only little difference between molecular dipole moments in CHX3 compounds (X = Cl, Br, I)?

Why is there only little difference between molecular dipole moments in $\ce{CHX3}$ compounds ($\ce{X}$ = $\ce{Cl}$, $\ce{Br}$, $\ce{I}$)? As we can see there is a huge difference in dipole moment of ...
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1answer
38 views

What is the meaning of moment in Dipole moment [duplicate]

Today I read about dipole moment in my standard textbook. It said something like it is the measure of charge separation, and then proceeded to the formula , ie. Delta'charge'×bond length. But I can't ...
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1answer
102 views

Why must polar molecules be asymetrical? [duplicate]

As I understand, polarity in molecules comes from the difference in electronegativity or the ability of the atoms to attract eletrons so the electrons spend more time or are more probable to gravitate ...
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1answer
187 views

Qualitative Comparisons of Dielectric Constants of Organic Solvents

This question is inspired by the discussion around this earlier question. It is relatively simple to do a qualitative comparison of the polarities of different molecules (for example by analyzing the ...
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1answer
120 views

dipole–dipole interactions: OCR Sample Paper wrong? [closed]

I was doing OCR A Level Chemistry A, H432/01 Periodic table, elements and physical Sample Question Paper. Question 6 was: The boiling point of hydrogen bromide is –67 ºC. The boiling point of ...
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1answer
2k views

Why are the dispersion forces in CS2 stronger than the dipole-dipole forces in COS?

London dispersion forces supposedly have the least strength out of all the intermolecular forces. But $\ce{CS2}$, which has only dispersion forces, has a higher boiling point (and thus stronger ...
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0answers
43 views

Perturbation theory for molecules, chromophore group, dipole approximation,

I am interesting in chromophore group and dipole approximation. For example, i have a molecule (acetone or any other ketone/enol) which is belongs to some symmetry group. Because of the symmetry ...
2
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1answer
145 views

Why does dielectric constant of crystal fluctuates in case of Frenkel defect in a crystal?

So I was studying Frenkel defect in crystal and came across this line that said The closeness of like charges tends to increase the dielectric constant of the crystal. I'm not able to understand ...
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2answers
834 views

Which has a greater dipole: chloroform (CHCl3) or trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F)?

Does chloroform have a greater dipole because the $\ce{C-H}$ dipole is weaker than $\ce{C-Cl}$ dipole thereby making the overall net dipole greater in chloroform, as opposed to trichlorofluoromethane ...
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1answer
557 views

Why does phosphine have a dipole moment and a higher boiling point than carbon tetrafluoride?

Phosphine, PH3, and carbon tetrafluoride, CF4, are small molecules of a similar size and the same mass of 88 au. CF4 has a dipole moment of 0, which is unsurprising given its tetrahedral shape. ...
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2answers
496 views

Which Oxygen atom in HCOOH (formic/methanoic acid) does Carbon donate its electrons to, to obtain a partial positive charge?

I was wondering if the Carbon atom in HCOOH (methanoic/formic acid) forms a positive partial charge by donating its electrons to both the Oxygen atoms, since they both possess a higher ...
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0answers
782 views

Dipole moment in aromatic compounds

Compare the dipole moment of the following: o-nitrophenol o-dichlorobenzene o-xylene What I thought was: o-dichlorobenzene should have the maximum, due to the acute angle and being more ...
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1answer
122 views

how can a covalent molecule with a permanent dipole still have temporary dipoles?

As I have read online, temporary dipoles occur due to the random fluctuations of the electron cloud. The electrons move randomly to one side of the molecule creating a negative partial charge while ...