Questions tagged [diffusion]

For questions referring to the process by which molecules move as a result of their kinetic energy.

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2
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1answer
27 views

How do I compute the mean dissociation time from the dissociation constant, assuming instantaneous binding reaction rate?

There is a solution with two chemical species, A and B. Given the equilibrium dissociation constant $ K_D=\frac{[A][B]}{[AB]} $ how do I relate the mean dissociation time $t_{off}$ to $K_D$, and ...
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0answers
28 views

Ratio of rates of diffusion of gases

I stumbled upon a question, A mixture of 50 mL of Hydrogen gas and 50mL of Oxygen gas is allowed to effuse through an effusimeter. After some time it is observed that the residual gas occupies 90mL. ...
4
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1answer
73 views

Modelling pH as function of time and position

I already posted this on the Engineering Stack Exchange under Chemical Engineering as I don't know where it's a better fit. I have a system whose initial state consists of three different sections ...
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0answers
17 views

How long will it takes two miscible liquids to fully mix (homogenize) through diffusion?

This question occurred to me while I was pouring milk into my coffee and was too lazy to stir. Assume you have some volume $V_a$ of liquid A directly on top of another volume $V_b$ of liquid B. The ...
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0answers
17 views

What is the binding speed of coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles to microparticles diffused in water?

Does someone know how to determine the binding speed of $\ce{Fe3O4}$ nanoparticles coated with the alkyl chain of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to microparticles in water? I know that a precise answer is ...
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1answer
40 views

Indirectly Measuring Diffusion of NO2 into Water

I am working on a data science project with the central hypothesis is that air-born pollutants can become water-born through diffusion. The example I am using as a proof of concept is $\ce{NO2}$. The ...
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0answers
15 views

Algae Cultivation Using Polyethylene Film Reactor Vessel Floating In Pool with Algicidal ClO2 Concentration

I'm attempting to grow chlorella algae in a polyethylene film bag (which contains the growth medium) submerged in a temperature-moderating, above-ground swimming pool. This presents a challenge in ...
2
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1answer
28 views

Do the concepts of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids still hold at a nanoscopic level?

Recently I've spent a great deal of time thinking about enzyme diffusion in cytoplasm. One thing that keeps me awake at night is the constant referral to cytoplasm as a non-Newtonian fluid (which it ...
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1answer
75 views

What is the relative rate of diffusion of ammonia to hydrogen chloride, both in gaseous states? [closed]

I encountered this problem during an assignment: I answered it as C, but the assignment grader marked it as wrong and indicated that A is correct. I asked another instructor about it and gave me a ...
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0answers
31 views

Boundary conditions in a closed system for diffusion (2nd Fick's law) in a porous medium

I would like to calculate the chloride redistribution in concrete (assumption: porous and homogeneous structure, purely diffusion-controlled mass transfer, closed system). For this I have derived a ...
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1answer
34 views

Electrochemistry - Understanding Diffusion Potential

I have a big problem trying to wrap my head around this for several hours and I cannot seem to make sense of it. I have to link this scheme with the 3 colored potential profiles on the bottom of the ...
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1answer
133 views

Is the solution isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic?

The problem is shown below. I don't understand how can the tonicity of a solution be determined if the solution has multiple solutes dissolved in it. Do I take the total sum of the mass of solutes ...
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0answers
24 views

Tungsten-Rhenium alloy connections to Copper. Methods?

I want to use some fine WRe wire (50 micron diameter, 80/20) in a particular environment where it has to conduct a few millamps of current while supporting 100g of mass. The problem being the contact ...
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0answers
42 views

What makes the odor of flatulence fade away? [closed]

If an individual expelled their intestinal gas in an enclosed space, that smell would seemingly fade away. Why is this so? I would think of 3 possible explanations: The gases dilute in the air. If ...
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0answers
38 views

Fick's second law atomic diffusion question [closed]

I have a question about diffusion and i'm not sure how to tackle it. A new processing method is being tried for a lithium battery cathode material -LiCoO2. the process leaves the ceramic oxygen ...
3
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1answer
134 views

Is there a known relation between the diffusion of a molecule and the diffusion of the reactants?

I have a plasma consisting of elements A and B (which have a similar mass). These elements can react to form molecules AB. $$ \ce{A + B -> AB} $$ Now if my plasma or gas is expanding based on ...
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1answer
162 views

What is the reason for phase separation? [closed]

I have seen phase separation as a phenomenon taking place. However I do not understand why this phenomenon occurs as a counter example to the natural laws of diffusion along the concentration gradient....
2
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2answers
334 views

Determine direction of mass transfer

For part a) I don't really know what to look at. Diffusion occurs from low to high concentrations so by looking at $t_1$ I would say that the direction of the mass transfer is from phase II (organic ...
3
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0answers
29 views

Are there materials permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide but not nitrogen?

Are there materials permeable to $\ce{O2}$ and $\ce{CO2}$ but not $\ce{N2}$? Would this even be possible in theory? Can it be done at even at pressures of 300 atm?
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0answers
85 views

Molar flux through membrane

Consider a liquid of pure $\ce{A}$ covered by a composite membrane through which the vapor of $\ce{A}$ is diffusing. The membrane consists of two layers of thickness $l_1$ and $l_2$. The diffusion ...
4
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1answer
159 views

Diffusion across a thin film

Given this concentration profile, I am to (1) determine at which side substance A will diffuse out of the membrane and (2) chose one of the following profiles below which represents the concentration ...
3
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1answer
111 views

Cause of imaginary part of Warburg element in EIS

In electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments (EIS) the diffusion of electroactive species at flat, macroscopic electrodes is commonly described by the Warburg element with the impedance ...
5
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1answer
40 views

How to make equal density pool dye without diffusion

I have a leak I have been struggling to find in my in-ground pool. I am losing about 1/4" of water per day and I believe the issue is one of the fittings in the bottom of the pool. There are two ...
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1answer
865 views

How can I get self-diffusion coefficient from MSD (mean sqaure displacement)

I run some molecular dynamic simulations for polymer system (liquid), and I have data of MSD vs t(time). MSD-t relation looks linear proportional. Now, which one is the proper way to calculate the ...
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1answer
36 views

Effective diffusion coefficient of a species in a heterogeneous mixture

I want to calculate the effective diffusion coefficient of hydrogen radical in a mixed-phase consisting of metal oxide, metal hydride and metal. I consider the interfaces to be diffuse. How can I ...
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0answers
29 views

Diffusion equation I can't seem to find anywhere

So I was looking through some old lecture notes from a few years back when I stumbled upon a useful and simple equation that should, according to my former professor describe the diffusion in solid ...
2
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1answer
177 views

Why does water diffuse from a lower solute concentration to a higher one?

I'm studying biology and this came up in the context of passive transport. I understand why, in general a gas moves down a concentration gradient (the random movement of gas particles and probability)....
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1answer
301 views

Dependency of rate of diffusion on mean free path and velocity of molecules? [duplicate]

What is the dependency of rate of diffusion ( Graham's law) on mean free path, molecular size , average velocity, collision frequency and pressure? I have searched everywhere on internet but just ...
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0answers
70 views

What coefficients can I use in a Reaction-Diffusion Equation?

I am qualitatively analyzing an abstract chemical reaction $A + B \rightarrow 2A$ where $A$ and $B$ are some liquid substances that undergo Reaction-Diffusion with a second order reaction (actually ...
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1answer
420 views

Why do two solutes permitted to diffuse simultaneously across a semi-permeable membrane both end up at equal concentrations on both sides?

Let's say we have solute a, which is highly concentrated (let's say 99%?) on side 1 of a semipermeable membrane. We also have solute b, which is has a much lower concentration (let's say 0.01%) on ...
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1answer
268 views

Diffusion experiment with dialysis membrane bag

Recently I have performed a diffusion experiment with a dialysis membrane containing methylene blue. A schematic picture of the experiment: I want to calculate the flux (amount diffused/area*time) ...
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0answers
43 views

Limit to volume change in a discretized mathematical model?

I have set up a mathematical model describing the diffusion of ozone out of a gas bubble. The bubble is surrounded by a thin gas film. So actually, the model describes the diffusion of ozone through ...
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1answer
488 views

Effect on rate of diffusion in addition of an inert gas

What will be the effect on the rate of diffusion on addition of an inert gas to the gaseous mixture? I think the rate of diffusion should increase as the addition of extra gas will increase the ...
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2answers
758 views

Diffusion rate of gases

What is the effect of temperature on diffusion rate of gases? Do the diffusion rates of gases decrease with an increase in temperature? Why? I just read it somewhere that the diffusion rate of gases ...
5
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0answers
138 views

How to account for the interface between two different phases in a discretized diffusion model?

I have tried to set up a model for the diffusion of a gas into a liquid. The two media are next to each other and the geometry is spherical because the system should simulate the diffusion out of a ...
0
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2answers
100 views

Is it possible to solve the equation for the diffusion of gas through a sphere analytically by applying e.g. “combination of variables”?

In the case of diffusion through a thin film it is possible to combine the variables in the following way: $\sigma = \frac{x}{\sqrt{4Dt}}$ where $x$=length $D$=diffusion coefficient $t$=time $\...
2
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2answers
95 views

how to display diffusion to a young audience?

I need to display some science topic pertaining to the atomic bombs, or atomic history in some way to children of approximately middle school level. So I've decided that something interesting to cover ...
11
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2answers
238 views

How is the water escaping?

I have a number of toy balls filled with a liquid-presumably water or something else non-toxic. Over about a year, the balls have gone from firm to indented as shown. The water level in one is visibly ...
9
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4answers
7k views

Why is entropy favorable?

I cannot seem to grasp the logic behind it. We say that more entropy (or more disordered system) is favorable over less entropy. But why? Why is randomness preferred over proper arrangement of atoms/...
1
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1answer
117 views

Derivation of formula used in calculating molecular mass from a mixture

In a solution to a problem, to calculate Molecular mass of unknown gas from a mixture containing $\ce{O2}$ in $80~\%$, the author used the formula : $\frac{1}{\sqrt{M_\text{mix}}}=\frac{X_{\ce{O2}}}...
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1answer
3k views

Graham's law of diffusion

The rates of diffusion of two gases $\ce{A}$ and $\ce{B}$ are in the ratio $1:4$. If the ratio of their masses present in the mixture is $2:3$, the ratio of their mole fraction is? My tries: $\frac{...
3
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5answers
414 views

Where to buy/How to build a Devanathan-Stachurski cell?

I'm preparing to do some hydrogen permeation tests to calculate the diffusivity of some iron samples. I would like to do this using the Devanathan-Stachurski cell, which consists of two cells, one ...
15
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1answer
258 views

Is there a consensus on whether amber can seal in air bubbles for millions of years?

I read about deriving the oxygen content in the atmosphere in the Cretaceous by analyzing the air trapped in bubbles in amber from that period, but I have also found papers disputing the study's ...
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0answers
122 views

Reaction-diffusion equation using Lattice-Boltzmann method

I'm struggling to get a working LBM reaction-diffusion implementation. I have a pretty weak mathematics and physics background, and thus I'm having a hard time understanding the notations around the ...
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0answers
236 views

How to write mass balance equation for the scenario when molecules are getting generated inside an sphere?

I am working on the physical understanding of diffusion through a nano machine(a shell with hollow interior in which molecules are produced) and have taken few assumptions: There is rate $r_T$ with ...
3
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1answer
211 views

Are there any solids that undergo diffusion?

Are there any solids that undergo diffusion? Introduction: In school, my teacher is only talking about diffusion happening in liquids and I though that it may be able to happen to solids also. ...
3
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1answer
107 views

What kind of unit is this [A*m^2/mol]?

I found a term on this website that gives a unit of [A*m^2/mol]. The equation is: $k_d^{eff}=\frac{2RT\kappa^{eff}}{F}(t^+-1)\left(1+\frac{\text{d}\ln(f)}{\text{d}\ln(c)}\right)$ where R is the gas ...
3
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2answers
393 views

Is pressure equalization “diffusion”?

There is another question on the site which is: Two containers, A and B, connected by a closed valve were evacuated and the Chlorine gas (Cl2) with a pressure of 200kPa was put into A and Oxygen (...
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1answer
421 views

Why do universal indicators in titration have to be swirled?

Why do universal indicators in titration have to be swirled? Here's a specific example: I am using methyl orange along with hydrochloric acid to test the alkalinity of a set of household cleaners (...
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3answers
2k views

When is diffusion steady-state?

Fick’s first law of diffusion can be used when $\mathrm{d}C/\mathrm{d}t=0$. If the concentration gradient is time-variant, then we must use Fick’s second law. However, when is diffusion steady-state ...