Questions tagged [covalent-compounds]

For questions about covalent compounds - which are compounds in which all intermolecular bonds between atoms are considered mostly covalent - have a stronger covalent than ionic or metallic component. This tag is not to be confused with [bond].

29 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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What are the limitations of the Born-Lande' equation?

The Born-Lande' equation is used to theoretically calculate the lattice energy, $\Delta U$, of ionic compounds. It is often cited as such in literature, $$\Delta U = -\frac{k_Az_1z_2Me^2}{4 \pi \...
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1answer
4k views

Geometry of AsF5 molecule

Which of the following is the best description of the arragement of fluorine atoms around the arsenic atom in a molecule of $\ce{AsF5}$? (a) trigonal bipyramid (b) octahedron (c) tetrahedron (...
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1answer
81 views

How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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What type of bonding is present in lithium tetrahydridoaluminate?

I can tell that the negative ion has one bond which is a co-ordinate/dative covalent bond. However, overall, would you say that lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (lithium aluminium hydride) is ionic? If ...
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Why does Silver form bonds with covalent character?

Compounds of silver form particularly strong bonds which is accounted for by the significant covalent character of the bonding. Furthermore, is the tendency to form covalent bonds linked to the fact ...
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1answer
99 views

Can two noble gases attract each other?

If two hydrogen atoms are far apart, they have no effect on one another. But as they are bought closer together, they begin to excerpt an effect. The two nuclei, having the same positive charge, repel ...
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68 views

Is Polyethylene Glycol always derived from Ethylene Glycol? If not, how does it differ?

I have heard Polyethylene Glycol is derived from Ethylene Glycol, so was doing some research to see how they differ and found this. Now this states that: Polyethylene glycol is produced from the ...
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74 views

Bond strength of carbon compounds

I read online that C=O is more stronger than C=N and the reason behind this was, 'Since bond between C and O is more polar hence it will have a slightly higher ionic nature than C and N. As we know ...
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74 views

Hydrogen Bonding by Carbenes

A hydrogen bond is formed between hydrogen attached to highly electronegative atoms (nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine) which are small in size too and the non-bonding pair of electrons of another such ...
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385 views

How to rationalise the resonance structures of nitrogen dioxide?

The following image depicts resonance in $\ce{NO2}$ molecule: I don't know if it is obvious or not, but I'm puzzled by this structure. I've read about the structure of the $\ce{NO2}$ compound, but it ...
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2k views

polar covalent bond

Please take a look at the image of polar covalent bond in the $\ce{H2O}$ molecule below. My question is given in bold type in the following discussion. Here is my flow of thought that confused me so ...
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492 views

Covalency in bonding across the periodic table

Bonding between main group elements is obviously almost entirely covalent and it is often easy to see these covalent bonds as 2c-2e bonds localised between two atoms. The bonding in borane, boron ...
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Am I right in giving the following reason for some questions relating to the p-block?

I'm seeking clarification as I believe this to be the answer to why boron compounds are electron deficient. While bonding, the $2s^2$ electrons of Boron are excited to the $2p_y$ orbital, they engage ...
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1answer
2k views

Why does aluminum chloride have a higher lattice energy than aluminum fluoride?

From the table below (source: McMurry's Chemistry [1, p. 212]), it is evident that $\ce{AlCl_3}$ has a higher lattice energy than $\ce{AlF3},$ even though $\ce{F}$ is smaller than $\ce{Cl}$. Why is ...
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1answer
8k views

Can solutions of polar covalent compounds conduct electricity?

I learned in class that solutions of polar covalent compounds are weakly conductive, while ionic solutions are strongly conductive. But I'm getting different answers online. According to this lecture,...
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T shape molecule with three hydrogens

Is there any sort of AX3E2 molecule that consists of hydrogen atoms bonded to the main atom who is left over with two lone pairs of electrons? (Similar to ClF3 just with hydrogen instead of fluorine?)
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286 views

Why does CO2 only exist in gaseous and solid state under STP/SATP?

Why does carbon dioxide only exist in gas and solid state under STP/SATP conditions? $\ce{CO2}$ pressurized to $\pu{5.1 atm}$ can exist in all 3 states: solid, gas, and liquid. However, why couldn't ...
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100 views

Where can I find a downloadable database of basic physical and chemical properties?

The web has many online databases of properties of compounds locked behind search interfaces, but I can't find anything you can actually download. I want a corpus of data that might allow me to, say, ...
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Boron nitride polymerization with silicon based molecules

Since boron nitride is similar to carbon hexagonal structures and silicon is a main component of inorganic polymers. Is it possible to make it from a polymer under certain conditions, if so what ...
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362 views

Workfunction and Bond Energy

Workfunction is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the surface of the material. If the striking photons does not have the required energy then it won't be able to eject the ...
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581 views

Why do BF3 and NH3 react when B has an expanded octet in the adduct?

I know that some elements like sulfur are able to have an expanded octet due to vacant $\mathrm{d}$ orbitals. However, boron and nitrogen do not have any such vacant place so how is it that $\ce{NH3}$ ...
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1answer
478 views

The order of increasing covalent nature in group 12 (Zn, Cd and Hg)

Suppose $\ce{Zn}$, $\ce{Cd}$ and $\ce{Hg}$ were to form a bond with the same element; say $\ce{ZnCl2}$, $\ce{CdCl2}$ and $\ce{HgCl2}$ Then which of the compounds would be showing most covalent ...
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Why does steam store large amounts of energy?

We all know that steam can be used to perform mechanical work and steam has a high capacity for energy storage. But why does steam have such high energy capacity? I tried searching for answers on the ...
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Why homolytic fission of polar molecules is possible at higher temperature?

While studying alkanes I came across the nitration of alkanes using Nitric acid at very high temperature, which apparently follows "free radical" mechanisms, by formation of OH° °NO2 free radical ! ...
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Do temporary dipoles form in silicon(IV) dioxide?

Textbooks only ever mention covalent bonds between silicon and oxygen atoms in silica. However, as electron movement is random, one end of a silicon atom in a given instant could be more positive than ...
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222 views

Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
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Why would phosphorus pentoxide be called 'phosphorus(v) oxide'?

There's a question in the chemistry textbook I use with my GCSE class which asks pupils to identify which of various compounds feature ionic bonding. One of the compounds is phosphorus(V) oxide, which ...
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297 views

Why is moist hydrogen made to react with chlorine to give hydrogen chloride?

Moist hydrogen reacts with chlorine in diffused sunlight to give out hydrogen chloride. Why is moist hydrogen used? Why not dry hydrogen?
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1answer
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bonding in polar covalent bonds

I have recently learned that pure ionic and covalent bonds are just the extremes of a spectrum of bonds from this article from Chemguide. But I can't seem to square this with my understanding of how ...