Questions tagged [colligative-properties]

Colligative properties of solutions are properties that depend upon the concentration of solute molecules or ions, but not upon the chemical identity of the solute.

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How salt helps to melt ice even when there is no dynamic equilibrium between water and ice?

I am a high school student and I am confused about freezing point depression. We say that when in winter's it gets even colder than normal freezing point Temperature then we use solute to melt ice ...
Virender Bhardwaj's user avatar
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Freezing of a beverage

I am trying to generally describe the process of freezing beer and how the different ingredients influence the freezing process. My general approach right now is to observe a beer as 90% water and 10% ...
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Determining the molar mass of a substance by the osmotic pressure as a function of a mass concentration

Let's say that I have a solution of some substance in some solvent. The density of the solute is $\rho_\text{solute}$ and the density of the solvent is $\rho_\text{solvent}$. Suppose that the osmotic ...
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Explanation for Raoults Law

The vapour pressure of pure liquids is independent of quantity of substance. But when in a solution, the vapour pressure of the components are given by $$P_A=P^°_AX_A$$$$P_B=P^°_BX_B$$ Since $A-A$, $A-...
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Why is molality measured in terms of the solvent instead of the whole solution? [duplicate]

The molality $b$ of a solute dissolved in a solvent is given by: $$b_\mathrm{solute} = \dfrac{n_\mathrm{solute}}{m_\mathrm{solvent}}$$ where $n_\mathrm{solute}$ is the amount of solute (e.g. in mol) ...
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Eutectic plot - freezing point lowering

I have a doubt about the correlation between eutectic plots and freezing point lowering. The freezing point lowering, as well as all colligative properties, is defined in the presence of a volatile ...
Luckenberg's user avatar
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Colligative properties and binary phase diagrams

I'm having troubles with colligative properties and how to relate them to binary liquid-vapour and solid-liquid phase diagrams. First of all, in my book it is indicated that colligative properties are ...
Luca Piscitelli's user avatar
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1 answer
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How to calculate the freezing point of an equimolar ethanol: water mixture using colligative properties [closed]

I am familiar with how to calculate the freezing point of a mixture with a 9:1 molar ratio of ethanol to water (see below). I can understand that ethanol, having a higher mole fraction, is considered ...
anotherhyooman's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is vapour pressure truly a colligative property?

Colligative properties are generally defined as A colligative property depends only on the ratio of the number of particles of solute and solvent in the solution, not the identity of the solute. ...
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Best method for molecular mass determination

A number of different methods may be employed for determination of molecular mass of any sample. But I want to limit our focus to the following methods, Relative lowering of partial pressure ...
Qui Gonn Jinn's user avatar
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The relationship of the osmotic pressure of a polymeric solution and its the molecular mass

Why is the osmotic pressure of a polymeric solution decreases when the molecular mass is increasing? I am honestly unsure if the above statement is true, at least it seems to me to be true. When I ...
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Osmolality and osmolarity of infant formula

Actually, this question is about the following sentence, which I have seen (in various forms) in numerous papers (e.g. this one and this one): The American Academy of Pediatrics advises that formulas ...
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Do lyophilic sols have an electrical double layer?

"There are two factors which are responsible for the stability of lyophilic sols. These factors are the charge and solvation of the colloidal particles". Quoted from NCERT book of OC But we ...
RIPAN BARUAH's user avatar
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1 answer
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Understanding the Osmotic Pressure formula

$$\Pi = iMRT$$ Can this be rewritten as $\Pi = ORT$ where $O =$ osmolarity? The only reason I ask is because my book doesn’t talk about the relationship between osmolarity and molarity, but I came ...
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Finding freezing temperature and osmotic pressure of an ethylene glycol and glycerol solution in water

A water solution is prepared by mixing $\pu{200 g}$ of a ethylene glycol (ethan-1,2-diol; $\ce{C2H6O2}$) solution (20% by weight) with $\pu{500 g}$ of glycerol (propan-1,2,3-triol; $\ce{C3H8O3}$) ...
Ani Lici's user avatar
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Does Raoult's law hold for immiscible liquids?

I know that Raoult's law holds true only for a non volatile solute in a volatile solvent mixture wherein the vapour pressure of the solution gets lowered due to the addition of solute. Now, first of ...
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What is the derivation for the expression of depression in freezing point?

In my textbook, it is written that the expression for depression in freezing point is $$\Delta T_\mathrm f=K_\mathrm f\cdot m$$ where $\Delta T_\mathrm f$ is the freezing point depression (defined as ...
RIPAN BARUAH's user avatar
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Why is the boiling point of sugarcane juice lower than the boiling point of water?

As the boiling point is a colligative property, one would expect that the boiling point of sugarcane juice should be higher than pure water because Sugarcane juice contains water (75–85%), non-...
Adarsh Payyavula's user avatar
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Colligative properties: why does the size of solute not matter?

Colligative properties are defined as the "properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the ...
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Why is water transferred from a beaker of pure water to a beaker of sugar solution when placed in the a closed container?

I know that there is something to do with the vapour pressure of pure water being higher than the vapour pressure of the sugar solution, but I still can’t really explain what happens on a molecular ...
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Why do we use molality on describing colligative property?

I'm satisfied with the explanation about Raoult's law that the chance of vaporizing will depend on the surface exposed to the atmosphere and solute will decrease such chance by taking portion of the ...
WienAudience's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
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Detailed kinetic explanation for vapor pressure reduction by dissolved solute?

The following problem was asked in JEE Mains 2020 (Sept 2, Shift 1), An open beaker of water in equilibrium with water vapor is in a sealed container. When a few grams of glucose are added to the ...
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How to determine the van't Hoff factor for different salts in water experimentally?

How do I experimentally determine the van't Hoff factor for different salts in water? I'm going to dissolve each of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and lithium chloride in $\pu{20 mL}$ of water ...
Raze XIX's user avatar
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Finding the reduced pressure to distill a solution containing 0.4 g of naphthalene in 25 g of chloroform at 50 °C

Chloroform boils at $\pu{62 ^\circ C}$. For a solution containing $\pu{0.4 g}$ of naphthalene in $\pu{25 g}$ of chloroform, the boiling point is elevated by $\pu{0.45 K}$, to avoid any decomposition ...
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Boiling point elevation with multiple solutes

I've encountered a problem where glucose and $\ce{NaCl}$ are mixed with water and $\Delta T$ is to be calculated. I've calculated $\Delta T$ for both glucose ($i = 1$) and $\ce{NaCl}$ ($i = 2$) ...
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Molality of solution to be used when finding water separated from solution as ice

Question $\pu{1 kg}$ of a solution of cane sugar is cooled and maintained at $\pu{-4 ^\circ C}$. How much ice will separate out if molality of solution is $0.75$? $K_\mathrm{f} \ \text{(water)} = 1....
Equation_Charmer's user avatar
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1 answer
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Are colligative properties applicable for volatile liquids and gases in liquid solvent? Why/Why not?

My teacher told me that the expressions for calculation of colligative properties like lowering in freezing point are only applicable if the solute is non volatile liquid or a solid. We cannot apply ...
Manit Agarwal's user avatar
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Camphor for molecular mass determination

I came across this statement in my book that read, "Camphor is used to determine the molecular mass of substances because it has a high value of cryoscopic constant." What does this have to ...
Ambica Govind's user avatar
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Deviations from Raoult's Law [closed]

A solution of two compounds may be an ideal solution and follow Raoult's Law, or it may show a positive or negative deviation from Raoult's Law. How to predict that whether a solution of two given ...
SARTHAK AGARWAL's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
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The connection of the "R" in the ideal gas law and osmotic pressure [closed]

I am studying chemistry and biology at the same time, and have encountered a problem. In the ideal gas law, the $R$ is the ideal gas constant, and its value is $\pu{0.0821 L atm mol-1 K-1}.$ However, ...
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How to find relative lowering of vapour pressure from phase diagrams in terms of temperature?

Problem Answer My question Does a tie rule exist for solution solvent phase diagram to express relative lowering of vapour pressure in terms of temperature? The phase diagram is the one ...
Shashwat Gupta's user avatar
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3 answers
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Colligative properties of colloids [closed]

The following lines are from my textbook: Colloidal particles being bigger aggregates, the number of particles in a colloidal solution is smaller than a true solution. Hence, the values of ...
Ambica Govind's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why is measurement in molarity preferred over molality?

NCERT Chemistry Part 1 states that: "The osmotic pressure method has the advantage over other methods as pressure measurement is around the room temperature and the molarity of the solution is used ...
ibuprofen's user avatar
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1 answer
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Elevation in boiling point of water [closed]

$\pu{1060 g}$ of urea aqueous solution is subjected to heating. It starts boiling at $\pu{100.53 °C}.$ It is heated up to $\pu{102.12 °C}.$ Find amount of water vapourised in grams. (Pure water ...
Pheonix MC's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
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Do colligative properties depend on the number of solute molecules?

Colligative properties are properties that are affected by the number of solute molecules dissolved in the solution. True or false? I think the statement is false, and the correct one should use "...
Trong Duong's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
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Freezing Point Depression and Temperature Decrease

I don't have a problem understanding the chemical mechanisms underlying freezing point depression or colligative properties in general, but what I cannot seem to grasp is how if you add salt to ice ...
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1 answer
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Relative lowering of vapour pressure

Why is lowering of vapour pressure (Po - Ps) temperature dependent? And why is relative lowering of vapour pressure (1 - Ps/Po) independant of temperature?
yaseen wazir's user avatar
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3 answers
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How much salt (or any other substance one can find in a kitchen) do I need to add to make water boil at 104 °C?

I've seen some formulas around in other questions and Google searches, but my chemistry is pretty much dead so I have no clue where to find the relevant values to calculate it myself. I just need to ...
Louis Victor's user avatar
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2 answers
864 views

Is vapour pressure a surface phenomenon?

As a fact, I know that vapour pressure doesn't depend on surface area. Does this imply it is not a surface phenomenon also? It shouldn't be as then it would depend on surface area of molecules and ...
user226375's user avatar
40 votes
3 answers
11k views

Which "exotic salt" can lower water's freezing point by 70 °C?

The Medium.com article Mars Phoenix Lander, 10 Years Later shows several remarkable images and discoveries on Mars by the Mars Phoenix Lander circa 2008. One image (shown below) shows what looks like ...
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Freezing point lowering for a mixture of many liquids

I have been taught that if I have a solute of molality $m$ mixed with a liquid, the freezing point in lowered by an amount $K_\mathrm{f}\cdot m$ where $K_\mathrm{f}$ is the molal freezing depression ...
Vaishakh Sreekanth Menon's user avatar
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Does the mole fraction of a solution change with Vant Hoff factor?

I reason that as mole fraction is a measure of colligative properties, increase in the Vant Hoff factor ( and hence increase in the value of colligative properties) should also leave a mark on the ...
Aabesh Ghosh's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
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Why do colligative properties depend only on number of solute particles?

Colligative properties depend solely on the number of even though the interactive forces are different for different solute-solvent pairs. So why is the dependence only on the number of solute?
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Is there any difference between isotonic and isosmotic solution?

Is there any difference between isotonic and isosmotic solution? Can we say isotonic solution do not show osmosis because they have same osmotic pressure?
Kundan's user avatar
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What happens to depression when two solutions are mixed? [closed]

Equal volumes of $\pu{1.0 M}$ $\ce{KCl (aq)}$ and $\pu{1.0 M}$ $\ce{AgNO3 (aq)}$ solutions are mixed. The depression of freezing point of the resulting solution (with respect to water) will be (assume ...
Asad Ahmad's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
352 views

Intuitive explanation for depression of freezing point

Why does depression of freezing point takes place if a non-volatile solute is added to the solution? For more details about the question checkout this link below Depression of freezing point
Chemist's user avatar
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Why it is very rare to find a compound that lacks carbon to be liquid at standard temperatures and pressures?

It is the first time I heard such a generalization, I had no idea. Why being liquid in standard conditions is special to compounds which contain carbon atom? Which property of carbon cause this?
O.Ceren's user avatar
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Proper explanation for depression of freezing point [closed]

Why does depression of freezing point takes place if a non-volatile solute is added to the solution? Depression of freezing point
Chemist's user avatar
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Depression of freezing point [closed]

Recently, I learnt that by adding a non-volatile solute to a solvent, the vapour pressure of the solution is decreased and consequently its boiling point. Facts and definitions freezing point: "The ...
Chemist's user avatar
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Why does freezing point decrease when vapour pressure decreases in dilute solutions?

I was studying colligative properties of dilute solutions, and one of the properties was freezing point depression. The confusion I had was that, if vapour pressure decreases, it should be easier to ...
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