Questions tagged [chemical-potential]

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Question about chemical potential of a multicomponent ideal gas

Consider a pure ideal gas, i.e. only having one component. The chemical potential and free energy of this gas are as follows: $$\mu_1=\mu^\circ(T)+RT\ln\left(P\right)$$ $$G_1=n\mu_1$$ Where n is the ...
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Henry's Law vs Raoult's Law Standard States for Activities

I am currently reading McQuarrie and Simon's Physical Chemistry and don't fully understand their discussion of standard states for activities. On page 990 they write (with a few minor adjustments to ...
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Simple Calculation of Potentials for a hydrogen-oxygen Fuel cell, unexpected results from book example

I am reading "Alternative energy systems" by Hodge. On the fuel cell section, the author has an example for calculating the potential required for the fuel cell as a function of temperature ...
RMS's user avatar
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2 answers
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What solvents can I use to dissolve Epichlorohydrin rubber and Chloroprene Rubber

I am working with Epichlorohydrin and Chloroprene Rubbers and I would like to cast films of 2 mm at most. The solvents I have in my lab are DMSO, THF, DMF, Acetone, Ethanol and Propylene Carbonate. ...
Arjun Satheesh's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
352 views

Total Differential of Chemical Potential

I have seen many sources (for example this libretext) cite that the total differential of chemical potential is $$d\mu = V_m dP - S_m dT$$ where $V_m$ is the molar volume and $S_m$ is the molar ...
Johnny Smith's user avatar
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1 answer
151 views

What meaning does Gibbs energy acquire when applied to solutions?

I have been picturing functions like enthalpy and Gibbs free energy as mathematical tools, which were defined in such a way as to be useful for some specific cases. I understood enthalpy as a useful ...
jack gatz's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
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Thermodynamics potential and differences between them

There are 5 most common thermodynamics potential - But we will discuss about only three of them - Internal energy (∆U) Enthalpy(∆H) Gibbs free energy (∆G) As Gibbs free energy is also a ...
Govind Prajapat's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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If gaseous oxygen and dissolved oxygen (in water) have the same partial pressure, will they diffuse into solid materials at comparable rate?

To be specific, I am wondering about the dynamics of molecular oxygen diffusion into gas-permeable polymer materials, which is the sensing process of the optical oxygen probe (polymer-encapsulated ...
GradStudent_BME's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
125 views

Why is electrochemical potential defined as sum of electrical potential and apparent electrical potential energy?

Engel and Reid's Physical Chemistry [1, p. 308] defines the electrochemical potential in terms of the charge in units of the electron charge $(z),$ Faraday constant $(F),$ and electrical potential $(\...
Natasha J's user avatar
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1 answer
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What if kc=1 will reactants concentration equals to product concentration [closed]

I read a book, it says if kc=1 it mean reactant concentration equals to product concentration at equilibrium. But I'm wondering that in kc expression we dont just use concentration of an element we ...
Zayden's user avatar
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Chemical potentials of mixture of two kinds of ideal gases vs. ideal gas separated by partition

Consider the below physical situations: (i) Closed rigid container of volume $V$ that is isolated from the rest of the universe with uniform temperature $T$ and pressure $P$ filled and mixed with two ...
Ray Siplao's user avatar
6 votes
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78 views

Do "pseudo Van der Waals" gases exist?

In college, when deriving the Langmuir isotherm for gas-solid adsorption, the professor proposed a modified version of the Van der Waals state equation, what he called the "pseudo Van der Waals ...
David Moldes's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
86 views

Question on Nernst equation [closed]

What does the graph of cell potential versus temperature look like? Would that look same as the graph between cell potential and temperature difference? (Please correct me if I am missing some concept!...
Aayushi's user avatar
2 votes
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Can chemical potential be directly measured like this?

I have a system of a pure ideal gas $a$, which I call 'the reference', with a known $P^{ref}, V^{ref}, T^{ref}$ and $n^{ref}_a$. I know the chemical potential formula for an ideal gas, so can ...
Juan Perez's user avatar
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66 views

What is the necessary and sufficient condition for a mixture to be ideal?

I am trying to understand some concepts from solution thermodynamics related to ideal mixtures and fugacity. My main question is what is the necessary and sufficient condition for a mixture to be an ...
C. Taylor's user avatar
-1 votes
3 answers
191 views

What exactly happens in a Chemical Potential Energy Graph? [duplicate]

Along the x-axis, the progress of the reaction is observed, while along the y-axis, the potential energy of the reactants/products are observed. They keep rising until they attain the required ...
Aniket 's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
164 views

Why does the equation for chemical potential apply to liquids and aqueous solutes?

The equation for chemical potential of a gas can be derived as such: At constant temperature, $$\mathrm dG = V\,\mathrm dP \label{eqn:1}\tag{1}$$ Substituting with the ideal gas law $PV = nRT$, $$\...
Heat's user avatar
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Meaning of chemical potential in chemical reactions

In my thermodynamics course, we introduced the chemical potential as a modification of the first + second law of thermodynamics in the case of a system that can exchange particles with its ...
Peter's user avatar
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1 answer
135 views

How to apply a certain voltage vs SHE

For one of my projects, I must apply a voltage at the electrodes of -1V and +2V vs SHE. But my device potentiostat picks a voltages of 3V. How am i certain that it doesn't apply the voltage between -...
ide123's user avatar
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2 answers
172 views

Equilibrium chemical potential if the population is not conserved?

The chemical potential, $\mu$, is equal to the free energy $F$, per photon. $$F = \mu = u-Ts$$ The energy per photon is $u=h\nu$ and $s$ is the entropy per photon. Say we have a process where an ...
Tomi's user avatar
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How Sodium Nitrite Interacts with Air and Humidity

What happens to integrity of sodium nitrite (NaNo², CAS: 7632-00-0) of AR grade when it gets exposed to air? If container has been opened and chemical has been exposed to air for a few minutes and ...
Boris_yo's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is equilibrium point for a coupled equilibria of arbitary number of coupled reactions is a unique point?

I was solving a question of salt hydrolysis for a mixture of Weak Acid-Base Salts, given the initial amount of salt and Equilibrium constants. I was trying to approach the problem in two ways, ...
Deepak Arya's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
222 views

Do helium and neon form "stable" chemical compounds?

Helium and neon are the two most unreactive elements in the Periodic Table, but could they form compounds with an element such as fluorine that won't spontaneously explode and decompose outside of ...
Bruh Moments's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
739 views

Enthalpy in the van't Hoff equation

In the van't Hoff equation, why do we say that the change in enthalpy at standard pressure is constant? My book derives the equation for a mixture of ideal gases reacting with each other. The proof ...
User3141's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Practical meaning of omega potential

In statistical thermodynamics, the quantity omega potential is defined and is different for fermions, photons, phonons and other particles . I have been understanding the derivations of omega ...
PV.'s user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Do high-energy chemical bonds indicate strong chemical bonds?

In my head it seems reasonable that a high-energy bond would indicate that the bond is strong, however a question got me thinking. Take for example lead azide, a very explosive compound that is often ...
Jack's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
143 views

Ordered and random energy [closed]

One of the books refer to potential energy being ordered whereas heat energy being random. Could someone explain what is ordered and random energy?
Jenna's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
1k views

CO2 Catalytic Converter

We all know how CO2, as a greenhouse gas affects the climate and causes global warming. I was thinking of a small device, which could be attached to the exhaust pipe of an automobile. It could convert ...
Math_Whiz's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
2k views

Physical significance of chemical potential and fugacity

I'm studying equilibria and thermodynamics and came across these two terms. My problem is, unlike other thermodynamic properties that I can understand physically like volume, pressure, enthalpy etc. ...
user14812745's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
31 views

Working out energies of hydrogen bonds by comparing chemical potential of vapour and condensed phase - equation derivation

I want to ask a question about working out the energy of a hydrogen bond between two water molecules, $w_{AA}$ using the chemical potentials of vapour and condensed phases. I was reading K. Dill, ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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how to obtain potential curves from database?

I'm sorry if this is a really super basic question. I am looking at the potential curves of a diatomic molecule in a book , and to plot them. I google the molecule and got to the NIST website, there I ...
dpdp's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
216 views

How to experimentally determine the chemical potential of salt water? [closed]

I have NaCl dissolved in water. How do I find the chem potential?
Raze XIX's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
766 views

Chemical potential and gibbs free energy

I would like to ask why the $\Delta_rG_1 = -RT\ln K + RT\ln Q$ is not equal to $Δ_rG_2$ numerically as shown in the figure where I derived $\Delta_rG_2 = RT\ln Q$ using a cyclic ring since $\Delta_rG$ ...
Barry's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Integration of chemical potential

I want to ask a question about chemical potential, $\mu$. I dislike the use of integrals to describe quantities in thermodynamics. If we observe the definition of chemical potential for constant ...
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