Questions tagged [chemical-potential]

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What is the necessary and sufficient condition for a mixture to be ideal?

I am trying to understand some concepts from solution thermodynamics related to ideal mixtures and fugacity. My main question is what is the necessary and sufficient condition for a mixture to be an ...
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What exactly happens in a Chemical Potential Energy Graph? [duplicate]

Along the x-axis, the progress of the reaction is observed, while along the y-axis, the potential energy of the reactants/products are observed. They keep rising until they attain the required ...
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Why does the equation for chemical potential apply to liquids and aqueous solutes?

The equation for chemical potential of a gas can be derived as such: At constant temperature, $$\mathrm dG = V\,\mathrm dP \label{eqn:1}\tag{1}$$ Substituting with the ideal gas law $PV = nRT$, $$\...
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Meaning of chemical potential in chemical reactions

In my thermodynamics course, we introduced the chemical potential as a modification of the first + second law of thermodynamics in the case of a system that can exchange particles with its ...
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How to apply a certain voltage vs SHE

For one of my projects, I must apply a voltage at the electrodes of -1V and +2V vs SHE. But my device potentiostat picks a voltages of 3V. How am i certain that it doesn't apply the voltage between -...
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Equilibrium chemical potential if the population is not conserved?

The chemical potential, $\mu$, is equal to the free energy $F$, per photon. $$F = \mu = u-Ts$$ The energy per photon is $u=h\nu$ and $s$ is the entropy per photon. Say we have a process where an ...
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Finding Potential Depth of Multiple-Minimum in a PEC

Suppose we have the following curve with more than one well and different maximum points: My simple question is how to calculate the potential depth of each well? Do we calculate all the potential ...
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How Sodium Nitrite Interacts with Air and Humidity

What happens to integrity of sodium nitrite (NaNo², CAS: 7632-00-0) of AR grade when it gets exposed to air? If container has been opened and chemical has been exposed to air for a few minutes and ...
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Is equilibrium point for a coupled equilibria of arbitary number of coupled reactions is a unique point?

I was solving a question of salt hydrolysis for a mixture of Weak Acid-Base Salts, given the initial amount of salt and Equilibrium constants. I was trying to approach the problem in two ways, ...
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Do helium and neon form "stable" chemical compounds?

Helium and neon are the two most unreactive elements in the Periodic Table, but could they form compounds with an element such as fluorine that won't spontaneously explode and decompose outside of ...
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Enthalpy in the van't Hoff equation

In the van't Hoff equation, why do we say that the change in enthalpy at standard pressure is constant? My book derives the equation for a mixture of ideal gases reacting with each other. The proof ...
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Practical meaning of omega potential

In statistical thermodynamics, the quantity omega potential is defined and is different for fermions, photons, phonons and other particles . I have been understanding the derivations of omega ...
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Do high-energy chemical bonds indicate strong chemical bonds?

In my head it seems reasonable that a high-energy bond would indicate that the bond is strong, however a question got me thinking. Take for example lead azide, a very explosive compound that is often ...
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Ordered and random energy [closed]

One of the books refer to potential energy being ordered whereas heat energy being random. Could someone explain what is ordered and random energy?
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CO2 Catalytic Converter

We all know how CO2, as a greenhouse gas affects the climate and causes global warming. I was thinking of a small device, which could be attached to the exhaust pipe of an automobile. It could convert ...
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Physical significance of chemical potential and fugacity

I'm studying equilibria and thermodynamics and came across these two terms. My problem is, unlike other thermodynamic properties that I can understand physically like volume, pressure, enthalpy etc. ...
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Working out energies of hydrogen bonds by comparing chemical potential of vapour and condensed phase - equation derivation

I want to ask a question about working out the energy of a hydrogen bond between two water molecules, $w_{AA}$ using the chemical potentials of vapour and condensed phases. I was reading K. Dill, ...
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how to obtain potential curves from database?

I'm sorry if this is a really super basic question. I am looking at the potential curves of a diatomic molecule in a book , and to plot them. I google the molecule and got to the NIST website, there I ...
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How to experimentally determine the chemical potential of salt water? [closed]

I have NaCl dissolved in water. How do I find the chem potential?
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Chemical potential and gibbs free energy

I would like to ask why the $\Delta_rG_1 = -RT\ln K + RT\ln Q$ is not equal to $Δ_rG_2$ numerically as shown in the figure where I derived $\Delta_rG_2 = RT\ln Q$ using a cyclic ring since $\Delta_rG$ ...
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Integration of chemical potential

I want to ask a question about chemical potential, $\mu$. I dislike the use of integrals to describe quantities in thermodynamics. If we observe the definition of chemical potential for constant ...
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