Questions tagged [carbon-allotropes]

This tag should be applied to questions about the various allotropes of carbon and their physical or chemical properties. Most important modifications are diamond, graphite, fullerenes, graphene and nanotubes.

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Is it possible to melt a diamond? [duplicate]

I am school student. In my school text book there is a fact about diamond. That is Each carbon atom is covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms. A lot of energy is needed to separate the atoms ...
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How is graphite a covalent solid?

I know it is covalent because there are covalent bonds between atoms of carbon in the same plane. But there are Van der Waals interactions between different planes. Isn't this a feature of molecular ...
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Why can't one make C60 with a combination of hexagons and heptagons?

$\ce{C60}$ has a pentagon-hexagon system. Why can't one make it from a hexagon-heptagon system, or a pentagon-heptagon system for that matter?
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Can diamond be melted in a thermite reaction? [duplicate]

My book says A thermite reaction is an exothermic reaction, it releases a large amount of heat so that temperature increases up to 3500 °C. On the other hand, it says the melting point of diamond ...
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Chemical shifts seen during XPS

When in X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, an Si $2p$ peak is defined or a C $1s$ peak is defined at a certain binding energy, how is it done? I presume it is done from mono-crystalline Si but even in ...
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sp2 hybridized carbon versus sp3 hybridized silicon

Carbon's most commonly found allotrope is graphite/soot/fullerene/carbon nanotubes which are all $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized forms of it, while silicon being its first periodic twin is mostly found in ...
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Band gap of fullerenes

From what I have read about fullerenes, the lower fullerenes like $\ce{C60}$ or $\ce{C70}$ have higher bandgaps around 3.5 eV or such, while the higher fullerenes have much smaller bandgaps of the ...
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Total number of carbon atoms in buckminsterfullerene

From what I read, buckminsterfullerene is composed of 60 carbon atoms, $\ce{C_{60}}$ and it is made up of 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons. So, I decided to do a back of the hand calculation with the ...
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Delocalised electron in graphite

I have a question regarding the delocalised electron in graphite. There has been conflicting information between books. Some books said the delocalised electron in graphite exists $\bf{between}$ ...
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Are graphite and hexagonal boron nitride aromatic

Are graphite and hexagonal boron nitride aromatic? Graphite has a planar network of 6-membered rings with each carbon connected to three other carbons. Since the valency of carbon is not satisfied, ...
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How can one make graphene cables?

You might have seen in the short 2 minute video here: billionsinchange.com/solutions/limitless-energy that the Billionaire Founder (net worth $4 billion) Manoj Bhargava talks about creating cables ...
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What is a 'corona phase'?

What is a 'corona phase'? I have come across this term in several papers, including this one but all I have found concerning its definition is: [...] synthetic heteropolymers, once constrained ...
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How small is the smallest known carbon ring containing only double bonds?

How small is the smallest known carbon ring containing only double bonds? The stress from the double bonds makes small rings impossible to make something like cyclohexahexaene so I want to know how ...
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What is Q-carbon? Does it exist?

Glowing press releases and news articles in 2015 proclaimed a new allotrope of carbon. However, even the journal article is light on chemical detail (e.g. no structural formula). What is its bond ...
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Allotropes of carbon conductivity [closed]

Give reason how can i made diamond a conductor by doping charcoal and graphite which are allotrope of Carbon act as conductor. Whereas diamond which has a different crystal structure act as an ...
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Does diamond have a pungent smell like graphite?

I was writing down a chemical equation with my pencil and noticed the pungent smell of the graphite. This made me wonder if other substances made of carbon, such as diamond, have a similar pungent ...
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Is graphene a polymer?

A polymer is sometimes defined as a macromolecule with MW larger than 1000 g/mol. So can graphene be considered a polymer?
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What makes most all-carbon materials so strong?

For some reason, stuff made entirely of carbon atoms tends to be incredibly strong, beyond just about anything else known to material science. It doesn't seem to matter too much how the carbon is ...
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Best Method To Make Large Graphene Oxide Sheets?

There are so many methods to make graphene oxide now, I'm not exactly experienced enough to know which is ideal. I want to know what the best method is for making large graphene oxide membranes. The ...
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Why elemental carbon is solid?

Carbon with 6 protons, the first of its group, is a solid, while the very next elements, nitrogen and oxygen, are gaseous in their elemental form. Why carbon is a solid? If it's not the molar mass ...
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Is buckminsterfullerene aromatic?

According to Wikipedia, The $\ce{C60}$ molecule is extremely stable,[26] withstanding high temperatures and high pressures. The exposed surface of the structure can selectively react with other ...
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Structure of Buckminsterfullerene

In several pictures that I have seen of buckminsterfullerene and graphite (such as below), each carbon is bonded to only 3 other carbons, so it only forms 3 covalent bonds. I asked my teacher about ...
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Water Droplet permeability through Graphene Oxide

TL;DR: The above image is an over simplified model to my question begging to know whether the permeation behavior exhibited by water droplets through graphene oxide is the top image or the bottom. I ...
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Molecular differences in the HB graphite hardness scale

Today, I bought some graphite for my pencil. It is rated HB on the HB graphite scale, a measurement of the hardness of graphite. My question is how can there be different hardnesses of the same ...
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Are diamonds really forever?

Common saying. Diamond possesses: ultra hardness, (10 on the Mohs scale; 10000 HV on Vicker's Hard Test (iron merely 30-80)) hyper thermal conductivity, ($2320~\mathrm{W\, m^{-1}\, K^{-1}}$, or over ...
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Can I make my own graphene at home in my kitchen?

Graphene is cool. Can I make some? What do I need? Is it at all feasible to make it in quantity?
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Is turning graphite carbon into diamond industrially doable?

I've read somewhere on the Internet that heating graphite at 4200°K at a sufficiently high pressure would turn it into diamond. This chart seems to support this idea: Is that doable industrially?
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Are there any early industrial age methods capable of determining diamond or graphite's crystalline structure?

I'm writing a fictional story with early industrial age technology where a chemist discovers not only that diamond and graphite are made of the same substance, but that they differ by crystalline ...
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How to calculate mass of nanomaterial grown on a substrate

I'm growing graphene on copper substrates and need to know the mass. The graphene is grown via chemical vapor deposition; amounts of reactants are not completely known. The best approach I've thought ...
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Only-C chain molecules

Are (cyclic) $\ce{C}$-chain molecules as in the picture likely to occur or do they exist at all? and so on... EDIT: I'm considering only double bonds between $\ce{C}$ atoms. This rules out most ...
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Galvanic reaction between aluminum and carbon fiber composite

I understand that there is a galvanic reaction between aluminum and carbon fiber composite. Structural aluminum parts in contact with carbon fiber composites should be insulated by something like ...
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Why carbon nanotubes can act as a good electrical conductor?

Bulk carbon is an insulator, but at nanoscale (e.g. carbon nanotubes) carbon may become a good electrical conductor. If I am correct this means carbon nanotube band structure is metal-like. E.g. it ...
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What is the process or material that can enhance the conductivity of the graphene oxide?

I am doing a research and experiment on using Graphene oxide for deicing. My purpose is to coat graphene oxide on the surface of the ship in the north and south pole where large amount of large size ...
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Is graphite more stable than diamond?

The change in enthalpy of carbon in diamond form to graphite is negative. This suggests that graphite should be more stable than diamond. Is it true? What I thought was that graphite has van der ...
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Spin coat of Graphene oxide on glass slides

I would like to spin coat Graphene oxide on the glass slides and intend to have a thickness of 100nm/0.1micrometre. May I know what is the amount of Graphene oxide to be poured onto the glass slides, ...
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Gas-Phase Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

I'm new to the subject of carbon nanotubes; However, I recently studied a little about them. But I failed to understand the gas phase functionalization. As I understand, this technique is used to ...
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Are there economical ways of synthesizing nanotubes?

I've heard Nanotubes will replace Li-ion batteries in the future and it is much more relevant. I just wanted to know could it really replace Li-ion batteries? Is synthesizing nanotubes economic?
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What's the type of bonding in La@C60?

Endohedral fullerene is the name given to a brand new chemical species with the following attributes: A metal, usually a transition metal, is "trapped" inside the fullerene, like $\ce{C60}$ and $\...
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Producing carbon nanotubes from graphite

I am searching for the carbon nanotubes for very low cost. I have one idea, which is to use graphite (such as that found in pencils.) Can it be converted to carbon nanotubes? If so, what would be the ...
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How are pencil marks “adhered” to the paper?

Pencils create marks by physical abrasion, leaving behind a trail of solid core material that adheres to a sheet of paper or other surface. Wikipedia Normal paper is mainly composed of cellulose ...
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Distortion of graphene structure

What is the effect of rolling a graphene sheet into a carbon nanotube on the lattice constant and the geometry of the graphene?
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Why is Graphene So Strong?

There has been a lot of news about Graphene since its discovery in 2004. And as we are all told it is a revolutionary material which is very strong, conductive and transparent; even in some cases it ...
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Structure of carbon fiber

What is the structure of carbon fiber? Wikipedia doesn't give much insight. The atomic structure of carbon fiber is similar to that of graphite, consisting of sheets of carbon atoms (graphene ...
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Why does graphite conduct electricity? [duplicate]

The answer i know is delocalized electrons. But how?this site tells me that: My textbook tells me that one carbon atom is bonded to three others and two of these bonds are single while the third is ...
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What makes carbon special and versatile?

My teacher told me that carbon's tetravalency and high catenation ability makes it special and is the reason why there are millions of compounds of carbon. 1) Silicon is tetravalent too but doesn't ...
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What chemical substance is obtained by dissolving C60 in olive oil?

What chemical substance/component would be obtained of dissolving $\ce{C60}$ in olive oil? Would buckminsterfullerene (bucky-ball) change its spherical fullerene structure (soccer ball-like) into ...
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Is graphene chemically reactive?

Different internet sources say different things. If possible, can someone explain why it is (or isn't) chemically reactive?
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Why is the standard enthalpy of formation of diamond not zero?

Why doesn’t diamond have $\Delta H_\mathrm{f}^\circ=0$, when graphite does? Is it something to do with the definition – diamonds can’t really form at STP, even though it is naturally occurring?
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Graphene Vs Copper?

I was wondering about the amazing conductive properties of graphene, lets assume a large copper bar that is 10 kg, current of 1kA and probably more can flow in it, what about graphene? It certainly ...
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Is the valency of carbon satisfied in graphite?

Graphite has hexagonal parallel planes. In a hexagonal structure the carbon atom has three bonds. Since the valancy of carbon is 4 is the valency satisfied in graphite?