Questions tagged [carbon-allotropes]

This tag should be applied to questions about the various allotropes of carbon and their physical or chemical properties. Most important modifications are diamond, graphite, fullerenes, graphene and nanotubes.

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What is the order of adding chemicals in Hummers method for graphite oxide?

I am trying to make graphene oxide but failing miserably. The XRD peak is at 24 (2θ) instead of being near 10. Raman shows correct g and d peaks but are not very sharp. The colour of the end product ...
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How is bulminsterfullerene aromatic? [duplicate]

I have read that carbon of bulkminsterfullerene has sp2 hybridization and forms 3 bonds with C atom and 1 electron unpaired that is delocalised in molecular orbital. That gives it aromatic character....
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Understanding lattice matching of graphene on silver (111) crystal surface and meaning of the √3 x √3 lattice?

Figure 1 in Ivor Lončarić and Vito Despoja, Phys. Rev. B 90, 075414 Benchmarking van der Waals functionals with noncontact RPA calculations on graphene-Ag(111) (available in Researchgate) shows a ...
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Electrical conductivity of graphite

On this Wikipedia page, the electrical conductivity of various materials are given in the third column ($\sigma \text{ (S/m) at 20}^\circ \text{C}$). I am interested in the entry for Carbon (graphite)...
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Graphite: Thermal and electrical conductivity

I recently encounter this question: Compare, while providing an explanation, the thermal and electrical conductivity of graphite to that of diamond. Provided answer: Graphite conducts electricity(...
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Are diamonds really forever?

Common saying. Diamond possesses: ultra hardness, (10 on the Mohs scale; 10000 HV on Vicker's Hard Test (iron merely 30-80)) hyper thermal conductivity, ($2320~\mathrm{W\, m^{-1}\, K^{-1}}$, or over ...
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How is the aromaticity in graphene different from the aromaticity in benzene?

The web page Aromaticity in Graphene and other 2-D Systems begins: I. Graphene While the σ-bonding in graphene is assumed to be a rigid honeycomb framework built out of two-center two-...
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Why are Buckminsterfullerene (C60) solutions pink/purple?

A solution of Buckminsterfullerene $\ce{(C60)}$ is shown below: According to the April 8th Wikipedia page on Buckminsterfullerene $\ce{(C60)}$: Solutions of pure C60 have a deep purple color which ...
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C60 Fullerene Polymers?

Upon scouring Wikipedia for info about fullerenes to research, I came across this paragraph in the page on Buckminsterfullerene (C60): Under high pressure and temperature, repeated [2+2] ...
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Other molecules like fullerenes?

When I first heard about buckminsterfullerene, I thought it was a very fascinating molecule, with its interesting complex ring structure and pseudo-symmetry. I wonder though, can you get similar ...
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Graphene Vs Copper?

I was wondering about the amazing conductive properties of graphene, lets assume a large copper bar that is 10 kg, current of 1kA and probably more can flow in it, what about graphene? It certainly ...
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What dangers/risks are there in the production of carbon subnitride?

I was reading that carbon subnitride or Dicyanoacetylene has one of the hottest flames when used as a fuel, but it also is unstable and can explode easily into carbon powder (no specifics on cause). ...
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Why is fullerene 60 an insulator while graphite is a conductor?

Graphite is good conductor of electricity because one carbon atom is bonded only three carbon atoms, which enables the presence of free electrons. In fullerene 60 the carbon atoms are also bonded to ...
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Why is graphite brittle?

Carbon exists in more than one allotropic forms, and the allotropes have different physical properties due to different arrangement of atoms. I am going to compare their hardness for now. Below is ...
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How does acetone remove pencil marks?

In another question it was noted that acetone is a useful solvent for removing pencil marks from wood surfaces. (Source: https://woodworking.stackexchange.com/a/1870/763) I'm used to acetone being ...
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Producing carbon nanotubes from graphite

I am searching for the carbon nanotubes for very low cost. I have one idea, which is to use graphite (such as that found in pencils.) Can it be converted to carbon nanotubes? If so, what would be the ...
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How is it possible to melt diamonds? [duplicate]

On another thread on this website it mentioned how it was possible to melt diamonds, but what would be the micro-level occur for that to happen. This question applies to Silicon Oxide aswell. They ...
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The structure of exploding buckminsterfullerene-nitrous oxide compounds

Recently, looking into structures of buckminsterfullerenes, I have found several articles claiming that attaching 12, or “several” nitrous oxide molecules to the buckminsterfullerene will cause it to ...
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Would graphene be a good efficient conductor of electricity in mobile phones [duplicate]

Gold is commonly used in mobile phones as an electrical conductor,as it is apparently better than copper at conducting electricity Quoting from extremetech.com : "The materials recovered are reused ...
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Is cyclo[18]carbon aromatic?

How does this compound even exist? Having such a massive ring strain. Is it even conjugated? As it's resonance structure will have all double bonds. Since it was reported to be found, there must be ...
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Is it possible to have an allotrope of carbon as a long unbranched chain of itself?

Is it possible to have an allotrope of carbon with formula $\ce{(=C=)_n}$? Well, let's actually leave alone the separate question like from which "monomer" would one produce such a thing (can one ...
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Does ordered mesoporous carbon (for example, CMK-3) contain aromatic rings?

I'm studying the article Synthesis of ordered mesoporous phenanthrenequinone-carbon via π-π interaction-dependent vapor pressure for rechargeable batteries, in which authors explain some properties of ...
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Is graphite more stable than diamond?

The change in enthalpy of carbon in diamond form to graphite is negative. This suggests that graphite should be more stable than diamond. Is it true? What I thought was that graphite has van der ...
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Why does the image of cyclo[18]carbon look like a nonagon?

The $\ce{C18}$ allotrope cyclocarbon has been synthesized and imaged.[1] Science has most details behind a paywall, but this discussion includes an image: In this octakaidecagonal molecule, each $\ce{...
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Carbon-Carbon Chain stabilities [duplicate]

While learning about Carbon and its Compounds in a class 10 coaching, I suggested a structure for some isomers. It contained a connection of two consecutive carbons connected by double bonds. The ...
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Is diamond an allotrope or polymorph of carbon?

Is diamond an allotrope or polymorph of carbon? When is something considered an allotrope vs a polymorph?
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What is the approximate cost per unit length to synthesize carbon nanotubes free of defects? [closed]

As implied near the end of this article, carbon nanotube fibers have been synthesized in chunks on the order of about a centimeter in length (Fei Wei at Tsinghua University in 2018). What is the cost ...
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Calling Diamond an element?

Is it scientifically correct to call Diamond an element? Carbon has a wide range of allotropes, so would it be correct to actually just call graphite, diamond etc an element. For that matter, could we ...
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How hot will a carbon electrode get in an electrolysis setup?

For the electrolysis of sulfuric acid, I plan to use carbon graphite electrodes at voltages up to 6 V. I would like to know if my carbon electrodes would get considerably hot or warm (45 °C or higher)....
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Are graphite and hexagonal boron nitride aromatic

Are graphite and hexagonal boron nitride aromatic? Graphite has a planar network of 6-membered rings with each carbon connected to three other carbons. Since the valency of carbon is not satisfied, ...
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What happens to the carbon in carbon steel when it rusts?

Carbon steel is iron containing some carbon in various forms of iron carbide. When it rusts (oxidises), the iron becomes part of all kinds of crystalline and amorphous iron oxides and hydroxides, ...
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What molecules are produced in carbon arc lamp and how do they produce light?

I am curious about the chemistry of the arc lamp (an indirectly for the incandescent bulbs) thus I would like to ask the following. It is a common understanding that the electrons pushed inside an ...
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Why can a diamond be broken using a hammer if it's the hardest natural substance known?

I've heard that diamond is the hardest natural known material but, on Google search, I found that it can easily be broken by a hammer as it's not tough. So, what is difference between hardness ...
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Home-grown diamond using CVD

I want to make a diamond at home using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). If I use a metal chamber filled with methane and hydrogen gas and heated with a microwave oven oscillator element, will the ...
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Is the valency of carbon satisfied in graphite?

Graphite has hexagonal parallel planes. In a hexagonal structure the carbon atom has three bonds. Since the valancy of carbon is 4 is the valency satisfied in graphite?
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Possibility of non-hexagonal graphene

I understand that monolayer carbon naturally forms in a regular hexagonal tiling. Is it, however, possible (if difficult) to form carbon monolayers of a different structure? A 3-12-12 tiling, for ...
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Why does diamond conduct heat better than graphite?

Our teachers made us accept (without any explanation) that diamond conducts heat better than graphite. What is the reason behind this (alleged) fact?
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Is a diamond a single molecule?

Assuming a perfect diamond with no impurities. Would this diamond considered to be a single large molecule? Browsing the interweb I found several opinions about this but did not find a clear Yes or No....
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Why does diamond have no molecular formula?

Why does diamond have no molecular formula, while buckminsterfullerene does have it, despite both being allotropes of the same element?
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Why are isotopically pure diamonds 50% more thermally conductive than other diamonds?

A laboratory grown type-IIa diamond (no nitrogen defects) has a lambda of $\pu{1800-2200 W/mK}$, but an isotopically pure diamond of $\ce{^{12}C}$ can have up to $\pu{3320 W/mK}$. Why are $\ce{^{12}C}...
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Why does C=C bond replace C-O bond when two graphite platelets are rubbed against each other edge on edge?

When two small 2D carbon platelets are pushed into proximity, why do they release the edge attached molecule (maybe O) and then bond C to C? I think the answer I seek would address the relative ...
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Aetiology of the word “fullerene” in Chemistry

I am a mathematician and not a chemist, and I am trying to understand the historical relationship and current usage of the word "fullerene" across Mathematics and Chemistry. I apologise in advance ...
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Do molecules containing only carbon exist?

Why doesnt carbon forms bonds with itself to form a molecule. Carbon shows the property of catenation then why doesnt it form a cyclic molecule as : ...
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Why is Graphene So Strong?

There has been a lot of news about Graphene since its discovery in 2004. And as we are all told it is a revolutionary material which is very strong, conductive and transparent; even in some cases it ...
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Why does it require so much pressure to create diamonds?

Why does it require so much energy/pressure to create diamonds, yet with silicon it is very easy and (I believe) naturally occurs in a "diamond" structure, i.e. where each atom is covalently bonded to ...
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If graphite's just a huge polymer of benzene why isn't it an aromatic compound (polymer?)

My teacher had once told me that graphite was just an insanely huge polymer of benzene (Those weren't his exact words but the gist). Today While we were studying aromaticity in organic compounds we ...
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How is the covalency of terminal carbons of a diamond satisfied? [duplicate]

Are the terminal carbons of the diamond lattice remain bonded to some element like hydrogen? Or, is it that they don't achieve octate in their outer shell?
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How to make artificial diamond?

Carbon can be turned to diamond artificially, but while watching a video I learned that a diamond can be made from the ashes of a man, how is this possible?
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Existence of tesserane and it's properties

Could there exist an allotrope of carbon, $\ce{C16}$ where the overall shape of the molecule is a three dimensional representation of a tesseract? And what are its (predicted if unknown/unsynthesised) ...
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How are pencil marks “adhered” to the paper?

Pencils create marks by physical abrasion, leaving behind a trail of solid core material that adheres to a sheet of paper or other surface. Wikipedia Normal paper is mainly composed of cellulose ...