Questions tagged [carbon-allotropes]

This tag should be applied to questions about the various allotropes of carbon and their physical or chemical properties. Most important modifications are diamond, graphite, fullerenes, graphene and nanotubes.

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Is it possible to have an allotrope of carbon with formula $(=C=)_n$?

Well, let's actually leave alone the separate question like from which "monomer" would one produce such a thing (can one actually consider it being a polymer? Or a covalent crystal?), because it seems ...
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Carbon-Carbon Chain stabilities [duplicate]

While learning about Carbon and its Compounds in a class 10 coaching, I suggested a structure for some isomers. It contained a connection of two consecutive carbons connected by double bonds. The ...
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Does ordered mesoporous carbon (for example, CMK-3) contain aromatic rings?

I'm studying the article Synthesis of ordered mesoporous phenanthrenequinone-carbon via π-π interaction-dependent vapor pressure for rechargeable batteries, in which authors explain some properties of ...
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Why does the image of cyclo[18]carbon look like a nonagon?

The $\ce{C18}$ allotrope cyclocarbon has been synthesized and imaged.[1] Science has most details behind a paywall, but this discussion includes an image: In this octakaidecagonal molecule, each $\ce{...
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What is the approximate cost per unit length to synthesize carbon nanotubes free of defects? [closed]

As implied near the end of this article, carbon nanotube fibers have been synthesized in chunks on the order of about a centimeter in length (Fei Wei at Tsinghua University in 2018). What is the cost ...
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How hot will a carbon electrode get in an electrolysis setup?

For the electrolysis of sulfuric acid, I plan to use carbon graphite electrodes at voltages up to 6 V. I would like to know if my carbon electrodes would get considerably hot or warm (45 °C or higher)....
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What happens to the carbon in carbon steel when it rusts?

Carbon steel is iron containing some carbon in various forms of iron carbide. When it rusts (oxidises), the iron becomes part of all kinds of crystalline and amorphous iron oxides and hydroxides, ...
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What molecules are produced in carbon arc lamp and how do they produce light?

I am curious about the chemistry of the arc lamp (an indirectly for the incandescent bulbs) thus I would like to ask the following. It is a common understanding that the electrons pushed inside an ...
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Understanding lattice matching of graphene on silver (111) crystal surface and meaning of the √3 x √3 lattice?

Figure 1 in Ivor Lončarić and Vito Despoja, Phys. Rev. B 90, 075414 Benchmarking van der Waals functionals with noncontact RPA calculations on graphene-Ag(111) (available in Researchgate) shows a ...
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How is the aromaticity in graphene different from the aromaticity in benzene?

The web page Aromaticity in Graphene and other 2-D Systems begins: I. Graphene While the σ-bonding in graphene is assumed to be a rigid honeycomb framework built out of two-center two-...
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Home-grown diamond using CVD

I want to make a diamond at home using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). If I use a metal chamber filled with methane and hydrogen gas and heated with a microwave oven oscillator element, will the ...
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Why is high pressure and high temperature favourable for the formation of diamond? [duplicate]

Graphite can be converted to diamond and this conversion is favourable under high pressure and high temperature. Is there a reason for this from the point of view of "Le Chatelier's Principle"? I ...
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Possibility of non-hexagonal graphene

I understand that monolayer carbon naturally forms in a regular hexagonal tiling. Is it, however, possible (if difficult) to form carbon monolayers of a different structure? A 3-12-12 tiling, for ...
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Can CO2 Be Electrochemically Reduced to Carbon Nanotubes?

Mitigation of CO2 as greenhouse gas has driven increasing investigation of its chemical reduction. The 2018 paper "Recent Progress in the Theoretical Investigation of Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2"...
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Why is graphite brittle?

Carbon exists in more than one allotropic forms, and the allotropes have different physical properties due to different arrangement of atoms. I am going to compare their hardness for now. Below is ...
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Why does diamond have no molecular formula?

Why does diamond have no molecular formula, while buckminsterfullerene does have it, despite both being allotropes of the same element?
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Aetiology of the word “fullerene” in Chemistry

I am a mathematician and not a chemist, and I am trying to understand the historical relationship and current usage of the word "fullerene" across Mathematics and Chemistry. I apologise in advance ...
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Do molecules containing only carbon exist?

Why doesnt carbon forms bonds with itself to form a molecule. Carbon shows the property of catenation then why doesnt it form a cyclic molecule as : ...
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Why can a diamond be broken using a hammer if it's the hardest natural substance known?

I've heard that diamond is the hardest natural known material but, on Google search, I found that it can easily be broken by a hammer as it's not tough. So, what is difference between hardness ...
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Calling Diamond an element?

Is it scientifically correct to call Diamond an element? Carbon has a wide range of allotropes, so would it be correct to actually just call graphite, diamond etc an element. For that matter, could we ...
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Why does it require so much pressure to create diamonds?

Why does it require so much energy/pressure to create diamonds, yet with silicon it is very easy and (I believe) naturally occurs in a "diamond" structure, i.e. where each atom is covalently bonded to ...
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Graphite: Thermal and electrical conductivity

I recently encounter this question: Compare, while providing an explanation, the thermal and electrical conductivity of graphite to that of diamond. Provided answer: Graphite conducts electricity(...
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How is the covalency of terminal carbons of a diamond satisfied? [duplicate]

Are the terminal carbons of the diamond lattice remain bonded to some element like hydrogen? Or, is it that they don't achieve octate in their outer shell?
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Existence of tesserane and it's properties

Could there exist an allotrope of carbon, $\ce{C16}$ where the overall shape of the molecule is a three dimensional representation of a tesseract? And what are its (predicted if unknown/unsynthesised) ...
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What dangers/risks are there in the production of carbon subnitride?

I was reading that carbon subnitride or Dicyanoacetylene has one of the hottest flames when used as a fuel, but it also is unstable and can explode easily into carbon powder (no specifics on cause). ...
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What would happen to a diamond in the presence of oxygen and elevated temperature and how fast?

Let's say I have a $\pu{1cm^3}$ diamond and I put it into an oven where the temperature is about $\pu{ 400°C}$. We all know that diamond oxidizes. Would it evaporate or turn into graphite? If so, ...
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Why do diamond and graphite have different structures, when they are both composed of carbon?

Both diamond and graphite are covalent networks and are both made entirely from carbon, but why does diamond have a three dimensional network of strong covalent bonds which makes it hard, whereas ...
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What causes the anti-siccative effect of soot (amorphous carbon) as a pigment in oil paints?

Oil paint containing carbon black (soot, charcoal) pigment is known to polymerize ("dry") a lot slower than if it has other pigments. I understand this is not just due to the absence of pigments which ...
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Is this a viable method for graphene production?

In a cup of warm water add sugar until it no longer dissolves then add a few spoonfuls more of sugar. Drop in a small amount of graphite powder into the sugar water mixture. Stir it up well. There ...
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Extraction of Activated Carbon from Lignin

I'm currently working on a research project which involves the extraction of activated carbon from lignin. I'm already aware of the method of preparation using an alkali along with lignin products but ...
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Diamonds into protective barrier

Theoretically, is it possible to make a large, transparent piece of armor or a shield from a diamond? Say, a piece of the said armor with a size $7^\prime \times 7^\prime \times 6^{\prime\prime}$? ...
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How to tell between carbon powder or graphite powder?

I have a black powder that I cannot reliably tell just by looking or touching whether it is graphite powder or charcoal powder. Are there any simple tests that I can perform to tell whether it is one ...
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How fast does the diamond lose the atoms at sunlight?

recently I've read that the diamonds lose their atoms at sunlight on the surface. Would you be able to explain me how fast is the rate of this process? Does the diamond lose the atoms each time when ...
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Is graphene a combustible material?

Various sources such as https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=7679154 speculate that graphene will combust at higher temperatures. Is this true? Is the flash point/ temperature of combustion for ...
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Why is the buckminsterfullerene the purest form of carbon?

Other websites say that $\ce{C60}$ doesn't have surface bonds that are attracted by other atoms as in graphite and diamond. I understand that graphite may be attracted by other atoms because of its ...
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Can activated charcoal retain adsorbtion properties even when submerged in liquids?

This is following a question on Skeptics Stackexchange, where apparently medical science claims that activated charcoal can adsorb poison when ingested. One of the members posted a related question on ...
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Reacting carbon dioxide with magnesium in ribbon form

My experiment involves a reaction of magnesium in ribbon form with that of carbon dioxide. I know that the product shall be magnesium oxide (white powder) and carbon (black powder) but I do not know ...
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Why are isotopically pure diamonds 50% more thermally conductive than other diamonds?

A laboratory grown type-IIa diamond (no nitrogen defects) has a lambda of $\pu{1800-2200 W/mK}$, but an isotopically pure diamond of $\ce{^{12}C}$ can have up to $\pu{3320 W/mK}$. Why are $\ce{^{12}C}...
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Can diamond undergo a self sustaining combustion reaction all the way to carbon dioxide?

I know charcoal can smoulder in an incomplete combustion to produce carbon monoxide so I assume diamond also can. If it's heated to a sufficiently high temperature, will the reaction produce enough ...
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Why does Graphene have a higher melting point than Diamond?

I'm not 100% sure about this, so I just wanted to double-check. I think it has something to do with each carbon atom in Graphene having a delocalized electron and this creates carbon ions that can ...
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If graphite's just a huge polymer of benzene why isn't it an aromatic compound (polymer?)

My teacher had once told me that graphite was just an insanely huge polymer of benzene (Those weren't his exact words but the gist). Today While we were studying aromaticity in organic compounds we ...
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Why is fullerene 60 an insulator while graphite is a conductor?

Graphite is good conductor of electricity because one carbon atom is bonded only three carbon atoms, which enables the presence of free electrons. In fullerene 60 the carbon atoms are also bonded to ...
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How are atoms encapsulated in buckminsterfullerene molecules?

According to nature.com, buckminsterfullerene molecules (bucky balls) can be formed by vaporizing graphite by saturating it with laser irradiation. I haven't entirely understood why the carbon forms ...
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Is it possible to melt a diamond? [duplicate]

I am school student. In my school text book there is a fact about diamond. That is Each carbon atom is covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms. A lot of energy is needed to separate the atoms ...
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How is graphite a covalent solid?

I know it is covalent because there are covalent bonds between atoms of carbon in the same plane. But there are Van der Waals interactions between different planes. Isn't this a feature of molecular ...
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Why can't one make C60 with a combination of hexagons and heptagons?

$\ce{C60}$ has a pentagon-hexagon system. Why can't one make it from a hexagon-heptagon system, or a pentagon-heptagon system for that matter?
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Can diamond be melted in a thermite reaction? [duplicate]

My book says A thermite reaction is an exothermic reaction, it releases a large amount of heat so that temperature increases up to 3500 °C. On the other hand, it says the melting point of diamond ...
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Chemical shifts seen during XPS

When in X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, an Si $2p$ peak is defined or a C $1s$ peak is defined at a certain binding energy, how is it done? I presume it is done from mono-crystalline Si but even in ...
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sp2 hybridized carbon versus sp3 hybridized silicon

Carbon's most commonly found allotrope is graphite/soot/fullerene/carbon nanotubes which are all $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized forms of it, while silicon being its first periodic twin is mostly found in ...
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Band gap of fullerenes

From what I have read about fullerenes, the lower fullerenes like $\ce{C60}$ or $\ce{C70}$ have higher bandgaps around 3.5 eV or such, while the higher fullerenes have much smaller bandgaps of the ...