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Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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Can the strength of a covalent bond be compared to the stiffness of a spring?

I am modelling a solid with the density functional theory. The solid contains different types of atoms. The atoms are covalently bonded. I want to estimate the strength of each bond. How can I do it? ...
Vladislav Gladkikh's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
175 views

Calculating salinity from sodium and chloride in water [closed]

let me start by saying that I am definitely no chemist, so this question might (or might not) seem trivial to all you professionals out there. I have recently found a brand of carbonated water here in ...
Henrik Hillestad Løvold's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
704 views

Delta Bond Or Pi Bond, Which Is More Strong? [closed]

It is pretty evident that sigma bonds are more stronger than pi bonds. (due to the extent of overlapping) But when there are 4 lobes of two d-orbitals involved in overlapping as that is the case in ...
chemist_heisenberg's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
47 views

Bonding and then breaking radioactive molecules

I was looking at Radon and noticed that it has a half-life of 3.8 days, yet still makes compounds with some other elements. This got me wondering, are there any examples of chemical processes or ...
G. Putnam's user avatar
  • 175
6 votes
1 answer
387 views

Thermal instability of sulfur and selenium iodides

After recent question about non-existent pnictide(V) iodides, I stumbled upon a similar issue in oxygen group. For example, $\ce{SI2}$ was reported to be found… but at the temperature as low as $\pu{9 ...
Mithoron's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
39 views

The electron structure in transition metallic bonding [duplicate]

Copper has an electron structure of $\ce{[Ar] 3d^10 4s^1}$. In salts it may form two stable ions, the $\ce{Cu^+}$ and $\ce{Cu^2+}$. (It's actually not very clear to me why the 2+ ion is common, why ...
James K's user avatar
  • 256
3 votes
1 answer
350 views

What is the effect of dissolving ammonia in water on hydrogen bonding?

Hydrogen bonding exists between $\ce{NH3}$ molecules. When $\ce{NH3}$ is dissolved in water, I know that hydrogen bonds are formed between $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{H2O}$ molecules. However, do the $\ce{NH3}...
photon's user avatar
  • 57
4 votes
2 answers
455 views

Why does color of substances not disappear after some time?

Some compounds are colored due to HOMO-LUMO transition. We see the complimentary color to the frequency which the electron absorbs to get the high molecular orbital. But after some the electron should ...
Garv Chaudha's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
597 views

Please explain the order of Lewis acidic strength in trichlorides of boron group

The order of decreasing Lewis acid character as per online sources is as follows: BCl3 > AlCl3 > GaCl3 > InCl3 Reason cited is: As we move down the group, the size of atom increases, and as a ...
Henri IV's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
129 views

Dipole moments of trans and cis nitrous acid

I have a paper due about the isomers of nitrous acid, using various calculations methods to find molecular properties like their dipole moment. I've found the dipole moment of trans isomer to be 1.987 ...
silvermacabre's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
236 views

Oxidation Number of the middle carbon in $\ce{C3O2}$ (Carbon Suboxide)

By taking the oxidation state of the terminal oxygen atoms as -2, and oxidation state of the carbon atoms adjacent to these oxygen atoms as +2, we are left with the oxidation state of the middle ...
AtoZ's user avatar
  • 53
2 votes
0 answers
80 views

Brittle Properties of Ionic Compounds? [closed]

From my understanding, ionic compounds are brittle due to the alternating cations and anions within their lattice. Hence when stress is applied, similarly charged ions will repel causing the structure ...
Cot's user avatar
  • 37
-1 votes
2 answers
170 views

Why do different orbitals have different shapes?

P and S orbitals have different shapes defining what kind of bond they have like pi bond, sigma bond etc. So I was wondering what actually determines the shape and each region for different types of ...
AlwaysASK's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
111 views

Formation of tetrafluoroborate using VBT and hybridisation

How can the formation of $\ce{BF_4^-}$(Boron is $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized) be explained using VBT and Hybridization? So far, I understood that one electron from s orbital gets excited and jumps into a p ...
Mathlover12345's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
206 views

What is the molecular orbital diagram of hydroxide anion? [closed]

Context I am a teacher, and, during a class, my student asked me to draw the molecular orbital (MO) diagram of the hydroxide anion ($\ce{HO-}$). First, I made the diagram on the left, and then, when ...
ananta's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
73 views

Total bond dissociation temperature [closed]

I understand that covalent bonds break at a dissociation energy $D_0$ that is a function of the particular bond. And it looks like an upper bound on $D_0$ is known for possible covalent bonds. It's ...
feetwet's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
111 views

For radical polymerization reactions, azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) can also be used as a radical initiator

Draw the mechanism of radical formation if you know that N2 is formed as a by-product. The solution they give us is I know what radical polymerization is. The free electron of a molecule binds with ...
wengen's user avatar
  • 423
0 votes
1 answer
131 views

Are there compounds distance functions to define a compounds space metrics

Is there exist something like a distance function for compounds, computing a number for any two given molecules? Such a function would measure dissimilarity at the atomic structure and bonds levels, ...
nightcod3r's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
68 views

Does chloride ion have its electron in hybrid orbitals? [closed]

Where are the electron valamce shell electron located in $\ce{Cl}^-$. Are they in pure $p$ and $s$ orbitals? Or are they in $sp^3$ hybrid orbital? If the answer is that they are in pure orbitals i.e. ...
Chesx's user avatar
  • 140
-4 votes
1 answer
229 views

why chemical bond between Na and Cl happens [closed]

We know that if Cl and Na get too close, they produce ionic bonding. Cl has 17 proton and 17 electrons and is considered stable. Na has 11 protons and 11 electrons and is considered stable. I ...
Chemistry's user avatar
  • 119
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

Why is the distinction from "coordinative bond" useful at all? [closed]

There are 3 types of coordinative bonding, complex formation at the electron donor, complex formation at the electron donor acceptor and complex formation at the electron acceptor, so what is the ...
iwab's user avatar
  • 369
-4 votes
1 answer
181 views

Query regarding covalent bonding

Why don't covalent bonds result in the atoms involved in the bond being charged? Let's take the Chlorine/Cl2 molecule as an example. So each Chlorine atom in the Cl2 molecule has 7 valence electrons. ...
LuciferP's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
67 views

Can ionic and/or metallic bonding produce stable long chains? Like polymers, though not necessarily as useful [closed]

Question Polymers are long chains ⛓️ of covalent bonds. Can similar structures exist for ionic and/or metallic bonding? They don't have to be as useful. I know there can be polymers with ionic bonds ...
Aseku Vena's user avatar
-2 votes
3 answers
98 views

Melting point of various solids: should strength of ionic bond make ionic solids the highest melting [closed]

Arrange the following in the increasing order of melting point of different types of crystalline solids covalent solid metallic solid molecular ionic According to me the arrangement should be: ionic ...
Nandini's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why does potassium bifluoride exist whereas bichloride does not?

Why does the reaction \eqref{rxn:R1Q} take place, but the reaction \eqref{rxn:R2Q} does not? $$ \begin{align} \ce{HF(aq) + KF(aq) &-> KHF2(aq)}\label{rxn:R1Q}\tag{R1} \\ \ce{HCl(aq) + KCl(aq) &...
I.Bedi's user avatar
  • 101
-1 votes
1 answer
188 views

Why do H and Li bond so differently with a hydroxide?

I am sure I am asking a very basic question but before coming here, I have made multiple attempts to find an answer elsewhere. Or maybe I am simply asking the wrong question, in some sense. If someone ...
Sergey's user avatar
  • 19
-2 votes
1 answer
343 views

Why do non-metals not have delocalised electrons, whilst metals do have delocalised electrons?

Why do non-metals not have delocalised electrons, whilst metals do have delocalised electrons? I understand that delocalised electrons is defined as “electrons that are not bound in place to a single ...
qwerty's user avatar
  • 65
0 votes
0 answers
827 views

How heating of copper sulphate pentahydrate (blue vitriol) can be explained?

The chemical formula of copper sulphate pentahydrate, $\ce{CuSO4\cdot 5H2O}$ does not give information about its true structure because it's only an empirical formula. It forms a network solid. Two ...
Apurvium's user avatar
  • 1,272
1 vote
1 answer
81 views

How do you know if a bond according to VB theory consists of 2 "3 electron bonds" or one "fully paired" bond?

First of all, I want to discuss the whole thing strictly according to the VB - theory and not use any concepts of the MO - theory. According to Linus Pauling, the "3 electron Bond" is the ...
iwab's user avatar
  • 369
2 votes
1 answer
101 views

Why is phosphine more acidic than ethylene?

Shouldn't ethylene should be more acidic? It has a C=C bond, so the density of electron cloud would be higher in the areas of the double bond while the C-H single bond have way less electron density. ...
74H54N3's user avatar
  • 100
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

Do Boron and Silicon form metallic-type bonds in alloys?

For context I am a physics student currently doing a project that involves metallic glasses. I am trying to figure out if you can get Ionic bonds inside an alloy with metalloids. More specifically, I ...
Disgusting's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
67 views

What is the difference between ionic bonding and the general transmission of charge?

I understand that in ionic bonding electrons are transferred from atom to atom and these ions are then attracted to each other forming a new compound. How is this different from any other transfer of ...
Michael Bradley's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
278 views

Do two atoms 'participating' in a single covalent bond rotate in only one direction, without rotating the entire molecule?

A Biology textbook stated that, "single bonds allow the atoms they join to rotate freely about the bond axis". This definition is not clear enough for me to answer the question, "do two ...
Growing6884's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Does propene have resonance structures? [closed]

Propene is an alkene with a double bond between 2 carbon atoms. $\ce{C3H6}$ may have 2 resonance structures due to 2 possible placings of the double bond. E.g. it can be C=C-C or C-C=C (ignoring ...
Yitian Chen's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
33 views

What is the determining factor between two potential bond candidates? [closed]

Say you have a vacuum (imaginary, of course) with three hydrogen atoms, how do we determine which two will bond and which one will be left out? If the same energy is present (equally) for the entire ...
m-a-r-c-e-l-i-n-o's user avatar
-5 votes
2 answers
111 views

Which water is easier to filter? Rain water or tap water [closed]

I understand the water greatly varies depending on the region and filtration differs as well. Is it better to filter rain water or tap water from contamination like hormones, pesticides, and cloud ...
Justintimeforfun's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
156 views

How are polyatomic ions formed? [closed]

I know that there should be a covalent bond between polyatomic ions, such as $\ce{SO4^2-}$. But what causes it to suddenly gain electrons and become an ion?
gatiskandis's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
275 views

Would a hypothetical Og2 +235 form a chemical bond?

In a hypothetical (?) Og2+235 we would have a simple sigma bonding orbital occupied by one electron (leading to a bond order of 1/2). But how to take into account the giant repulsion of the two nuclei?...
user avatar
-3 votes
2 answers
111 views

Is there an intuitive answer why burning is very exothermic? [closed]

Water and carbon dioxide are much lower in energy than hydrocarbon and oxygen. Is there an intuitive answer for this? Is this because atom arrangements that have more polar bonds tend to be lower in ...
Bohan Xu's user avatar
  • 199
2 votes
0 answers
178 views

Why is the imine (C=N) bond so weak?

Nitrogen is similar to carbon in terms of electronegativity and size. MO theory suggests that the more electronegative N would result in a lowering of the of the π-bonding energy, E(πCN), below the E(...
JAClarke's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
384 views

How do I determine the hybridization of terminal atoms? [duplicate]

I've read that terminal atoms do not undergo hybridization because there is no need to. For example, CF4, C undergo sp hybridization, but fluorine do not hybridize. How about CO2? Why is oxygen sp2 ...
Bryan Foong Zhi Chuan's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
877 views

Does formal charge or the octet rule take precedence over one another?

In my AP chem test, I had a question that asked me to find the bond order of the ion $\ce{SO3^2-}$. To draw the lewis structure, I determined that there are a total of $6+3\cdot 6+2=26$ electrons, and ...
Max0815's user avatar
  • 323
2 votes
1 answer
129 views

Where is the aromatic ring in the pentacene molecule?

I have the following problem: I am given the coordinates of the atoms of a pentacene molecule ($\ce{C22H14}$), and I would like to find the ring where the aromatic bond is located. Is this possible? ...
ixaixim's user avatar
  • 61
0 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why does temperature remain constant during phase changes?

In a phase change the temperature remains constant but I can't understand why. The answers I have read state that during phase changes energy is only used to break bonds between molecules rather than ...
James Chadwick's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
171 views

What is the reason you could use synthetic detergent in hard water?

I learned that because synthetic detergent doesn't make strong dative bond with $\ce{Ca^2+}$ or $\ce{Mg^2+}$, you could use it in hard water. But I couldn't understand why soap makes strong dative ...
satoru kurita's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
49 views

Enthalpy and Bond Energy Sign Convention

I read that a negative enthalpy of formation means an exothermic reaction. Does that mean this reaction is true? The enthalpy of formation for $\ce{H_2O}$ is -285.8 kJ/mol. $$\ce{2H2(g) + O2(g) -> ...
itisyeetimetoday's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
55 views

Why does XeO3 not hybridize d orbitals? [duplicate]

Apologies if this is a dumb question. In my chemistry class we are discussing hybridization, and an example that came up for $sp_3$ hybridization was the compound $\ce{XeO3}$. However, this seems ...
Max0815's user avatar
  • 323
1 vote
0 answers
110 views

What role does atomic radius play in the strength of a covalent bond?

How exactly do atomic radii influence the strength of a covalent bond? For instance, if I had a carbon atom covalently bonding to a fictitious nonmetal atom $\ce{X}$ and another nonmetal atom $\ce{Y}$ ...
Shane's user avatar
  • 193
0 votes
3 answers
85 views

Energy Conservation

So as we start Valence Bond Theory in Chemical Bonding from Inorganic Chemistry. Then we are introduced to reasoning behind bond formation as follows: As it is a well known fact that $$Potential\;...
Techno Freak's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
111 views

What is the logic behind the steric number formula?

My teacher taught us two methods two calculate steric number for determining hybridisation. The first method was to count the total number of sigma bonds and add the lone pairs of the central atom. I ...
Pumpkin_Star's user avatar

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