Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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Bond orders in the 3c-4e bond and 3c-2e bond

According to D. P. M. Mingos, in his book Essential Trends in Inorganic Chemistry, the bond order of the three-centre four-electron bond is approximately 0.717, which is one divided by the square root ...
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537 views

Identifying Alkyl Ligands as Pi Donors or Pi Acceptors in Transition Metal Complexes

Just wondering if there was a systematic way to identify an alkyl ligand as a $\pi$ acceptor or $\pi$ donor in a transition metal complex? Although various sources indicate that weak field ligands ...
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770 views

Chemical bonding with f orbitals

For the elements such as rhenium, osmium, iridium how probable is for electrons in the inner 4f orbitals to gain energy and take part in a molecular orbital (such as an $f^2 d^2 s p^3$ hybrid orbital) ...
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1answer
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Which singlet dihalocarbene has the strongest carbon-halogen bond?

There are three singlet carbenes - difluorocarbene, dichlorocarbene and dibromocarbene. Which has the strongest carbon halogen bond? Obviously backbonding is a point to be considered, as carbene is ...
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827 views

How does the Jahn-Teller distortion result in both elongation and compression?

Recently, I have been reading up on the Jahn-Teller effect and I have read articles and posts on it, such as What is the mathematical basis behind the Jahn-Teller effect?. However, many of these ...
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1answer
209 views

Are there bonds which share single electron?

Are there bonds which share single electron? During chemical bonding, I asked our teacher why there are only 2 electrons shared in a bond. He said that because it's that one orbital can accommodate ...
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174 views

How much electron hybridization and bonding occurs in liquid helium?

Helium is the only element which does not freeze at atmospheric pressure, and only forms a liquid at around 4 Kelvin due to weak van der Waals forces. I'm interested in knowing roughly how much ...
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431 views

How does a 5th hydrogen bind to carbon atom in CH5[+]?

Can we bind a fifth hydrogen to a carbon atom if carbon is not in excited state? We have a big discussion in class and cannot clearly answer the question. If carbon atom excites an electron from $2\...
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63 views

Planarity at the Junction between multiple Rings

My Approach: As cyclohexane should be in the chair form and cyclopentane should be in the envelope form, more the number of five-membered rings more should be its planarity, as envelope form is more ...
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61 views

Do Metal Carbonyl complexes exhibit multiple back donation at the same time?

I came across a question which renewed one of my doubts that I had regarding bonding in metal Carbonyl complexes. According to me, metal should exhibit multiple back donation at the same time. ...
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117 views

Misconception in valence bond theory

Since the overlap increases with directional properties of orbital, $$\ce{p - p > s - s > s - p}$$ However it is also observed that the bond strength of $$\ce{H-F > H-H > F-F}$$ $$\ce{\{s ...
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1answer
71 views

How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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73 views

Metal coordination in enzymes: What type and number of bonds form between amino acid residues and Fe(II)?

My understanding: Transition (d-block) metals, as found in intracellular proteins, are limited to about 10 elements including amongst others Fe, Ni, and Cu. Due to the reductive environments inside ...
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443 views

Molecular orbital diagram for I₃⁺ cation

Do I need to go through the whole process of reducible representations/projection operator method to come up with the bent SALCs for the $\ce{[I3]+}$ molecule? Or is it simpler than that?
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Why are B-O-H and B-O-C angles in B(OH)3 and B(OCH3)3, respectively are higher than normal?

In Concise Inorganic Chemistry by JD Lee (4th edition; adapted by Sudarshan Guha), page 77 under the topic "Back Bonding" it is given: The $\mathrm{2p}\pi$-$\mathrm{2p}\pi$ back bonding in $\ce{B(...
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What's the mechanism behind mineral oil loosening cyanoacrylate bonds?

Per industry literature I found that mineral oil is used to loosen out "super glue" and aid in removal from skin. I am exploring the chemistry of this loosening and I am intrigued. Please help me find ...
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244 views

Waterproofing and recycling paper

I've recently begun studying about waterproofing paper. Through what I learned is that the reason why paper absorbs water so easily is mainly because of it's material composition. Paper is generally ...
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3k views

Bond Energy in P-O , S-O , Cl-O

My text says that Bond energy between P-O , S-O , Cl-O follows the trend P-O < S-O < Cl-O. But I think it should be a reverse of what's given because more the electronegativity difference ...
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66 views

Could we bond hydrogen to the edges of covalent network structures like diamond?

I know that diamond is just carbon atoms structured in a way that differs from graphite and charcoal. The carbon atoms on the edges do not have full valence shells. Would it be possible to attach ...
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2k views

What type of bonding is present in lithium tetrahydridoaluminate?

I can tell that the negative ion has one bond which is a co-ordinate/dative covalent bond. However, overall, would you say that lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (lithium aluminium hydride) is ionic? If ...
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Are bond orders always the same in isoelectronic diatomic species?

In my textbook of chemistry it is written that: In the Lewis description of covalent bond, the Bond order is given by the number of bonds between the two atoms of a molecule. ... ...
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Why does Silver form bonds with covalent character?

Compounds of silver form particularly strong bonds which is accounted for by the significant covalent character of the bonding. Furthermore, is the tendency to form covalent bonds linked to the fact ...
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1answer
5k views

What are examples of group 14 elements forming dπ - pπ bonding?

While studying the Group 14 elements, I came across the anomalous behaviour of carbon. In that there was a point: Carbon forms only p$\pi$-p$\pi$ type bonding while other elements in the group form ...
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1answer
1k views

Are the Phosphate and Sulfate ion diagrams with double bonds an invalid picture?

Whenever you see an image of phosphate, it's always shown having 5 bonds. 3 single bonds to anionic oxygen atoms and a double bond to an extra neutral oxygen. Not only that, but they're shown being ...
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Why are sulfoxides usually stable as ylides (S charged positively and O negatively)? What's the BDE for S-O?

I can't find any info on BDE for singularly bonded S to oxygen. Moreover, I'd like to understand, why is it quite usual to find sulfoxides structure written with charge separation?
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68 views

Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...
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229 views

Reactivity order among Interhalogens

I was reading about Interhalogens in JD Lee and in the book it is stated that (without any reasoning) the reactivity order for few of the interhalogens is :- $\ce{ClF_3 > BrF_5 > IF_7 > ClF &...
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149 views

Why does the C−H bond dissociation energy vary in a homologous series of primary alcohols?

Specifically, for the primary carbon atom in the alcohol. Here is bond dissociation energy (BDE) data from chapter three of Luo's Comprehensive handbook of chemical bond energies [1] (boldface refers ...
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124 views

Why is the carbon fluorine bond stronger than the carbon oxygen bond?

From this wiredchemist.com, I obtained values of the bond dissociation energies of the $\ce{C-O}$ and $\ce{C-F}$ bonds: \begin{align} D_0(\ce{C-F}) &= \pu{485 KJ mol-1}\\ D_0(\ce{C-O}) &= \...
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1answer
468 views

Why are the acidities for H-CH3 and H-OH so different?

I was comparing the acidity of H-CH3 and H-OH, and a lot of things weren't making sense. Generally, the process of turning H-X into $H^{+}$ and $X^{-}$ can be broken into 2 hypothetical steps: 1.) ...
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39 views

Discussion about Warren-Cowely Parameter

The Warren-Cowely Parameter (WCP) for short range solution order is defined as: $$\mathrm{WCP}_{ij} = 1 - \frac{Z_{ij}}{x_j \cdot Z_i}$$ where $Z_{ij}$ is the partial Coordination Number (CN) of ...
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488 views

Counting the number of conjugated pi bonds in a complex aromatic molecule

So for multiple bonds to be conjugated, they must be in an alternating double bond – single bond – double bond, etc arrangement. However, do they need to be continuous? In my textbook, they count the ...
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90 views

Bond lengths in P₄O₁₀

According to JD Lee's Concise Inorganic Chemistry: The double bond $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ contains p(π)–d(π) backbonding, where a full p-orbital on oxygen overlaps with an empty d-orbital on $\...
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404 views

Can the Lewis dot structure of SO2 be experimentally verified?

I have just watched 2 different videos on the Lewis dot structure of sulfur dioxide, $\ce{SO2}$. One says it is $$\ce{O=S=O}$$ and the other says $$\ce{^-O-S^+=O <-> O=S^+-O-}$$ The first ...
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259 views

H-N-H bond angle in ammonia boron trifluoride adduct

In the reaction: $\ce{NH3 + BF3 -> NH3-BF3}$ does the HNH bond angle increase or decrease? Surely, the FBF bond angle decreases because boron changes from $\ce{sp^2 -> sp^3}$. But how can we ...
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128 views

Bond order analysis in molpro

I'm trying to compute bond orders in a molecule, let's consider S2 as an example. I'm not entirely sure what's the right way to do that, but I assume NBO (Natural Bond Orbital) should give me what I ...
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Comparison between Boron Nitride and Graphite: Interlayer distance

Boron-nitrogen chemistry has attracted significant attention, partly because a B–N unit is isoelectronic with C–C. Furthermore, the radius of carbon and its electronegativity are roughly the average ...
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Why is the N-N bond length greater in dinitrogen trioxide than in dinitrogen tetroxide?

Why is the N-N bond length greater in dinitrogen trioxide than in dinitrogen tetroxide? If the lone pair on $\ce{N}$ in $\ce{N2O3}$ delocalises, then the $\ce{N-N}$ bond will have a double bond ...
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135 views

What makes a bond non-polarisable?

Many chemical bonds are known to be polarisable. Similarly, many ions are also known to be polarisable. Examples include the carbon-iodine bond and the carbonate ion. Recently, I have read that the ...
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450 views

Understanding Chemical Potential (Li-ion)

Can anyone help me to understand what the "Chemical Potential" is? I can see that in batteries the electrical energy is stored as "chemical potential", according to this: Li-ion ...
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Intermolecular Forces in Teflon vs Polyethylene

From Wikipedia, polyethylene has a melting point of around $400K$, while Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) has a melting point of $600 K$, which is much higher. Besides the increased London Dispersion ...
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Predicting dissociation energy of diatomic iodine computationally

In one of my classes we used ORCA with three different functionals: BP86, B3LYP, and M06-L, all with the basis set def2-SVP. In addition to calculations we did it experimentally by a Deslandres table ...
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178 views

Chemical bond at Aluminum / Aluminum oxide interface

I am trying to find out what chemical bond holds aluminum oxide to the aluminum on which it forms. The only information I was able to find on the internet was in a Google book which suggested that the ...
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1answer
361 views

Crystal field splitting pattern with strong field and weak field ligands

What will be crystal field splitting pattern for octahedral complexes if some of the ligands are strong and some are weak field ligands?
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How to compare the Leonard-Jones potential energy curves of diatomic molecules?

The graph shows the dependence of potential energy on internuclear or intermolecular distance according to the L-J model, but how to compare lennard-jones potential energy curves of diatomic molecules,...
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Does a larger bond energy in reactants mean a more exothermic reaction?

In the book "Combustion Physics" for C.K Law, page 42, it is stated that: The parameter that has the next strongest influence on [adiabatic flame temperature] $T_{ad}$ is the $C/H$ ratio of ...
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Does (BeCl2)n have 3c - 4e- bonding or not?

The title really explains what the issue is here. I would think that it has multicenter bonding akin to $(\ce{BeH2})_n$ polymer because they are pretty much iso-structural (although it shouldn't have $...
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161 views

Comparing bond lengths in metal carbonyls

Question: It's solution is given as: Now I don't understand which d$\pi$ electrons have been considered here. For example, in $\ce{Fe(CO)_5}$, according to this, number of d$\pi$ electrons would be ...
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38 views

How can I Solidify / cure silicon caulk used to create tubing

Curing and preventing silicon caulk from sticking to itself Food Grade RTV Silicone Sealant Adhesive Clear 10.3oz when creating tubes. Some videos show using hot water and some videos show using cold ...
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what does "overlapping" of orbitals mean and why does it effect bond strength(VBT)?

according to valence bond theory, bonds are formed due to the pairing of unpaired valence electrons due to the overlap of half-filled orbitals, and the strength of the bond depends on the extent of ...

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