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Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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Specific Trend for Bond Orders of Diatomic Molecules?

Are there any exceptions to this trend observed? TL;DR: Does the observed trend in bond orders for different diatomic electronic species, based on molecular orbital theory, have any exceptions? The ...
Yatharth Shrivastava's user avatar
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Restriction of back bonding in tris(dimethylamino)borane

J.D. Lee Concise Inorganic Chemistry [3, p. 78] mentions that The bond length order of the B-N bond in the following compounds is $\ce{B(NR2)3}$ > $\ce{HB(NR2)2}$ > $\ce{H2B(NR2)}$ and the ...
Chetan's user avatar
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Comparing Strength of Hydrogen Bonding between Sulphur and Chlorine

In my textbook, the Order for Strength of H-bonding is given as F > O > N > S > Cl I wonder how Cl has less strength of H-bonding than Sulphur despite Chlorine being more electronegative ...
Chetan's user avatar
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Why is a C=C weaker than a C=N and even weaker than a C=O when C-C is stronger than C-N and C-O?

Why is a C=C bond weaker than a C=N and even weaker than C=O ? In terms of orbital overlap it doesn't make sense, since there is a difference in energy between the orbitals which lower the interaction ...
TheBorcanu's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why is Piperidine more basic than Pyridine? [duplicate]

Piperidine, which has sp3 carbons attached to it, experiences an increase in electron density on the nitrogen atom, making it more basic. However, when we look at the resonating structures of pyridine,...
Shashwat's user avatar
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Magnetic Moments of compounds with opposite moments in their Coordination and Ionization Spheres

What is their behaviour in a magnetic field for a compound A[bc], where A is paramagnetic, and [bc] is diamagnetic? Do they repel, or do they attract? I looked up dissociations through electric and ...
Akilan SS's user avatar
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Bonding of urethane layers towards curing with respect to moisture and intentional abrasion of curing surface for adhesion

Here are three follow-up questions to my previous urethane-for-fine-art-painting question under How do upper layers of urethane adhere or bond to lower layers after curing? The curing time for the ...
Sketcher's user avatar
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How are the individual atoms in a specimen of pure iron bonded to eachother?

I'm confused about the nomenclature related to bonding. If two atoms are chemically bonded, the combination is called a molecule. In a specimen (let's say a 3in x 3in cube) of pure iron, all of the ...
user145766's user avatar
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Do any molecules contain a phi bond?

In chemistry, phi bonds (φ bonds) are covalent chemical bonds, where six lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap six lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. I researched this question a lot; ...
Nitrogen-8's user avatar
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What do the pi antibonding orbitals of 1,5-hexadiene look like?

Hi so right now I'm learning about the Cope and Claisen rearrangements, and often something is shown where the antibonding pi orbitals of the two alkenes have to overlap in a certain way, like in the ...
Bozo San's user avatar
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Binding energies of transition metals in the 3d series

Binding energy of the transition elements in the 3d series increases up to vanadium then drops from chromium to manganese and then increases slightly and then drops again It is seen that binding ...
Tabi Khan's user avatar
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Ionic Character of Metallic (Alkali Metals) Hydrides , and Reactivity

In my book , the following line has been written:- All the alkali metal hydrides are ionic solids with high melting points The ionic character , however, decreases from Li to Cs The reason being ...
Adhway's user avatar
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Why can't group 2B metals (Zn, Cd, Hg) form complexes with ligands such as CO, nitrosyl (NO), and olefins but do from complexes with NH3, CN- etc?

Why Group 2B metals (Zn, Cd, Hg) can form complexes with Ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$), Cyanide ($\ce{CN-}$) etc. and not with ligands such as carbonyl ($\ce{CO}$), nitrosyl ($\ce{NO}$), and olefins? What I ...
Bilal Malik's user avatar
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Question Involving Bonding (VSEPR AND VBT)

So basically any chemistry book will tell you about the extent of overlapping in different orbitals. For formation of sigma bonds, head on overlapping happens. Chemistry textbooks always state that $p-...
afrin's user avatar
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Where are the electrons located when two atomic orbitals overlap? (VBT)

According to the valence bond theory(VBT), a covalent bond is formed by the overlapping of atomic orbitals containing electrons of opposite spin which pair together. However what is the physical ...
Nothing's user avatar
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Why does boron have higher affinity for fluorine than oxygen?

$\ce{F-}$ can displace $\ce{OH}$ in $\ce{B(OH)3}$ and form $\ce{BF3}$. $\ce{BF3}$ is stable due to resonance, but donation of oxygen should be stronger, as -I power of fluorine dominates its lone pair ...
EagerToLearn's user avatar
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1 answer
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What does the dot indicate in the molecular formula for white lead? [duplicate]

I came across the following molecular formula for white lead: $2\mathrm{Pb}\mathrm{CO3}·\mathrm{Pb(OH)_2}$. What does the center dot indicate here? Is this a non-covalent interaction of some kind? ...
imrobert's user avatar
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The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene

Problem: The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene is described below. Complete the mechanism in step 1 with one curved arrow showing the electron movement that occurs when the double bond ...
Nora's user avatar
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What is the reason for the difference in melting point between oleic acid (9-octadecenoic acid) and isooleic acid (10-octadecenoic acid)

Isooleic acid only differs from oleic acid in the position of the double bond. I don't understand why this might lead to an increase in the melting point. The degree of saturation hasn't changed and ...
Richard Xun's user avatar
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1 answer
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Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction?

Problem: Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction? Solution: The monomers with red crosses underneath them can polymerize by chain addition reaction. Question: So, how I am ...
Nora's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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How do you identify an organic base?

Problem: Solution: The molecules with red crosses underneath them are considered organic bases. Question: From my understanding an organic base has an atom with a lone pair of electrons. Doesn't ...
Nora's user avatar
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1 answer
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How do we judge whether a bond is a coordinate bond?

We know a coordinate bond refers to a covalent bond in which one atom provides a lone pair and the other provides an empty orbital. When OH- gets a proton and becomes H2O, O provides a lone electron ...
Zes M Young's user avatar
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How does more s character shorten bonds and strengthen bonds?

I'm aware that having more s character means that electrons are in the lowest energy state (?) and very close to the positive atomic nucleus. But then what’s the connection between having electrons ...
Ki Ki's user avatar
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1 answer
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Best representation of 1310384-76-9 / 1104637-53-7, a molecule with a coordination bond between nitrogen and boron

If you look up the above CAS numbers, you will sometimes find this structure: which, I think correctly, our chemistry validation software tags as 'bad valence'. In other websites you will find the ...
user6376297's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Stability comparison between Acetylene/Ethyne (C2H2) and Nitrogen Gas (N2) [closed]

N≡N is more stable than H2N—NH2 (hydrazine) But HC≡CH is less stable than H3C—CH3 Why is it so? Even though the size of the corresponding compounds and hybridization is the same? (Usually ethane is ...
Maddy's user avatar
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2 answers
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Why O-H bond and not C-O bond breaks in Acid Catalyzed Hydration of Alkene?

Recently, while studying Hydrocarbons I came across this reaction (Acid catalyzed hydration of an alkene) What I don't get here is that the breaking of O-H bond (in Step 3) and not the C-O bond, even ...
PinkAura's user avatar
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2 answers
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Amalgam Reaction

I have some doubt about Amalgams. On google it says that amalgams are mixtures. However, when I mixed Na and Hg it 'reacted' to form the amalgam. If they are just mixtures, why do they react to form? ...
Tanmay Joshi's user avatar
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1 answer
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Does dative bonding cause polarity?

When two atoms form a dative non-polar bond, does the one that shares the couple of electrons acquire a +δ charge and the other a -δ charge? I have been told that in a dative polar bond the charge ...
Antozoa's user avatar
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2 answers
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Lewis dot structure vs orbitals

I am currently teaching myself AP Chemistry, so am at a very basic level still. I am studying chemical bonds now, but am wondering why the orbitals don't make a difference to the way atoms bond. To ...
harpomiel's user avatar
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Why is Sulfur Trioxide has SP² hybridization? [duplicate]

When I google what is the type of hybridization in SO₃ it gives me "SP² hybridization". The problem I have is why does it has the above hybridization when it has 3 double bonds with the ...
donthababakka's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
94 views

Cesium Chloride Density Gradient Centrifugation and Isotopes

In Cesium Chloride Density Gradient Centrifugation, as used by Meselson and Stahl, Cesium ions can be seen as strongly affected by centrifugation, so much so that they can overcome their ionic bonds ...
Young Jun Lee's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
185 views

Stability of H3MnO4, H2MnO4, HMnO4

I cannot seek out the reason why while $\ce{H3PO4}$ (phosphorus oxidation +5) is relatively stable and obtainable but $\ce{H3MnO4}$ (the same oxidation state +5) is rarely mentioned and perhaps ...
Shira's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
153 views

Why is expected bond energy the *geometric* mean of two pure bonds?

Suppose we are calculating the electronegativity of a bond A—B. In my textbook (Chemical Principles) calculation of electronegativity, they calculate electronegativity in terms of a variable ...
Lysanderoth's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
221 views

Why would the chlorine atom be assigned a positive partial charge in chloroform and carbon tetrachloride?

Looking at electronegativity tables, chlorine consistently has a higher electronegativity than carbon. However, when I use simple algorithms (molcalc, acc2), I get a positive partial charge on the ...
Karsten's user avatar
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Why does the two OH bonds in H2O have different bond disassociation enthalpies? How does the bond cleavage happen here?

I came across this question, and in the text it was written as 'change in the chemical environment'. I wasn't satisfied with this explanation, so I am looking for a more detailed answer on this matter ...
goldi mathews's user avatar
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0 answers
132 views

What is electrovalency and covalency?

I know that valence is defined in the Gold Book, and valency, electrovalency, and covalency are not defined. However, there are some terms that are confusing me. According to the given definitions, a ...
ananta's user avatar
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Ionic bond formation [duplicate]

When two separate pieces of sodium chloride crystals are physically put together, no wonder that they will not fuse with each other. But I don’t understand why. Ionic bonds are described to be non-...
Freeby Freeby's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
276 views

Do PH3F2 and XeS2 exist (in the light of hybridization and Valence Bond Theory)?

Do $\ce{PH3F2}$ and $\ce{XeS2}$ exist, in accordance with Valence Bond Theory? According to Drago's Rule, if the central atom of a compound is an element of the third period, and the attached atom has ...
Bongo Man's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
74 views

Why is the statement regarding the strength of ionic bonds reasonable? [closed]

In largely ionic compounds (e.g. NaBr and NaI), it seems to be generally true that, the greater the differences of electronegativity between the forming substances (i.e. The compound has more "...
蕭力諶's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
242 views

A water molecule is bent. Why? [duplicate]

Consider the bent shape of $\ce{H2O}$ with a bond angle of $104°$. From my understanding, this is due to the lone pair repulsion between the 2 pairs of lone pair electrons. Hence, it adopts a ...
Quin Gardiner Bax's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
425 views

If charge is quantised, how can It delocalize?

As I was trying to understand resonance, I got to know that it was imaginary phenomenon and it is just a tool to explain mechanisms and structures that are unexplained by Lewis dot structures or ...
Dheeraj Gujrathi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
127 views

Bond order of carbon monoxide and nitrosyl cation

The following question was asked in JEE Mains exam in 2022, a competitive exam for engineering in India. The difference between bond order of CO and NO$^+$ is $\frac{x}{2}$ where $x$ = ____. (Round ...
Bongo Man's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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If diborane has 3c-2e bonds, then why are both boron atoms still electron deficit?

This is an image of the structure of diborane. It has a 3-center-2-electron bridge bond. As we can see in the bridge bond, the electron in the hydrogen atom and one electron in either boron atom is ...
Bongo Man's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Dipole Moment in P4O8 molecule

So from the structure, which seems to be quite symmetrical, according to me the dipole moment should be zero.
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59 views

What is the name of the bond between oxygen atoms and Na+ ions when NaCl dissolves in water?

When NaCl (sodium chloride, table salt) dissolves in water, the NaCl molecules break apart. The hydrogen atoms form hydrogen bonds (I think?) with the Cl- ions. What is the name of the bond between ...
Jake Levi's user avatar
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-5 votes
1 answer
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Why are HFOs like R-1234yf considered okay (for now) but PFAs are under attack? Don't they both contain strong Carbon-Fluorine bonds? [closed]

The popular (and professional) press is awash with alarms about some so-called 'forever' chemicals, the PFAs... The older, ozone-destroying CFCs and HCFCs, as well as global-warming-inducing HFCs, and ...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why have my recent boiled eggs contain water within the membrane?

My wife recently boiled eggs from the grocery. Every single one of the eggs has contained water with in the membrane where the hollow portion of the egg is normally. I have only seen this if maybe the ...
Fred Shalackey's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
240 views

Why doesn't ClO2 dimerise?

My teacher has told us that ClO2 does not dimerise due to delocalization of unpaired electron, but didn't elaborate on this. I didn't understand it.
Wallflower06's user avatar
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How does bond strength affect catenation?

I am wondering why C with single bond strength 347 Kj/mol is able to form much longer linear bond chain, while S with single bond strength 266 Kj/mol is able to do so with difficulty, although not ...
KeShAw's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is the probability the bonds broken with sunlight reforming back?

The maximum wavelength $\lambda$ capable of breaking a chemical bond can be estimated as $\lambda = hc/E.$ UV-A $(\pu{380 nm})$ can break bonds with the energy up to $\pu{315 kJ mol^-1},$ UV-B $(\pu{...
Neal Conroy's user avatar

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