Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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How does double bond placement, in an alkene, affect the boiling point of the alkene?

Will having the double bond be closer to the middle of the molecule result in a higher or lower boiling point than that of an isomer with the double bond closer to one of the ends? Also, does the same ...
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1answer
27 views

Can you create a temporary bond in between an atom and a filter by electrically charging the filter?

I want to be able to turn a filter on and off by electrically charging the filter so that it creates a temporary bond that blocks up the filter then, by discharging the filter, releasing the temporary ...
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1answer
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Is each bag of plastic a polymer/macromolecule? If yes, why does it tear so easily? [duplicate]

For example, polyethene is a macromolecule. So each bag of polyethene should be one molecule. Doesn't tearing it therefore involve breaking strong covalent bonds? Shouldn't the energy needed to do ...
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1answer
25 views

The meaning of USFDA (in cosmetics) [closed]

The full meaning of USFDA base on the definition of cosmetic meaning and production
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Need help with understanding the octet rule [closed]

Why does it break the octet rule for second-row elements to have five or six bonds? Don't Nitrogen and Oxygen need five and six bonds respectively to be complete?
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1answer
50 views

How to "draw" a coordination bond (dashed bond) in MOLFILE?

How can we "draw" a coordination bond (dashed bond) in MOLFILE? I cannot find a bond property or option that would allow me to choose such a thing. So many drawings of organo-metallic ...
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When an atom loses an electron to become an ion, where does the electron go? [closed]

Similarly, if an atom were to gain an electron to become more stable, where would it gain the electron from?
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1answer
69 views

Why cant two hydrogen atoms lose and gain electrons to form ionic bond? [closed]

Is this possible: One hydrogen atom loses one electron to form H+ ion. Another hydrogen atom gains one electron to form H- ion. Both of these hydrogen atom combines to form ionic H2 bond? Can this ...
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Example of a chemical bond that occurs by adding a substance? [closed]

It's been ages since I've studied chemistry... and since there is no chemists around me I hope it's ok that I ask this question. I am looking for an example from chemistry where there are two, or more,...
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How are covalent character and lattice energy determined by the same rules

Fajan's rules give Covalent Character ( C.C.) = k * polarisiblity * polarising power = k * net product of charges * radius of anion * 1/radius of anion. Similarly, Lattice energy ( L.E.) = k * net ...
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Can single molecules of C and O2 react in isolation, and if so how will momentum be conserved?

I am trying to figure out how is it possible to reconcile the reality of exothermic reactions, which means that kinetic energy is transferred to (heats) the surrounding matter, with the principle of ...
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2answers
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Carbonyl bond vs alkene bond

Why is that carbonyl bonds are stronger than those of alkenes? It's a basic question but I've never really thought much about it. I've read several times that carbonyl bonds are shorter and you need ...
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How to compare the Leonard-Jones potential energy curves of diatomic molecules?

The graph shows the dependence of potential energy on internuclear or intermolecular distance according to the L-J model, but how to compare lennard-jones potential energy curves of diatomic molecules,...
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1answer
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How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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1answer
84 views

Comparing strengths of σ-bonds formed by $\mathrm d_{z^2}$ and $\mathrm p_z$ orbitals

According to my professor $\mathrm d_{z^2}–\mathrm d_{z^2}$ σ-bond is stronger than $\mathrm p_z–\mathrm p_z$ σ-bond as the extent of overlapping is greater in $\mathrm d_{z^2}–\mathrm d_{z^2}$ ...
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Why is maximum number of covalent bonds 3? [duplicate]

In my textbook it is mentioned that maximum 3 covalent bonds can be formed within 2 atoms, which makes sense as 1 p orbital from each can be used for sigma bond and the remaining 2 can form pi bonds. ...
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What is the typical bond energy on a sample surface (calculated from single bond energy)?

I am trying to figure out a way to calculate the surface bond energy from the single bond energy (only roughly). Assuming the surface energy of silicon is the heat of sublimation (approximately 4.5 eV)...
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Why is the transition state the highest energy point? [closed]

If partial bonds form during transition state, it means some energy is released, so how can it have the highest energy? Shouldn't the point before transition state be highest energy? (the point where ...
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1answer
468 views

Why are the acidities for H-CH3 and H-OH so different?

I was comparing the acidity of H-CH3 and H-OH, and a lot of things weren't making sense. Generally, the process of turning H-X into $H^{+}$ and $X^{-}$ can be broken into 2 hypothetical steps: 1.) ...
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1answer
469 views

Why does helium have such a low van der Waals coefficient but not as low a Lennard-Jones coefficient?

Helium has the lowest polarizability of any atom, and therefore ought to have the smallest London dispersion force. Indeed, if you look at the van der Waals constant of helium, you find that it has ...
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3answers
3k views

The definition of formal Charge

Ok, most people including me know that formal charge is just a book-keeping tool. I know how to calculate it, apply it to Lewis structures etc etc. But I am confused in its very basic definition which ...
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1answer
327 views

How to compare stability between 5‐methylcyclohexa‐1,3‐diene and 3‐methylenecyclohexene?

Problem Compare stability of 1 and 2: Answer My approach Both have the same number of π-bonds. Both have one resonance structure. Both are non-aromatic. In 1 there are three α-hydrogens, whereas ...
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35 views

How big a role does electron repulsion play in regard to the bond length of a covalent bond? [duplicate]

In a covalent bond, there are several forces acting together to determine the bond length. Electron-electron repulsion increases the bond length. Proton-proton repulsion increases the bond length. ...
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33 views

Does overlapping partial density of states indicate formation of chemical bond?

Does overlapping partial density of states of two adjacent atoms indicate formation of chemical bonds between the two atoms? The partial density of states here means the density of states of an ...
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1answer
59 views

What does it mean by non-bonding p pi orbital?

In a paper by Peng et. al.,[1] I read about the valence band maximum of $\ce{TiO2}$ consists of non-bonding O pπ orbitals ... the valence band maximum (VBM) consists of non-bonding O pπ states What ...
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1answer
73 views

In the LCAO method for $H_2^+$, why do we only add or subtract orbitals but never alter one of the phases of the orbitals?

TLDR: Atkins' physical chemistry contains the quote "In general, from N atomic orbitals we can build N molecular orbitals". In the case of $H^+_2$, we use a combination of N=2 orbitals to ...
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2answers
90 views

Why exactly do we need formal charge? [closed]

Formal charge is considered to be the charge present in one atom by considering all the bonds to be 100% covalent.What is the significance of 100% covalent here? Why are we considering the bonds to be ...
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1answer
148 views

Bond type in Grignard reagent

I just want to confirm if the $\ce{R-Mg}$ bond is a covalent bond which undergoes heterolytic fission during reactions while the bond between magnesium and halogen atom is ionic. Am I right or wrong?
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1answer
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Do different types of MOs have different occupancies?

There was a question in my textbook regarding the number of electrons in a molecular orbital. The maximum number of electrons in a sigma, pi, and delta molecular orbital are respectively? Now, I ...
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1answer
29 views

Manganese and valence layer [closed]

Why does manganese make $4$ bonds in $\ce{H_2MnO_4}$ when it has only two electrons in the valence shell?
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Why are sulfoxides usually stable as ylides (S charged positively and O negatively)? What's the BDE for S-O?

I can't find any info on BDE for singularly bonded S to oxygen. Moreover, I'd like to understand, why is it quite usual to find sulfoxides structure written with charge separation?
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2answers
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PBP vs TBP geometry?

Why are the axial bond lengths greater than those of the equatorial bonds in a trigonal bi-pyramid (TBP) geometry molecule; but the opposite is true for pentagonal bi-pyramid (PBP) geometry molecules? ...
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Does a larger bond energy in reactants mean a more exothermic reaction?

In the book "Combustion Physics" for C.K Law, page 42, it is stated that: The parameter that has the next strongest influence on [adiabatic flame temperature] $T_{ad}$ is the $C/H$ ratio of ...
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2answers
684 views

Materials for McBride's Freshman Organic Chemistry at Yale University

I have been looking over the online Organic Chemistry course taught by McBride at Yale and named "Freshman Organic Chemistry", 125A, which is on Itunes University. Only the lectures are ...
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1answer
189 views

Why does methane have 4-different bond dissociation energies?

I will elaborate on my question here. In my Lecture Notes it is mentioned that for methane, there are 4 different $\text{C-H}$ bond energies. I plotted a quick graph of the bond energies to analyse ...
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1answer
105 views

Terminology for describing nuclei participating in metallic bonds

I've read many times that in metals (for example sodium metal), what constitutes the crystal lattice is an arrange of atoms, since no electron is given or lost, they are just shared between all the ...
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1answer
245 views

How to bond polymer to polymer (TPU on PMMA)

I wanted to bond TPU films to PMMA slab. I have tried thermal bonding but it is was not practical(I do not know why?). Can anyone please give me a method to bound them? Thanks
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1answer
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Why is the thermal stability of calcium carbonate higher than that of magnesium carbonate even though lattice energy decreases down a group?

The difference in thermal stability of $\ce{CaCO3}$ and $\ce{MgCO3}$ can be explained using Fajans' rules, but why not using the lattice energy method? Why is the thermal stability of $\ce{CaCO3}$ ...
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2answers
123 views

Why London Dispersion force is attractive not repulsive

The London Dispersion force is caused by the formation of temporary dipoles in the electron cloud of neutral atoms that attract each other. Why is this only attractive? Why don't the like poles repel,...
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0answers
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Bond Angle of NH3, NCl3 and NBr3 [duplicate]

I have read the other answer on chemistrystackexchange regarding the bond angles of $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{NCl3}$. The bond angle of $\ce{NCl3}$ is more than $\ce{NH3}$ due to back bonding between p-...
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415 views

Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
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2answers
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How many bonds can nitrogen form?

As known, nitrogen could form 3 bonds based on octet rule, because it has 5 valence electrons. That means it needs 3 bonds. On the other hand, why sometimes nitrogen forms 4 bonds?
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Finding Potential Depth of Multiple-Minimum in a PEC

Suppose we have the following curve with more than one well and different maximum points: My simple question is how to calculate the potential depth of each well? Do we calculate all the potential ...
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1answer
68 views

Role of 'p' Orbitals in Graphite Carbons

In the graphite arrangement of carbons, if we model them according to hybridization theory, the carbons in graphite are sp2 hybridized. This would mean that one s and two p orbitals hybridize, making ...
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4answers
9k views

Is there a shortcut method to calculate the Steric Number?

The steric number is equal to the number of $\sigma$-bonds + the number of lone pairs of electrons on the central atom. It gives us the number of hybridised orbitals. It is pretty straight-forward to ...
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1answer
220 views

What's the "Charge" in Steric Number Formula

I was reading about the Steric Number Formula here. There, I came to know that the Steric Number $N=\frac{V+M \pm I}{2}$ where $V = n(\ce{e-})$, the number of valence electrons of central atom, which ...
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Planarity at the Junction between multiple Rings

My Approach: As cyclohexane should be in the chair form and cyclopentane should be in the envelope form, more the number of five-membered rings more should be its planarity, as envelope form is more ...
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101 views

Why does iodine trichloride dimerize?

In which of the dimerization process, the achievement of the octet is not the driving force $\ce{2AlCl3 \to Al2Cl6}$ $\ce{BeCl2 \to BeCl2}$ (solid) $\ce{2ICl3 \to I2Cl6} $ $\ce{2NO2 \to N2O4}$ ...
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88 views

Nature of π-bonds in permanganate ion

I was doing a question which asked about the nature of $\pi$ bonds between the $\ce{Mn}$ and $\ce{O}$ atoms in $\ce{MnO4-}$. According to the answer all the three $\pi$ bonds were formed by $p\pi-d\pi$...
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48 views

Dative Bond in Nitrogen Dioxide

I learnt that a coordinate covalent bond forms only when Donor atom has a complete octet and also has at lest 1 lone pair. The receiving atom must have an incomplete octet and possess at least 1 ...

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