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Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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What is Bent's rule?

I'm all bent out of shape trying to figure out what Bent's rule means. I have several formulations of it, and the most common formulation is also the hardest to understand. Atomic s character ...
Dissenter's user avatar
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81 votes
4 answers
42k views

Bonding in diatomic C2, a carbon-carbon quadruple bond?

Carbon is well known to form single, double, and triple $\ce{C-C}$ bonds in compounds. There is a recent report (2012) that carbon forms a quadruple bond in diatomic carbon, $\ce{C2}$. The excerpt ...
Janice DelMar's user avatar
79 votes
3 answers
12k views

Why is it wrong to use the concept of hybridization for transition metal complexes?

I have asked a lot of questions on coordination chemistry here before and I have gone through a lot others here as well. Students, including me, attempt to answer those questions using the concept of ...
Arishta's user avatar
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56 votes
5 answers
10k views

How can antibonding orbitals be more antibonding than bonding orbitals are bonding?

In molecular orbital theory, the fact that a bonding and antibonding molecular orbital pair have different energies is accompanied by the fact that the energy by which the bonding is lowered is less ...
stochastic13's user avatar
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53 votes
3 answers
35k views

What makes banana bonds possible in diborane?

Diborane has the interesting property of having two 3-centered bonds that are each held together by only 2 electrons (see the diagram below, from Wikipedia). These are known as "banana bonds." I'm ...
jonsca's user avatar
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53 votes
2 answers
31k views

Why is an S-S bond stronger than an O-O bond?

I'm wondering why exactly the single bond between two sulfur atoms is stronger than that of two oxygen atoms. According to this page, an $\ce{O-O}$ bond has an enthalpy of $142~\mathrm{kJ~mol^{-1}}$, ...
M.A.R.'s user avatar
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50 votes
5 answers
14k views

Fundamental forces behind covalent bonding

I understand that covalent bonding is an equilibrium state between attractive and repulsive forces, but which one of the fundamental forces actually causes atoms to attract each other? Also, am I ...
wolfik's user avatar
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49 votes
5 answers
91k views

Why does bond angle decrease in the order H2O, H2S, H2Se?

I know that bond angle decreases in the order $\ce{H2O}$, $\ce{H2S}$ and $\ce{H2Se}$. I wish to know the reason for this. I think this is because of the lone pair repulsion but how?
Yomal Amarathunge's user avatar
47 votes
1 answer
12k views

Why does sulfur, but not oxygen, catenate?

Oxygen is a rather boring element. It has only two allotropes, dioxygen and ozone. Dioxygen has a double bond, and ozone has a delocalised cloud, giving rise to two "1.5 bonds". On the other hand, ...
ManishEarth's user avatar
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46 votes
3 answers
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Do molecules with bridges through rings exist?

Do molecules with bridges through rings (in a manner illustrated by this) exist? I sometimes get results like this when doing Energy Minimization on molview.org. For example: Is this actually a ...
schuelermine's user avatar
46 votes
2 answers
26k views

Inductive effect of hydrogen isotopes

Why does the electron-donating inductive effect (+I) of the isotopes of hydrogen decrease in the order $\ce{T} > \ce{D} > \ce{H}$? (where T is Tritium and D is Deuterium) Google has nothing to ...
Karan Singh's user avatar
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44 votes
7 answers
25k views

Why is BCl3 a monomer whereas AlCl3 exists as a dimer?

What makes dimerization possible in $\ce{AlCl3}$? Are there 3c-2e bonds in $\ce{Al2Cl6}$ as there are in $\ce{B2H6}$?
Papul's user avatar
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42 votes
6 answers
9k views

Can an atom bond with more than 8 other atoms?

Is it possible for an atom to bond with 8 other elements (same or other type)? If yes, then please give some examples. If no, then what could be the possible reason for it? My question is not about ...
Anoneemus's user avatar
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42 votes
1 answer
12k views

Can 100% covalent bonds exist?

Every covalent bond has some ionic character and every ionic bond some covalent character. I can understand why a completely ionic bond is an ideal situation. But completely covalent bonds can exist(?)...
Gerard's user avatar
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42 votes
2 answers
25k views

How can the dipole moment of carbon monoxide be rationalised by molecular orbital theory?

Despite the fact that oxygen is much more electronegative than carbon, the bond in $\ce{CO}$ presents a weak dipole moment. This observation can easily be explained using the concept of "dative bond", ...
Isaiah G.'s user avatar
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41 votes
3 answers
33k views

Why is the bond angle H-P-H smaller than H-N-H?

$\ce{N}$ & $\ce{P}$ are in the same group. Both $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{PH3}$ have one lone pair and according to VSEPR theory, both the central atoms are predicted to be $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized. But ...
user avatar
39 votes
1 answer
50k views

What is a non-classical carbocation?

What is a non-classical carbocation? How is it different from a classical carbocation? I am confused as I have come across this term many times on Chem.SE but there seems to be nothing for my level ...
Karan Singh's user avatar
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38 votes
1 answer
5k views

What would follow in the series sigma, pi and delta bonds?

I realise, that this question is a stretch, but I was wondering, how would a bonding orbital be called if it was formed from two $f_{x(x^2−3y^2)}$ or $f_{y(3x^2−y^2)}$ orbitals. Have there been any ...
Martin - マーチン's user avatar
36 votes
7 answers
123k views

Are metallic/ionic bonds weaker than covalent bonds?

In mineralogy class, I was taught that metallic and ionic bonds are weaker than covalent bonds and that's why quartz and diamond have such a high hardness value. However, in organic chemistry class, I ...
Tamás's user avatar
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34 votes
3 answers
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Why is the bond length of CO+ less than that of CO?

According to molecular orbital theory, the bond order of $\ce{CO}$ is 3. When $\ce{CO+}$ is formed, the bond order decreases to 2.5, and thus the bond length should increase. However, the bond length ...
Papul's user avatar
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34 votes
2 answers
4k views

Hypervalency and the octet rule

I realize that the octet rule is more a suggestion than a rule, and that it applies mainly to non-transition metal compounds. Still, compounds that don't have an octet, like $\ce{BH3}$, tend to ...
ron's user avatar
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30 votes
3 answers
65k views

Why are covalent bonds directional?

It is said that covalent bonds are directional, while ionic bonds are not. Why? Is it because of the orientation/directional properties of the overlapping orbitals?
Abhirikshma's user avatar
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30 votes
3 answers
30k views

Why do salts such as NaCl dissolve?

If we look at solubility of salts in water, we are told that they disassociate, because the positive $\ce{Na}$ ion is attracted to the partially negative oxygen in water and the negative $\ce{Cl}$ is ...
Gerard's user avatar
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30 votes
3 answers
6k views

Are the bonding orbitals in methane equivalent - photoelectron spectrum

The low energy portion (the part dealing with the $\ce{2s}$ and $\ce{2p}$ electrons) of the photoelectron (PE) spectrum of methane is reproduced below. (image source) The reaction being examined is ...
ron's user avatar
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30 votes
2 answers
42k views

Why do atoms "want" to have a full outer shell?

Okay, so I know that this is about filling the orbitals of the atom, and I understand that. What I don't understand is why? For example, an Oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons spinning around it....
Mertcan Ekiz's user avatar
30 votes
1 answer
633 views

Imaginary Bonding Interactions

Usually in chemistry, we deal with bonding interactions. That is, if I have the diatomic A-A molecule or A-B molecule, there's a favorable interaction (i.e., a bond) and a prototypical MO diagram like ...
Geoff Hutchison's user avatar
28 votes
4 answers
29k views

Carbon with 5 bonds?

I've heard that, even though according to Molecular Orbital Theory there is no chance of having nobel gases bonded to each other, it is not totally impossible. For example, under extreme conditions, ...
gunakkoc's user avatar
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28 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why is snow white?

I know that this is a rather ambiguous question; but my question is, whenever we take water and freeze it in the freezer, it still tends to stay clear. Since snow is just frozen water, why is it white?...
Asker123's user avatar
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27 votes
3 answers
17k views

Why are the C-C bonds in benzene closer in length to double bonds than single bonds?

The $\ce{C-C}$ bonds in benzene are $\mathrm{140~pm}$ long which puts them in between single bonds and double bonds (given at $\mathrm{147-154~pm}$ and $\ce{134-135~pm}$ respectively, sourced from ...
bon's user avatar
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26 votes
5 answers
18k views

Physical intuition behind negative values for wave function?

So a positive and a positive wave function create a bonding orbital where the probability of finding an electron is summed while a positive and a negative create an anti-bonding orbital with a lower ...
norlesh's user avatar
  • 553
26 votes
5 answers
45k views

Bonding in the phosphate ion

I'm looking for an explanation of the bonding in the phosphate (PO43−) ion: (Image courtesy of Wikipedia) Phosphorus (15P) - being the fifteenth element - has fifteen electrons, five valence ...
Au101's user avatar
  • 911
25 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is charge shift bonding?

Can someone explain to me charge shift bonding? I recognize that it is proposed as another domain of bonding - one different from ionic and covalent bonding. I am also told that $\ce{C-F}$ exhibits ...
Dissenter's user avatar
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25 votes
2 answers
87k views

Is it possible to melt diamonds into a liquid?

Is it possible to melt diamonds into a liquid? I mean if you heat diamond at open air it will start to burn around 700 degrees Celsius, reacting with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide gas. In the ...
user30561's user avatar
  • 369
25 votes
3 answers
8k views

Why can there not be more than one sigma bond in a set of bonds?

A question on an exam asked why there is exactly one sigma bond in double and triple covalent bonds. I looked in my text and online after the exam, but couldn't find an anawer to the question. Why ...
Hal's user avatar
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25 votes
3 answers
2k views

Are stronger bonds always shorter?

This question relates to a few earlier questions I have seen on the site (particularly this one about the bond strength of heavier isotopes). Does a bond necessarily have to be shorter to be stronger? ...
Tyberius's user avatar
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25 votes
2 answers
8k views

For a given element do heavier isotopes form stronger bonds than lighter isotopes?

I know that $\ce{C-D}$ and $\ce{C-T}$ bonds are stronger than $\ce{C-H}$ bonds, but is this generally true for isotopes of all elements? (By isotopes I mean stable ones with large half lives.)
Hritik Narayan's user avatar
24 votes
1 answer
11k views

PBP vs TBP geometry?

Why are the axial bond lengths greater than those of the equatorial bonds in a trigonal bi-pyramid (TBP) geometry molecule; but the opposite is true for pentagonal bi-pyramid (PBP) geometry molecules? ...
tkhanna42's user avatar
  • 2,545
23 votes
3 answers
17k views

Can ozone have a triangular structure?

The structure of ozone is traditionally depicted using two resonance forms: However, what I am wondering is instead of using such an idea to explain the structure why can't we show the structure of ...
Yashbhatt's user avatar
  • 477
23 votes
2 answers
11k views

How can the Bonding in IF7 be explained using LCAO method?

I know that the VSEPR theory explains $\ce{IF_7}$ (iodine heptafluoride)'s structure as a pentagonal bi-pyramidal one. The valence bond theory can be used to say that it has $\mathrm{sp^3d^3}$ ...
scienceauror's user avatar
23 votes
2 answers
7k views

What is the edge of a diamond like?

The chemical structure of a diamond is defined as an endless lattice in which each carbon atom is covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms situated at the four ends of a tetrahedron. But of ...
Mason Wheeler's user avatar
22 votes
8 answers
14k views

Do ligands with a positive charge exist?

Are there positively charged ligands which can bind to a central metal atom to form coordination compounds? My thoughts: I know that ligands are Lewis bases which donate a pair of electrons, and the ...
Rajath Radhakrishnan's user avatar
22 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is natural bond orbital theory used for?

My understanding is that the NBO methodology transforms the molecular orbital picture of a molecule into a collection of pairwise interactions (bond orbitals). This is obviously handy for didactic and ...
Richard Terrett's user avatar
22 votes
3 answers
9k views

Pi electron stacking, how does it work?

I've come across the term base-pair stacking (with reference to B-DNA) in my school text book, and I had posted a question in that regard on Bio.SE. I've also seen a similar (albeit brief) version ...
paracetamol's user avatar
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22 votes
1 answer
50k views

Why is the bond order of CO+ 3.5?

According to my books the bond order of $\ce{CO+}$ is $3.5$. But shouldn't it be $2.5$? On googling this, I found the following answer that is on Stack Exchange but its only talks about the bond ...
Chloritone_360's user avatar
22 votes
1 answer
7k views

Why is NaCl3 possible?

There. And there. Almost a year ago, a group of scientists claimed to have reached compounds of $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Cl}$ with weird stochiometries ($\ce{NaCl3, Na3Cl, NaCl7, Na3Cl2}$ and $\ce{Na2Cl}$). ...
M.A.R.'s user avatar
  • 10.7k
21 votes
3 answers
12k views

A monocyclic 6 carbon ring with 6 double bonds

I would like to know if this molecule has ever been synthesized, if not why not, and what would its IUPAC name be?
Blackness's user avatar
  • 321
21 votes
1 answer
18k views

Is KF the most ionic compound?

I saw somewhere (can't recall where) that KF is the most ionic compound. I expected CsF. Does the greater polarizability of Cs allow it to more easily form covalent bonds compared to K? Does this ...
Brinn Belyea's user avatar
  • 3,858
21 votes
1 answer
4k views

Do only outer electron shells take part in forming chemical bonds?

Do only outer electron shells take part in forming chemical bonds? Or could an inner shell create a bond under some conditions?
Dirk Bruere's user avatar
  • 1,672
20 votes
1 answer
19k views

Relative acidities of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes

How does one explain the trend in bond lengths and acidity of the following hydrocarbons? $$\begin{array}{ccc} \hline \text{Species} & \ce{C-H}\text{ bond length / Å} & \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} ...
tkhanna42's user avatar
  • 2,545
20 votes
2 answers
4k views

What does it mean when it is said that an sp³ orbital has 25% s character?

My textbook frequently mentions: $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybrid orbital has 25% $\mathrm{s}$-character and 75% $\mathrm{p}$-character. What are these "characters"? And how do these characters influence ...
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