Skip to main content

Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

240 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
11 votes
0 answers
637 views

Identifying alkyl ligands as π-donors or π-acceptors in transition metal complexes

Is there a systematic way to identify an alkyl ligand as a π-acceptor or π-donor in a transition metal complex? Although various sources indicate that the weak field ligands are typically π-donors and ...
doarfo's user avatar
  • 111
8 votes
0 answers
593 views

Bond orders in the 3c-4e bond and 3c-2e bond

According to D. P. M. Mingos, in his book Essential Trends in Inorganic Chemistry, the bond order of the three-centre four-electron bond is approximately 0.717, which is one divided by the square root ...
Tan Yong Boon's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
879 views

Chemical bonding with f orbitals

For the elements such as rhenium, osmium, iridium how probable is for electrons in the inner 4f orbitals to gain energy and take part in a molecular orbital (such as an $f^2 d^2 s p^3$ hybrid orbital) ...
DanielC's user avatar
  • 207
7 votes
1 answer
301 views

Are there bonds which share single electron?

Are there bonds which share single electron? During chemical bonding, I asked our teacher why there are only 2 electrons shared in a bond. He said that because it's that one orbital can accommodate ...
Iceberry's user avatar
  • 1,228
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

Which singlet dihalocarbene has the strongest carbon-halogen bond?

There are three singlet carbenes - difluorocarbene, dichlorocarbene and dibromocarbene. Which has the strongest carbon halogen bond? Obviously backbonding is a point to be considered, as carbene is ...
ksr's user avatar
  • 459
6 votes
0 answers
1k views

How does the Jahn-Teller distortion result in both elongation and compression?

Recently, I have been reading up on the Jahn-Teller effect and I have read articles and posts on it, such as What is the mathematical basis behind the Jahn-Teller effect?. However, many of these ...
Tan Yong Boon's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
2k views

Why is the N-N bond length greater in dinitrogen trioxide than in dinitrogen tetroxide?

Why is the N-N bond length greater in dinitrogen trioxide than in dinitrogen tetroxide? If the lone pair on $\ce{N}$ in $\ce{N2O3}$ delocalises, then the $\ce{N-N}$ bond will have a double bond ...
Parth Mall's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
747 views

How does a 5th hydrogen bind to carbon atom in CH5[+]?

Can we bind a fifth hydrogen to a carbon atom if carbon is not in excited state? We have a big discussion in class and cannot clearly answer the question. If carbon atom excites an electron from $2\...
Diana51's user avatar
  • 95
5 votes
0 answers
62 views

How to experimentally determine the dissociation energy (electronegativity) between identical atoms?

I was reading on Wikipedia about how Pauling electronegativities are determined through $$ \vert \chi_\ce{A} - \chi_\ce{B} \vert = \sqrt{E_\mathrm{d}(\ce{AB}) - \frac{E_\mathrm{d}(\ce{AA}) + E_\mathrm{...
Hale Bays's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
263 views

How much electron hybridization and bonding occurs in liquid helium?

Helium is the only element which does not freeze at atmospheric pressure, and only forms a liquid at around 4 Kelvin due to weak van der Waals forces. I'm interested in knowing roughly how much ...
user157879's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
4k views

Why are B-O-H and B-O-C angles in B(OH)3 and B(OCH3)3, respectively are higher than normal?

In Concise Inorganic Chemistry by JD Lee (4th edition; adapted by Sudarshan Guha), page 77 under the topic "Back Bonding" it is given: The $\mathrm{2p}\pi$-$\mathrm{2p}\pi$ back bonding in $\ce{B(...
Vishnu's user avatar
  • 2,090
5 votes
0 answers
5k views

Intermolecular Forces in Teflon vs Polyethylene

From Wikipedia, polyethylene has a melting point of around $400K$, while Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) has a melting point of $600 K$, which is much higher. Besides the increased London Dispersion ...
Yunfei Ma's user avatar
  • 1,610
5 votes
0 answers
3k views

Are bond orders always the same in isoelectronic diatomic species?

In my textbook of chemistry it is written that: In the Lewis description of covalent bond, the Bond order is given by the number of bonds between the two atoms of a molecule. ... ...
Kartoos's user avatar
  • 209
4 votes
0 answers
122 views

Is the shortness of boron trifluoride's bonds better understood and explained now than it was "way back" in the 20th century?

Wikipedia's Boron trifluoride; Structure and bonding says: In the boron trihalides, BX3, the length of the B–X bonds (1.30 Å) is shorter than would be expected for single bonds,7 and this shortness ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 5,888
4 votes
0 answers
242 views

Electronegativity, polarity, pi bonds, and nitriles

While googling some numbers, I found that the dipole moment of acetonitrile is, according to wikipedia 3.92D. Compare this to the dipole moment of ethylamine, according to NIST of 1.220D. Now, I've ...
BrownBag's user avatar
  • 141
4 votes
0 answers
1k views

Nature of π-bonds in permanganate ion

I was doing a question which asked about the nature of $\pi$ bonds between the $\ce{Mn}$ and $\ce{O}$ atoms in $\ce{MnO4-}$. According to the answer all the three $\pi$ bonds were formed by $p\pi-d\pi$...
Rhydberg's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
449 views

Does (BeCl2)n have 3-center-4-electron-bonding or not?

The title really explains what the issue is here. I would think that it has multicenter bonding akin to $\ce{(BeH2)_n}$ polymer, because they are pretty much iso-structural (although it shouldn't have ...
napstablook's user avatar
  • 1,524
4 votes
0 answers
81 views

Do Metal Carbonyl complexes exhibit multiple back donation at the same time?

I came across a question which renewed one of my doubts that I had regarding bonding in metal Carbonyl complexes. According to me, metal should exhibit multiple back donation at the same time. ...
Rishi's user avatar
  • 477
4 votes
0 answers
765 views

Reactivity order among Interhalogens

I was reading about Interhalogens in JD Lee and in the book it is stated that (without any reasoning) the reactivity order for few of the interhalogens is :- $\ce{ClF_3 > BrF_5 > IF_7 > ClF &...
Rishi's user avatar
  • 477
4 votes
0 answers
195 views

Misconception in valence bond theory

Since the overlap increases with directional properties of orbital, $$\ce{p - p > s - s > s - p}$$ However it is also observed that the bond strength of $$\ce{H-F > H-H > F-F}$$ $$\ce{\{s ...
newbie105's user avatar
  • 397
4 votes
0 answers
130 views

Metal coordination in enzymes: What type and number of bonds form between amino acid residues and Fe(II)?

My understanding: Transition (d-block) metals, as found in intracellular proteins, are limited to about 10 elements including amongst others Fe, Ni, and Cu. Due to the reductive environments inside ...
CuriousTree's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
726 views

Molecular orbital diagram for I₃⁺ cation

Do I need to go through the whole process of reducible representations/projection operator method to come up with the bent SALCs for the $\ce{[I3]+}$ molecule? Or is it simpler than that?
Kameron Shrum's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
469 views

What's the mechanism behind mineral oil loosening cyanoacrylate bonds?

Per industry literature I found that mineral oil is used to loosen out "super glue" and aid in removal from skin. I am exploring the chemistry of this loosening and I am intrigued. Please help me find ...
user3068783's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
292 views

Waterproofing and recycling paper

I've recently begun studying about waterproofing paper. Through what I learned is that the reason why paper absorbs water so easily is mainly because of it's material composition. Paper is generally ...
Czar Luc's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
2k views

Why the tendency of ClO3 to form dimer is high?

I read that tendency of $\ce{ClO2}$ to form dimer is less and that of $\ce{ClO3}$ to form dimer is more. I can understand the reason for the former because the unpaired electron is more delocalized ...
Arishta's user avatar
  • 4,227
4 votes
0 answers
2k views

Why do heavy metals like mercury and lead have an affinity for sulfur or sulfur compounds?

Many of the heavy metals such as mercury, lead, thallium, cadmium, and arsenic exert toxic effects largely by binding to or otherwise interfering with organic sulfur compounds or groups in the body. ...
amylakin's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
82 views

Could we bond hydrogen to the edges of covalent network structures like diamond?

I know that diamond is just carbon atoms structured in a way that differs from graphite and charcoal. The carbon atoms on the edges do not have full valence shells. Would it be possible to attach ...
Lincoln Young's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
2k views

What type of bonding is present in lithium tetrahydridoaluminate?

I can tell that the negative ion has one bond which is a co-ordinate/dative covalent bond. However, overall, would you say that lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (lithium aluminium hydride) is ionic? If ...
Viv's user avatar
  • 323
4 votes
0 answers
1k views

Why does Silver form bonds with covalent character?

Compounds of silver form particularly strong bonds which is accounted for by the significant covalent character of the bonding. Furthermore, is the tendency to form covalent bonds linked to the fact ...
RobChem's user avatar
  • 9,804
4 votes
1 answer
333 views

%s character distribution of phosphorus hybrid orbitals

The following question was asked in the Indian Olympiad Qualifier Chemistry Part I (IOQC) today: For the given compound, %s character of phosphorus hybrid orbitals which contribute to various bonds ...
Box Box Box Box's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
5k views

What are examples of group 14 elements forming dπ - pπ bonding?

While studying the Group 14 elements, I came across the anomalous behaviour of carbon. In that there was a point: Carbon forms only p$\pi$-p$\pi$ type bonding while other elements in the group form ...
Shivam Patel's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
441 views

Crystal field splitting pattern with strong field and weak field ligands

What will be crystal field splitting pattern for octahedral complexes if some of the ligands are strong and some are weak field ligands?
Subhadip Pal's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Are the Phosphate and Sulfate ion diagrams with double bonds an invalid picture?

Whenever you see an image of phosphate, it's always shown having 5 bonds. 3 single bonds to anionic oxygen atoms and a double bond to an extra neutral oxygen. Not only that, but they're shown being ...
Anthony's user avatar
  • 41
3 votes
0 answers
68 views

Why is a C=C weaker than a C=N and even weaker than a C=O when C-C is stronger than C-N and C-O?

Why is a C=C bond weaker than a C=N and even weaker than C=O ? In terms of orbital overlap it doesn't make sense, since there is a difference in energy between the orbitals which lower the interaction ...
TheBorcanu's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
47 views

Bonding and then breaking radioactive molecules

I was looking at Radon and noticed that it has a half-life of 3.8 days, yet still makes compounds with some other elements. This got me wondering, are there any examples of chemical processes or ...
G. Putnam's user avatar
  • 175
3 votes
0 answers
102 views

Is Bent's Rule an alternative explanation for the Inductive Effect?

Today I read that Bent's Rule can be used to explain the inductive effect (I was reading the Consequences section of this Wikipedia article). If I understand it correctly, for a molecule CL3R, the ...
Akash's user avatar
  • 335
3 votes
0 answers
31 views

Why are sulfoxides usually stable as ylides (S charged positively and O negatively)? What's the BDE for S-O?

I can't find any info on BDE for singularly bonded S to oxygen. Moreover, I'd like to understand, why is it quite usual to find sulfoxides structure written with charge separation?
nuniwo's user avatar
  • 31
3 votes
0 answers
95 views

Planarity at the Junction between multiple Rings

My Approach: As cyclohexane should be in the chair form and cyclopentane should be in the envelope form, more the number of five-membered rings more should be its planarity, as envelope form is more ...
Bhanu Kiran's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
100 views

Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...
Ashish's user avatar
  • 1,409
3 votes
0 answers
235 views

Why does the C−H bond dissociation energy vary in a homologous series of primary alcohols?

Specifically, for the primary carbon atom in the alcohol. Here is bond dissociation energy (BDE) data from chapter three of Luo's Comprehensive handbook of chemical bond energies [1] (boldface refers ...
Madhav Malhotra's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
320 views

Why is the carbon fluorine bond stronger than the carbon oxygen bond?

From this wiredchemist.com, I obtained values of the bond dissociation energies of the $\ce{C-O}$ and $\ce{C-F}$ bonds: \begin{align} D_0(\ce{C-F}) &= \pu{485 KJ mol-1}\\ D_0(\ce{C-O}) &= \...
Yushi Li's user avatar
  • 197
3 votes
0 answers
2k views

why does lithium fluoride have a higher lattice energy than lithium iodide?

Based on my knowledge, lattice energy is proportional to the multiplication of the charge of the ions, divided by the sum of the radius of ions, as follows: $$\text{Lattice energy} \propto \dfrac{q_+ \...
Elizabeth's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
43 views

Discussion about Warren-Cowely Parameter

The Warren-Cowely Parameter (WCP) for short range solution order is defined as: $$\mathrm{WCP}_{ij} = 1 - \frac{Z_{ij}}{x_j \cdot Z_i}$$ where $Z_{ij}$ is the partial Coordination Number (CN) of ...
user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
2k views

Counting the number of conjugated pi bonds in a complex aromatic molecule

So for multiple bonds to be conjugated, they must be in an alternating double bond – single bond – double bond, etc arrangement. However, do they need to be continuous? In my textbook, they count the ...
Andrew Norfield's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
121 views

Bond lengths in P₄O₁₀

According to JD Lee's Concise Inorganic Chemistry: The double bond $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ contains p(π)–d(π) backbonding, where a full p-orbital on oxygen overlaps with an empty d-orbital on $\...
vishesh jain's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
440 views

Can the Lewis dot structure of SO2 be experimentally verified?

I have just watched 2 different videos on the Lewis dot structure of sulfur dioxide, $\ce{SO2}$. One says it is $$\ce{O=S=O}$$ and the other says $$\ce{^-O-S^+=O <-> O=S^+-O-}$$ The first ...
G Smith's user avatar
  • 39
3 votes
0 answers
325 views

H-N-H bond angle in ammonia boron trifluoride adduct

In the reaction: $\ce{NH3 + BF3 -> NH3-BF3}$ does the HNH bond angle increase or decrease? Surely, the FBF bond angle decreases because boron changes from $\ce{sp^2 -> sp^3}$. But how can we ...
Archer's user avatar
  • 5,511
3 votes
0 answers
177 views

Bond order analysis in molpro

I'm trying to compute bond orders in a molecule, let's consider S2 as an example. I'm not entirely sure what's the right way to do that, but I assume NBO (Natural Bond Orbital) should give me what I ...
QNA's user avatar
  • 161
3 votes
0 answers
3k views

Comparison between Boron Nitride and Graphite: Interlayer distance

Boron-nitrogen chemistry has attracted significant attention, partly because a B–N unit is isoelectronic with C–C. Furthermore, the radius of carbon and its electronegativity are roughly the average ...
stoic-santiago's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
152 views

What makes a bond non-polarisable?

Many chemical bonds are known to be polarisable. Similarly, many ions are also known to be polarisable. Examples include the carbon-iodine bond and the carbonate ion. Recently, I have read that the ...
Tan Yong Boon's user avatar

1
2 3 4 5