Skip to main content

Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
4 votes
2 answers
3k views

Why do halogens have odd numbers as oxidation number?

Halogens like $\ce{Cl}$ always exhibit $+7,+5,+3,+1,-1$ as their oxidation numbers. I found the following answer after checking several sources: Halogen atoms have $7$ electrons in their valence ...
0 votes
0 answers
31 views

Are the s orbitals or p orbitals more involved in bonding within 3rd period elements

I understand that within most diatomic molecule systems such as nitrogen gas the electrons within the s-orbitals have a net nonbonding effect but the p-orbitals are the ones that are involved in ...
-4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is this bond Ionic or Covalent, and why? AlBr [closed]

We know a compound could form between NaCl because they are +1 and -1 ions which make them both into a complete valence set. Could a compound form between Al and Br, for example, and what type of bond ...
-2 votes
0 answers
55 views

Is this calculation of number of bonds formula correct? [closed]

I found this formula in a book but I am unsure if this is correct. There is no derivation whatsoever given. I have tried using it but cannot reach the solution In open-chain compounds: Number of ...
-2 votes
0 answers
38 views

Location of lone pair being used for back bonding, and the hybridisation of nitrogen in silyl isothiocyanate [duplicate]

The expected structure for silyl isothiocyanate is H3Si-N̈=C=S, where N has a lone pair. However, due to back bonding, the lone pair of nitrogen is shared with the d-orbital of the silicon atom. My ...
0 votes
1 answer
87 views

Why does triiodide have only single bonds?

The triiodide ion ($I_3^-$) has structure [I-I-I]$^-$, but the resonance structure [I=I-I]$^-\leftrightarrow$ [I-I=I]$^-$ seems more favourable to me. After all, it disperses formal charge and has a ...
3 votes
1 answer
122 views

Why is Piperidine more basic than Pyridine? [duplicate]

Piperidine, which has sp3 carbons attached to it, experiences an increase in electron density on the nitrogen atom, making it more basic. However, when we look at the resonating structures of pyridine,...
3 votes
1 answer
550 views

Are there any 2D materials whose bonding can be best described as metallic rather than covalent?

Wikipedia's The nature of metallic bonding; In 2D says: Graphene is an example of two-dimensional metallic bonding. Its metallic bonds are similar to aromatic bonding in benzene, naphthalene, ...
0 votes
0 answers
33 views

Factors affecting bond enthalpy

I am learning about chemical bonding and bond parameters, and came across this question: Which of the following is the strongest bond? a) C-C b) C-H c) C-N d) C-O I've learnt that bond enthalpy is ...
5 votes
1 answer
5k views

Why does attraction always cause release of energy making the system more stable?

Suppose $\ce{Na^+}$ and $\ce{Cl^-}$ form an ionic bond. In doing so they will come closer by attraction. Now as they come closer their speed will increase and hence the kinetic energy increases. So ...
5 votes
3 answers
2k views

Copper turned silver-color with crystalized soldered joints. How did this happen?

I was working on a small project requiring cleaning and polishing copper pipe, but found sparkling solder joints and silver-like finish instead. I attempted to clean copper pipe with white vinegar + ...
-2 votes
0 answers
45 views

Specific Trend for Bond Orders of Diatomic Molecules?

Are there any exceptions to this trend observed? TL;DR: Does the observed trend in bond orders for different diatomic electronic species, based on molecular orbital theory, have any exceptions? The ...
0 votes
0 answers
57 views

Restriction of back bonding in tris(dimethylamino)borane

J.D. Lee Concise Inorganic Chemistry [3, p. 78] mentions that The bond length order of the B-N bond in the following compounds is $\ce{B(NR2)3}$ > $\ce{HB(NR2)2}$ > $\ce{H2B(NR2)}$ and the ...
5 votes
1 answer
29k views

How to identify a coordinate bond?

How can we know whether a compound has a coordinate bond or not? What to do after drawing the Lewis structure for the compound? Is there anything to do with formal charges?
3 votes
0 answers
68 views

Why is a C=C weaker than a C=N and even weaker than a C=O when C-C is stronger than C-N and C-O?

Why is a C=C bond weaker than a C=N and even weaker than C=O ? In terms of orbital overlap it doesn't make sense, since there is a difference in energy between the orbitals which lower the interaction ...
6 votes
3 answers
19k views

Why is fullerene 60 an insulator while graphite is a conductor?

Graphite is good conductor of electricity because one carbon atom is bonded only three carbon atoms, which enables the presence of free electrons. In fullerene 60 the carbon atoms are also bonded to ...
1 vote
0 answers
18 views

Bonding of urethane layers towards curing with respect to moisture and intentional abrasion of curing surface for adhesion

Here are three follow-up questions to my previous urethane-for-fine-art-painting question under How do upper layers of urethane adhere or bond to lower layers after curing? The curing time for the ...
1 vote
1 answer
12k views

Comparing strength of the C-H, N-H, and O-H bonds

$$ \begin{align} \ce{CH4(g) + Cl(g) &-> CH3(g) + HCl(g)} &\quad ΔH^\circ &= \pu{-14 kJ mol-1}_\mathrm{rxn}\\ \ce{NH4(g) + Cl(g) &-> NH2(g) + HCl(g)} &\quad ΔH^\circ &= \...
-1 votes
1 answer
41 views

How are the individual atoms in a specimen of pure iron bonded to eachother?

I'm confused about the nomenclature related to bonding. If two atoms are chemically bonded, the combination is called a molecule. In a specimen (let's say a 3in x 3in cube) of pure iron, all of the ...
2 votes
0 answers
98 views

Do any molecules contain a phi bond?

In chemistry, phi bonds (φ bonds) are covalent chemical bonds, where six lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap six lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. I researched this question a lot; ...
50 votes
5 answers
14k views

Fundamental forces behind covalent bonding

I understand that covalent bonding is an equilibrium state between attractive and repulsive forces, but which one of the fundamental forces actually causes atoms to attract each other? Also, am I ...
5 votes
1 answer
397 views

Thermal instability of sulfur and selenium iodides

After recent question about non-existent pnictide(V) iodides, I stumbled upon a similar issue in oxygen group. For example, $\ce{SI2}$ was reported to be found… but at the temperature as low as $\pu{9 ...
0 votes
2 answers
276 views

Do PH3F2 and XeS2 exist (in the light of hybridization and Valence Bond Theory)?

Do $\ce{PH3F2}$ and $\ce{XeS2}$ exist, in accordance with Valence Bond Theory? According to Drago's Rule, if the central atom of a compound is an element of the third period, and the attached atom has ...
1 vote
0 answers
38 views

What do the pi antibonding orbitals of 1,5-hexadiene look like?

Hi so right now I'm learning about the Cope and Claisen rearrangements, and often something is shown where the antibonding pi orbitals of the two alkenes have to overlap in a certain way, like in the ...
2 votes
1 answer
67 views

Where are the electrons located when two atomic orbitals overlap? (VBT)

According to the valence bond theory(VBT), a covalent bond is formed by the overlapping of atomic orbitals containing electrons of opposite spin which pair together. However what is the physical ...
11 votes
0 answers
637 views

Identifying alkyl ligands as π-donors or π-acceptors in transition metal complexes

Is there a systematic way to identify an alkyl ligand as a π-acceptor or π-donor in a transition metal complex? Although various sources indicate that the weak field ligands are typically π-donors and ...
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Binding energies of transition metals in the 3d series

Binding energy of the transition elements in the 3d series increases up to vanadium then drops from chromium to manganese and then increases slightly and then drops again It is seen that binding ...
2 votes
3 answers
35k views

What is the total bond energy of CO2?

How can you calculate the total bond energy of $\ce{CO2}$? I've searched for the bond energy of C=O and found it was 745 kJ/mol, but sometimes 799 kJ/mol. Which one is the right one to use? And do ...
-3 votes
1 answer
68 views

What does the dot indicate in the molecular formula for white lead? [duplicate]

I came across the following molecular formula for white lead: $2\mathrm{Pb}\mathrm{CO3}·\mathrm{Pb(OH)_2}$. What does the center dot indicate here? Is this a non-covalent interaction of some kind? ...
-2 votes
1 answer
48 views

Ionic Character of Metallic (Alkali Metals) Hydrides , and Reactivity

In my book , the following line has been written:- All the alkali metal hydrides are ionic solids with high melting points The ionic character , however, decreases from Li to Cs The reason being ...
3 votes
2 answers
381 views

Why can't group 2B metals (Zn, Cd, Hg) form complexes with ligands such as CO, nitrosyl (NO), and olefins but do from complexes with NH3, CN- etc?

Why Group 2B metals (Zn, Cd, Hg) can form complexes with Ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$), Cyanide ($\ce{CN-}$) etc. and not with ligands such as carbonyl ($\ce{CO}$), nitrosyl ($\ce{NO}$), and olefins? What I ...
1 vote
1 answer
401 views

Why is the inductive effect of σ-electrons only along saturated carbon chains?

In my book the following is written: When an electron withdrawing atom such as a halogen is attached to the end of a carbon chain, the $\sigma$-electrons of the $\ce{C-X}$ bond are attached to or ...
2 votes
0 answers
31 views

Question Involving Bonding (VSEPR AND VBT)

So basically any chemistry book will tell you about the extent of overlapping in different orbitals. For formation of sigma bonds, head on overlapping happens. Chemistry textbooks always state that $p-...
0 votes
2 answers
78 views

Why does boron have higher affinity for fluorine than oxygen?

$\ce{F-}$ can displace $\ce{OH}$ in $\ce{B(OH)3}$ and form $\ce{BF3}$. $\ce{BF3}$ is stable due to resonance, but donation of oxygen should be stronger, as -I power of fluorine dominates its lone pair ...
0 votes
0 answers
26 views

The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene

Problem: The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene is described below. Complete the mechanism in step 1 with one curved arrow showing the electron movement that occurs when the double bond ...
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

What is the reason for the difference in melting point between oleic acid (9-octadecenoic acid) and isooleic acid (10-octadecenoic acid)

Isooleic acid only differs from oleic acid in the position of the double bond. I don't understand why this might lead to an increase in the melting point. The degree of saturation hasn't changed and ...
1 vote
1 answer
68 views

How do we judge whether a bond is a coordinate bond?

We know a coordinate bond refers to a covalent bond in which one atom provides a lone pair and the other provides an empty orbital. When OH- gets a proton and becomes H2O, O provides a lone electron ...
0 votes
1 answer
34 views

Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction?

Problem: Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction? Solution: The monomers with red crosses underneath them can polymerize by chain addition reaction. Question: So, how I am ...
2 votes
2 answers
340 views

Determining covalent bond strengths without hybridisation

Assuming pure $\ce{2s}$ and $\ce{2p}$ orbitals of carbon are used in forming $\ce{CH4}$ molecule, which of the following statements is false? (single choice question) Three $\ce{C-H}$ bonds ...
22 votes
8 answers
14k views

Do ligands with a positive charge exist?

Are there positively charged ligands which can bind to a central metal atom to form coordination compounds? My thoughts: I know that ligands are Lewis bases which donate a pair of electrons, and the ...
0 votes
0 answers
39 views

How does more s character shorten bonds and strengthen bonds?

I'm aware that having more s character means that electrons are in the lowest energy state (?) and very close to the positive atomic nucleus. But then what’s the connection between having electrons ...
0 votes
1 answer
652 views

Only valence shell electrons participate in bonding then how is Cr in H2CrO4 forming 6 covalent bonds although it has only 1 valence electron?

The structure of $\ce{H2CrO4}$ is as follows: Shell configuration of chromium is 2,8,13,1 i.e. it has only 1 valence electron and only valence electron participate in bonding but Chromium in the ...
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

Best representation of 1310384-76-9 / 1104637-53-7, a molecule with a coordination bond between nitrogen and boron

If you look up the above CAS numbers, you will sometimes find this structure: which, I think correctly, our chemistry validation software tags as 'bad valence'. In other websites you will find the ...
1 vote
0 answers
85 views

Stability comparison between Acetylene/Ethyne (C2H2) and Nitrogen Gas (N2) [closed]

N≡N is more stable than H2N—NH2 (hydrazine) But HC≡CH is less stable than H3C—CH3 Why is it so? Even though the size of the corresponding compounds and hybridization is the same? (Usually ethane is ...
6 votes
1 answer
635 views

How is 4H‐1,4‐oxazocine aromatic?

I’ve found 4H‐1,4‐oxazocine in my chemistry book and I’m perplex as it states as aromatic: I can count six electrons on p orbitals which could satisfy Hückel’s $n = 1,$ but the oxygen is sp3-...
-2 votes
2 answers
154 views

Why O-H bond and not C-O bond breaks in Acid Catalyzed Hydration of Alkene?

Recently, while studying Hydrocarbons I came across this reaction (Acid catalyzed hydration of an alkene) What I don't get here is that the breaking of O-H bond (in Step 3) and not the C-O bond, even ...
1 vote
4 answers
4k views

Strength of Hydrogen Bond and Angle

This link has a short paragraph on the very first page, which says: "There are two useful criteria to evaluate the presence and the strength of a H-bond. The first is to look at the distance between ...
16 votes
2 answers
31k views

How do atoms of noble gases bond with each other?

Noble gases have full electron shells, which virtually blocks any other element from bonding with it. However, I've heard about cases where they bond to each other - for example, helium can ...
-1 votes
2 answers
88 views

Amalgam Reaction

I have some doubt about Amalgams. On google it says that amalgams are mixtures. However, when I mixed Na and Hg it 'reacted' to form the amalgam. If they are just mixtures, why do they react to form? ...
0 votes
1 answer
77 views

Does dative bonding cause polarity?

When two atoms form a dative non-polar bond, does the one that shares the couple of electrons acquire a +δ charge and the other a -δ charge? I have been told that in a dative polar bond the charge ...

1
2 3 4 5
30