Questions tagged [atoms]

Smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. It consists of a small nucleus charged positively, carrying almost all of the atom's mass, with electrons surrounding it. This tag should be applied to questions that specifically concern atoms or their properties. For the charged particles, please use [ions] instead. If your question is specifically about [protons], [neutrons], or [electrons], use those tags instead.

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16
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2answers
8k views

Are atoms really round?

I'm not sure if this is a silly question, but I was sitting here with a cup full of cheezey poof balls thinking, "My goodness, it's like an amazing cheesey delicious liquid - huge water molecules!" ...
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Why does free chlorine in the stratosphere lose its ozone-depleting potential after about 100,000 reactions?

Free chlorine ($\ce{Cl}$) in the stratosphere can deplete ozone ($\ce{O3}$) as follows: $$\ce{Cl + O3 -> ClO + O2}$$ The chlorine atoms can then react with oxygen and return to the beginning of ...
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3answers
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How can the number of molecules and atoms be the same in a gas?

A sample of certain mass of gas was collected and it was found that the number of atoms and the number of molecules in the collected sample are equal. You are required to state the conclusion drawn ...
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1answer
64 views

Comb and hair, is that an example for ionic boding?

As i understand, when brushing hair, some electron transfer from hair to the comb. Thus, make the comb have different charged from hair and they attract each other. It's look likely what i have learn ...
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2answers
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Ground state electron configuration of chromium [duplicate]

What is the ground state electron configuration of chromium? Is it $\ce{[Ar]}4s^23d^4$ or Is it $\ce{[Ar]}4s^13d^5$
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1answer
146 views

Photoelectric effect and electron loss

I've read that when a certain amount of UV light is shone on a metal surface, electrons are ejected (the photoelectric effect). Are these electrons from the metal atoms themselves? and in case they ...
7
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2answers
329 views

Why aren't atomic radii calculated using Schrödinger's equation?

The atomic radii are estimated using a variety of methods: most of these involve dividing their bond length by 2. But that is a very crude way of measuring atomic radii. I mean, atoms overlap each ...
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1answer
68 views

Z:#Neutrons Ratio

Is there a fixed ratio that can be used to calculate the number of neutrons in the nucleus of the most stable isotope of an element by knowing the atomic number? Side question: if Z is the symbol for ...
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4answers
9k views

Reason for vibration of molecules

Why do molecules of a body exhibit vibrational motion? Is it due to interaction between various molecules of the body, or interatomic interactions between atoms in the same molecule? If it is because ...
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6answers
11k views

The last element's atomic number

I was just thinking what can be the last atomic number that can exist within the range of permissible radioactivity limit and considering all other factors in quantum physics and chemical factors.
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1answer
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How do I calculate the change in energy of an electron transition?

What are the $\Delta E$'s of the transitions of an electron from $n=5$ to $n=1$ and from $n=5$ to $n=2$ in a Bohr hydrogen atom? The wavelength of the first electron transition is $\lambda_1=409~\...
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1answer
555 views

Why is the ionization enthalpy of francium greater than that of cesium?

Why is the ionization enthalpy of francium greater than that of cesium, even though it has a larger size? I found no Google result regarding this.
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2answers
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Is there an easy way to find number of valence electrons"

I want an high-school level answer. What I mean with "valence electrons" is the outermost electrons in that atoms' electronic arrangement? For example, 3 in an atom with an electronic arrangement of 2,...
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1answer
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Types of radioactive decay

Besides alpha, beta, and gamma, are there any other types of radioactive decay? If so, what are they? Is there any type of radioactive decay that is more powerful than gamma?
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1answer
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How many electrons can each shell in an atom hold?

I know that the first shell can hold up to 2, the second and third can hold up to 8, and the fourth 18. But what about after that?
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1answer
596 views

If atoms are mostly empty space then how are we able to interact with things?

Note: This question has come out of curiosity Q: We all have read that atoms are mostly empty, they are generally compared to a football stadium in which a pea is kept in the center (nucleus) and ...
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1answer
225 views

What are the known atomic oxygen species?

I'm interested in chemical reaction mechanism with more exotic particles. The Wikipedia page seems to imply that the normal atomic oxygen is $O(^3P)$, is that right? I also came across $O(^1D),O(^1S)...
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1answer
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Atomic properties [closed]

This may be a very broad question. I always asked myself how scientists manage to find out the exact molecular structures of for instance water or carbohydrates. How do they know? How do they know the ...
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3answers
5k views

In nuclear chemistry, how does a neutron split to form a proton and an electron?

I'm studying radioisotopes at the moment and balancing nuclear reactions isn't making sense in that more matter is coming out of the equation in negative β⁻ decay equations: $$\ce{_6^{14}C -> _7^{...
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1answer
785 views

Wasn't Rutherford's assumption of gold foil to be made of single layer wrong?

My teacher taught about Rutherford's gold foil experiment today. Sir said that, Rutherford used gold foil of thickness $10^{-7}$ m and concluded atom to be of size $10^{-10}$ m. Sir also said that ...
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2answers
189 views

How will these hydrogen atoms interact?

Assume that we have a space with just two $\ce{H}$ atoms and their distance to each other is $d$. Let's say they don't have initial velocity. What is the force with which they will act on each other? ...
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0answers
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Magnetic moment of coordination complexes?

To understand the commonly quoted magnetic values of coordination complexes (central ion) we use $$m_l=\sqrt{n(n+2)} \text{BM where BM}=\frac{e\hbar}{2m_e}\text{JT}^{-1}$$ $n$=number of unpaired ...
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1answer
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Understanding Moseley’s law from the Rydberg-type equation?

To explain the characteristic X-ray emission peaks for various elemental targets, a formula was developed which was similar in construct to the Rydberg equation for H-atom as derived by the Bohr-model....
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1answer
2k views

Are orbitals always filled in from closest to nucleus to farthest away?

In which orbital, 4f or 6s, would an electron have a greater likelihood of being near the nucleus. I figured that the 6s would be closest, since it is filled in first when using the Aufbau principle. ...
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3answers
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Is ionic bond just formed by "electrostatic" interaction between two oppositely charged ions?

According to the definition of ionic bond: An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. If we consider the above ...
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3answers
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How do 1s and 2p orbitals overlap?

In the following figure we can see that the p-orbitals overlap 1s orbital (though relatively very little). How can an electron in p-orbital, be simultaneously in the 1s orbital at any given point ...
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4answers
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Why do people still use the mole (unit) in chemistry?

I know that the mole is widely used in chemistry instead of units of mass or volume as a convenient way to express amounts of reactants or of products of chemical reactions. I'm wondering why people ...
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1answer
693 views

Finding the number of orbitals on a central atom

In $\ce{BeCl2}$ the number of orbitals on central atom, i.e. on beryllium, are 2. In $\ce{BF3}$, the number of orbitals on central atom , i.e. on boron, are 3. Similarly in $\ce{NH3}$ there are 4, ...
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3answers
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What determines the density of an element?

I used to be under the (wrong) assumption that the density of an element correlates with it's atomic number $\mathrm{Z}$, I thought that since having more protons meant the atom weighed more; but of ...
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1answer
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Sulfur trioxide - vacant d-orbitals

Sulfur trioxide violates the octet rule. Upon drawing the Lewis dot structure for sulfur trioxide, we see that the central sulfur atom is bonded to three other oxygen atoms by double covalent bonds. ...
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1answer
294 views

Storing kinetic energy in bonds

Let's assume a setup with a static linear molecule with three identical atoms connected by bonds and a single atom, identical to the other three, being shot at the molecule. Let's also assume that ...
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2answers
64k views

How to find the number of valence electrons?

I need to understand the following: Considering an element Sulfur - S which has 16 electrons. How do we calculate the number of valence electrons of S? Please correct me if I am wrong:2+2+6+2+4=16. ...
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1answer
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(Organic Chemistry) Common Atoms in Organic Molecules [closed]

What are 6 atoms commonly found in organic molecules?
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2answers
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Z* effective charge and Ionization Energy

I'm trying to figure out the patterns for Ionization Energies. I am familiar with the periodic trend, however things become quite different when we hit the 1st I.E. For example, Na has an I.E(1) of ...
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2answers
129 views

How do the differences in the number of protons result in such great differences in elemental properties?

I understand(I think) the mass and density aspect, i.e. the more protons you have, the more the element weighs, also the denser the atom is. What about everything else(color, for example)? Elements ...
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2answers
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Degeneracy of orbitals?

Why is that in an external magnetic field(uniform) the degeneracy of d,f orbitals is lost but the degeneracy of p orbitals remain intact if the main cause of losing degeneracy is the difference in ...
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1answer
1k views

Confusion about the charge of electrons while orbiting through bohr's energy shells

I came across the following part in my text book. Bohr's atomic theory explained the stability of an atom by the idea of energy shells. He said that while orbiting the nucleus through a particular ...
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1answer
2k views

Can there exist any element which has an 8th principle shell?

I am a high school student . While studying the atomic structure a question raised in my mind. We know that an atom can have the highest limit of 7 bohr energy shells or principle energy shells ; K,L,...
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3answers
27k views

How to get the valencies of elements?

How to find the valencies of elements by using its distribution of electrons? Please explain the method in simple words. Do you have to study the valencies or is there a simple way of remembering? PS:...
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1answer
68k views

How does the reaction Mg + O₂ → MgO occur? [closed]

$\ce{Mg + O2 → MgO}$ Magnesium, oxygen and magnesium oxide form the above equation. How? What do I need to learn to do this? atomic numbers/ valencies?
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3answers
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Why can't we use fusion to make ourselves rich?

As we know on fusing two hydrogen atoms we can convert it to helium and by breaking them we get two $\ce{H}$ atoms. So why can't we convert mercury to gold by removing 1 proton per atom?
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1answer
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What are the g-block's predicted properties?

I have been researching for a Physics/Chemistry exam and thought; what will the future periods in the periodic table (periods 8 and above) would entail? Each block contains its own properties that ...
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1answer
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Why is the relative atomic mass of carbon not exactly 12?

Relative atomic masses of atoms of all chemical elements are numbers without units, being the value of proportion compared to $\frac{1}{12}^\text{th}$ the mass of the carbon atom. But the relative ...
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2answers
7k views

List in order of increasing radius

List in order of increasing radius: a) Rb, K, C5, Kr For this one I got C, Kr, K, Rb b) Ar, Cs, Si, Al This I got: Ar, Si, Al, Cs Does anyone know if this is correct? I don't have the solution ...
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1answer
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Why do single, double and triple bonds repel each other equal amounts?

I'm here to share with you something that totally confuses me, as I can't see the logic behind it, and my teacher doesn't know either. Let's take a set of bonds that's trigonal pyramidal, with a lone ...
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2answers
382 views

Energy of the n-th level for an atom

Going through the Bohr's model and his assumptions, I came across with this formula to find the energy of the n-th level of any atom: $$E = - \frac{Z k_e e^2}{2r_n} = -\frac{Z^2(k_e e^2)^2m_e}{2\...
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2answers
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Why are atoms with eight electrons in the outer shell extremely stable?

Atoms that have eight electrons in their outer shell are extremely stable. It can't be because both the $s$ and the $p$ orbitals are full, because then an atom with 13 or 18 valence electrons would be ...
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5answers
153k views

What is a neutral atom?

I was told that an atom's atomic number is defined as follows: The number of electrons or protons present in a neutral atom is called atomic number. It is represented by ...
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4answers
28k views

What is the difference between physical and chemical bonds?

If you characterize the chemical bonds to two categories physical and chemical bonds, how do you do it? Aren't all bonds chemical and physical? From the freedictionary.com, chemical bond: Any of ...
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1answer
11k views

Why are there two Hydrogen atoms on some periodic tables?

Most periodic tables only feature one Hydrogen atom, on the top of the first group. But some, like the one I was given, also show Hydrogen in the 7th group, to left of Helium. Why are there two ...

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