Questions tagged [atoms]

Smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. It consists of a small nucleus charged positively, carrying almost all of the atom's mass, with electrons surrounding it. This tag should be applied to questions that specifically concern atoms or their properties. For the charged particles, please use [ions] instead. If your question is specifically about [protons], [neutrons], or [electrons], use those tags instead.

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How do we know the number of s and p orbitals in a shell?

How do we know how many s & p orbitals will be in a shell? There is one 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals in shell #2. There is one 3s orbital, three 3p orbitals and five 3d orbitals in shell #3....
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Terms related to the structure of atom [closed]

In my chemistry textbook, the chapter "Structure of Atom" deals with the old Bohr's model and the new Quantum mechanical model. But when I read the contents of the new model of atom, there were terms ...
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Energy of electrons in the same subshell

So I have this quote from wikia (it's similar to my lecture pdf file) but I don't fully understand the statement Although it is commonly stated that all the electrons in a shell have the same ...
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What is 'space'? [closed]

What is in the space between atoms? I understand that molecules are constantly being formed from collisions and such, but what I do not understand, is, on a tiny level, within the level of the atom, ...
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2answers
242 views

Methods of splitting carbon dioxide into elements [duplicate]

Is it possible to split $\ce{CO2}$ into C and O? If so, what are some methods and their efficacies? This question originated because I was wondering if it was possible, and if so, how, to convert ice ...
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Spiralling of electrons into the nucleus

A drawback (and a major one) of Rutherford's model was that the electrons, being accelerated charged particles, would gradually spiral into the nucleus and collapse into it. My question is how did ...
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1answer
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Whats the difference between 2O and O2 [duplicate]

I just saw something in a chemistry lesson what got me confused. What is the difference between $\ce{2O}$ and $\ce{O2}$? Thanks for the help!
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64 views

How were weights of elements and compounds determined? [duplicate]

I have browsed through many questions on this site but I still don't understand this: How chemists in the past used to determine the weight of substances (which I believe they randomly called ...
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1answer
258 views

Why is there no electron swapping after excitation?

If we have 2 electrons in the 1st energy level named X & Y, and one electron in the 2nd energy level named Z. If the electron X was excited and transferred to the higher energy level, why didn't ...
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624 views

Why is the distance between the atoms shorter in the dicarbon anion compared to the cation?

In general, the anions have bigger ionic radii than their corresponding neutral atoms, and the cations have smaller ionic radii then their corresponding neutral atoms. How come that does not apply to $...
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Why are dipoles “permanent/induced dipole permanent/induced dipole” and not just “permanent/induced dipole” once?

My teacher would always say "induced dipole induced dipole" and while it annoyed my slightly (as you were saying the same word twice) it didn't really bother me, ...
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Democritus vs John Dalton atomic theory

What is the difference between atomic theory given by Democritus and John Dalton? Because I have read in many books and figured out that both theories explain the same i.e atom is an indivisible ...
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5answers
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Why don't electrons simply stick to the nucleus on account of being *oppositely* charged, instead of moving around it? [closed]

Why don't electrons stick to the nucleus on account of being oppositely charged charged (the nucleus being positively charged)? But contrary to my intuition, electrons seem to follow a whole bunch of ...
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While filling electrons, we follow Aufbau principle, but not while removing them. Why is this so?

I recently came across a question Why is the vanadium(3+) ion paramagnetic?, where the asker is wondering how $\ce{V^{3+}}$ is paramagnetic (he used Aufbau in reverse to remove the electrons), while ...
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How do we know the number of atoms in an inorganic compound? [duplicate]

How do we know the number of atoms in an inorganic compound? If there's a question like 'Write the chemical formula for sulfur dioxide', the only thing I managed to do is answer '$\ce{SO}$'. I don't ...
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How to calculate the number of atoms of each element in Mg(NO3)2? [closed]

I'm working on chemistry and I'm not quite sure how to solve this question? I haven't worked with moles before and whenever I try to figure out how to do these types of question I only end up ...
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1answer
645 views

Recoil velocity of atom when electron is excited

If an electron is excited from the $n = 1$ level to the $n = 2$ level in a hydrogen atom, how can we find the recoil velocity of the atom?
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1answer
894 views

Electron pairing and repulsion [duplicate]

If two electrons that get paired occupy the same orbital, then wouldn't there be a heavy amount of repulsion between the two? As is, since electrostatic force ${\displaystyle \propto }$ $\ce{ 1/ (...
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1answer
150 views

if the shared electrons in covalent bond revolves around their nucleus, how they hold the two molecules together? [duplicate]

Covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons. The pictures depicting this bond make it seem like that the shared electrons stay in a fixed/limited place. What happens in reality? If they rotate ...
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224 views

Difference between change in energy level and hyperfine energy level?

The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom. --> This ...
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Deflection of Alpha Particles in Rutherford's model of atom

Rutherford stated that deflection of alpha particles is due to repulsive positive charge of nucleus. Why can't alpha particles be deflected by attraction of so many electrons revolving around nucleus?
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Do acids really donate a proton?

Will acids really donate a proton? In an atom, the proton is inside the nucleus and I don't think a proton will go all the way out of atom dodging all electrons and enter into the nucleus of the base. ...
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276 views

Oxidation state of Cu

If copper has 1 valence electron in the 4s subshell, how is it able to form Cu2+ with oxidation state of 2? I know the energy level difference between the 3d and 4s subshells has a part to play here, ...
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Schrödinger's equation and spin quantum number

As spin quantum number cannot be derived from Schrödinger's equation, it cannot predict opposite electron spin. I mean to ask that how do we obtain the information conveyed by the spin quantum ...
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1answer
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Why can a sigma bond rotate?

My book says Because it (the sigma bond) lies along the line joining the two carbon atoms, the sigma bond can rotate about this axis. But that doesn't make sense to me. So what if the sigma bond ...
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1answer
455 views

Lennard-Jones diagram - what is on the x-axis?

I have a Lennard-Jones diagram here where I can't figure out, what is on the x-axis. G. Ertl, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47 We are looking at a diagram for a molecule $\mathrm A_2$ composed of two $...
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If an atom of any element gained energy, does it always mean that its electrons gain energy too?

My book says ; "The transitioning of electrons in atoms from one energy level to another is associated with changes in the energy of the atom." But it hasn't made it clear whether or not the gaining ...
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How to determine the permissible values for which solution of the Schrödinger's wave equation exists?

My textbook( A Textbook of Physical Chemistry, Dr. O.P. Tandon ) says that solution of the Schrödinger's wave equation exists only for certain permissible values which are called eigen values.( ...
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1answer
234 views

How do orbitals fill, what is the difference between them, and why is this stable?

I know about the Aufbau principle and the order in which electrons fill orbitals, but how is it that atoms are more stable when they have a full valence shell? It seems that any shell can be comprised ...
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1answer
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Is Dalton's Atomic Theory a theory or a postulate?

It is always mentioned that Dalton proposed an Atomic Theory. But when you read it, it consists of the following: The main points of Dalton’s atomic theory, an explanation of the structure of ...
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1answer
129 views

Does bonding happen naturally? [closed]

For example, how do the bonds in NaCl form? I understand that the elements need to obtain an octet structure to become more stable, by either accepting or losing electrons. In NaCl, from my ...
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4answers
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What roles do neutrons play in an atom?

An atom typically consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Electrons are negatively charged and participate in bonding to stabilize the atom. Conversely, protons are positively charged and ...
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Calculating the number of neutrons in a sample

Which of the following contains one mole of neutrons? A. $\pu{1 g}$ of $\ce{^1_1H}$ B. $\pu{1 g}$ of $\ce{^{12}_6C}$ C. $\pu{2 g}$ of $\ce{^{24}_{12}Mg}$ D. $\pu{2 g}$ of $\ce{^{23}_{10}Ne}$ Here's a ...
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An **atom** is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element [closed]

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element. my Question:ordinary matter = chemical element??? A chemical compound is an entity ...
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Why are Bohr's formulae for radius and velocity still in use when Heisenberg's uncertainty principle predicts otherwise?

I learnt about Heisenberg's Uncertainty principle which states that it is not possible to determine the position and momentum of a small particle at the same time. I was told that it is because in ...
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2answers
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What is physically responsible for different compounds with the same types of atoms?

I only have a GCSE in Chemistry but I have discovered a lot of resources myself. One thing I cannot find an answer to is this: What is physically responsible for the different compounds you can get ...
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392 views

Bohr Radius Confusion

I saw online that the radius for each level is defined by the formula: $$r_n=n^2 r_1$$ Where $r_1$ is approximately $53\ \mathrm{pm}$. However, on the Barron's AP chemistry book 7th edition, it ...
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is there any boundary or membrane around atom to recognize its shape?

we know that every Isolated atoms are spherically symmetric.how we know its shape, is there is any membrane covers it as skin of our body?
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Rutherford's Alpha Ray Scattering Experiment

I understood the result of this experiment that the nucleus is nearly empty and things like that. But what I have on mind is that when an alpha particle goes nearer to the thin gold foil why couldn'...
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1answer
475 views

Does the shielding effect affect atomic bonding?

Electrons within an atom don't experience the full charge of the nucleus due to the shielding effect? Likewise, when creating atomic bonds, does the shielding effect affect the attraction between two ...
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1answer
216 views

Spin quantum number of electron

Why is the spin quantum number of an electron +1\2 or -1\2 in an atom? Is this an experimental value or theoretical value?
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912 views

Why does q/m ratio(specific charge) depend on nature of gas in anode ray experiment?

I can't understand why $q/m$ ratio changes in anode ray experiment (discharge tube experiment) (which was carried out by Goldstein) with change in nature of gas? Since $q=1.6\times10^{-19}\ \mathrm C$...
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1answer
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When was the amu renamed the dalton? [closed]

I taught chemistry for 30 years and never encountered the unit until I saw it on a juice bottle!
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NMR chemical shift range of different elements

A typical $\ce{^1H}$ NMR runs from approximately 0 to 10 ppm, give or take a bit. $\ce{^13C}$ NMR runs from 0 to 200. And $\ce{^59Co}$ NMR runs from -5000 to 15000 ppm! There seems to be some ...
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1answer
867 views

Charge to mass ratio of an electron

The charge to mass ratio of an electron is -1.7588×10^8 coulomb/g, and is fixed. My textbook, however says that as the speed of an electron increases, the value of charge to mass ratio increases. How ...
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1answer
637 views

Reasons for weakness of London dispersion force in graphite?

The layers of graphite are held together via London dispersion force. This force is weak. I know carbon having a smaller atomic radius and few electrons is one factor for this force's weakness. But, ...
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How does symmetry of half filled and fully filled orbitals lead to stability

I googled a lot about why symmetry of half filled and fully filled orbitals decreases their energy but every time it is repeated that symmetry leads to stability. So the question is why symmetry leads ...
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Do electrons in an atom revolve around the the nucleus clockwise or counterclockwise? [closed]

Do electrons in an atom revolve around the the nucleus clockwise or counterclockwise? Is there any rule to determine?
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The mass of carbon atom [duplicate]

I was reading Silberberg's principles of general chemistry when I noticed that it says that the mass of carbon12 is exactly 12 amu. But when I calculated the total mass of its components (6 protons ...
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1answer
959 views

Effects of Changing Avogadro's Constant

The Avogadro project suggests that we redefine the Avogadro constant to be equal to our best known estimate, $N_\mathrm{A} = 6.02214179 \times 10^{23}$, and redefine the kilogram based on the Avogadro ...

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