Questions tagged [atoms]

Smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. It consists of a small nucleus charged positively, carrying almost all of the atom's mass, with electrons surrounding it. This tag should be applied to questions that specifically concern atoms or their properties. For the charged particles, please use [ions] instead. If your question is specifically about [protons], [neutrons], or [electrons], use those tags instead.

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Is the atom the smallest particle, which takes part in chemical reactions?

According to modern atomic theory, the atom is the smallest particle which can take part in a chemical reaction. But during the formation of hydronium ion, $\ce{H+}$ ion reacts with $\ce{H2O}$ to form ...
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How are atoms manipulated?

I was wondering how scientists are able to handle atoms. They are very small, but surely people are able to interact with them somehow? The Large Hadron Collider is one example. Also, they try and ...
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Why does ionization violate the stable or lowest energy rule in atoms?

Electrons that fill orbitals always do so in such a way that the resulting structure has the lowest energy state possible, though there are anomalies like chromium and so on. But ionization no ...
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Temperature of an atom

I read somewhere that the temperature of an atom is not defined. The definition of temperature is only for larger systems. Why is this so?
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How are nuclei stable?

We all know that the density of the nucleus is very high. Nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons, and while protons have the same charge, they are closely packed in a nucleus. How does the ...
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Would there be a difference if deuterium is embedded instead of protium (regular hydrogen) in acids?

So instead of regular hydrogen, it would be a deuterium (still a Hydrogen). For example, instead of $\ce{HCl}$ it would be $\ce{DCl}$ where D is a deuterium.
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Why is O2 enough to form a mole of Oxygen? [closed]

I understand that this is the most basic knowledge of moles, however I'm still unsure - according to easy research, $\ce{O2}$ forms a mole of Oxygen. As a mole is $6.022*10^{23}$, exactly what on the ...
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It is said that atoms cannot be created. If so, then how did atoms get created after the Big Bang? [closed]

I read somewhere that atoms cannot be created. If this is true, then how did the atoms form after the Big Bang? Also, does this mean that the number of atoms in our universe has remained the same ...
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Is it likely that increased understanding of quantum physics will change our understanding of chemistry?

Reading that the large hadron collider will be up and running with twice as much energy in March 2015, I was curious whether our understanding of subatomic particles has changed our understanding of ...
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What defines an element's taste?

A useful post by @Martin indicated that probably the naming of Sweetwater town is because of the sweet tasting lead compounds in it's water. Then my question arose. I know that the taste of any ...
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DFT Calculations, Atomic Ionization Potentials -- Which Exchange-Correlation Functional to Use, to Preserve Koopmans Theorem?

I have a program which can perform density-functional calculations for atoms, given a density functional. Of course the simplest form of exchange potential to use is one relevant for a uniform ...
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Why do principal energy levels in an atom get closer together as n increases?

The title says it all. Reasons that I can supply include: increased nuclear charge increasingly catches up in terms of influence to the increasing shielding and proof by contradiction in that if the ...
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Which group does germanium belong to?

$\mathrm{Z= 32}$ $\mathrm{1s^2\ 2s^2p^6\ 3s^2p^6d^{10}\ 4s^2p^2}$ According to me it belongs the $\mathrm{IV\ B}$ group since it has the $\mathrm{d}$ completed, but it belongs to $\mathrm{IV\ A}$. ...
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How can we confirm the number of protons in an atom?

The periodic table tells us that there are 6 protons in a carbon atom. Is there a way to verify this first-hand? Or are we just expected to believe it unquestioned?
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How to interpret a luminescence intensity vs wavelength graph?

Luminescence is defined as the amount of light emitted by a atom. But what confounds me of this graph is the fact that all the peaks are of the same height. In addition, there are no peaks in between ...
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Why aren't atomic radii calculated using Schrödinger's equation?

The atomic radii are estimated using a variety of methods: most of these involve dividing their bond length by 2. But that is a very crude way of measuring atomic radii. I mean, atoms overlap each ...
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How does the radial distribution function of Vanadium differ from that of Calcium and how does this affect the ionic electron configurations?

When Vanadium is ionised it loses the 4s electron first, meaning that it's 3+ ion has a different electron configuration to Calcium despite it being isoelectronic. Can it be explained in terms of ...
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Why is Electrostatic Potential Energy positive when the charges are like?

We know that in an atom charge of an electron at infinity is zero. As it approaches the nucleus it become more and more negatively charged. We also know that E.P.E is positive when charges are like ...
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Using knowledge of radial distribution functions, how is it possible to explain the different electron configurations of V3+ and Calcium [duplicate]

I recognize that the 3d orbital decreases in energy to lower than the 4s once it becomes occupied (even if I don't completely understand why?!). However, how is the difference in electron ...
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What is the structure of the Nucleus? [closed]

The structure of an atom is well known to me as something like this: But what is the accurate structure of the Nucleus ? What is the arrangement of the Protons and the Neutrons or any of the other ...
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Can the electron configuration of Te be written that way?

Normally, the electron configuration of Te is known as: $$\begin{aligned} {[Kr]} 5s^2 \ce{4d^10} 5p^4 \end{aligned}$$ Then, one day I was asked in a exam if this can be written also as: $$\begin{...
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Converting from Grams to Molecules

I was doing some problems from the textbook on converting between units using dimensional analysis and I came across this problem. A vat of Hydrogen Peroxide ($\ce{H2O2}$) contains 455 grams of ...
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Whats the difference between ionization energy and orbital energy?

If you look at the trend in orbital energies as you go across a period the pattern is clear (orbital energy decreases with increasing effective nuclear charge) and, to my knowledge, it has no ...
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How can two electrons lie together in an orbital?

Two electron of opposite spin can lie in a single orbital.. But what about the electron-electron repulsion. Okay! I got that the nuclear charge rather the large Z-effective overcome this repulsion by ...
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Which is the bigger ion, F- or O-?

Well, according to the proton-electron ratio $\ce{O-}$ should be bigger than $\ce{F-}$ What about the charge/electron density in $\ce{F}$? Will it not affect the size of the atom of $\ce{F-}$?
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Difference between actual position of electron and Radial Distribution Probability

Its known that the radius of maximum probability of 2s orbitals is more than that of 2p orbitals. It means that the maximum probability of finding an electron in an 2s is further away from electron ...
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Why Aren't Chlorides Of The Noble Gases As Prevalent As Their Fluorides?

I can't find the answer to this question on this SE website, and I apologize for the repetition if it has been answered before. It is my understanding that compound formation has only been observed ...
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Bombarding atoms with electron gun?

Just to explain this question in a better way just think about the Rutherford's experiment(the alpha particle bombarded on Gold foil) be conducted using a electron gun in place of the Alpha one.. So ...
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Greater entropy: an atom or macromolecule?

A question that appeared on my last chemistry exam was : Which of the following has greater entropy A) An atom B) A macromolecule The question doesn't specify anything else(i.e. type/size of ...
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Why don't alkaline earth metals lose only one electron when they are ionized?

Why doesn't alkaline earth metals lose only one electron when they are ionized ? I know that magnesium atoms like to have the electronic configuration of neon but I don't understand the reason that we ...
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Calculating Avogadro's Number

For a school project, I am in a group tasked with calculating Avogadro's Number in multiple manners. Other than the Millikan Oil Drop Experiment, we know of no ways to compute it. A Google search ...
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Degeneracy of orbitals?

Why is that in an external magnetic field(uniform) the degeneracy of d,f orbitals is lost but the degeneracy of p orbitals remain intact if the main cause of losing degeneracy is the difference in ...
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How to calculate m/e value for the base peak in mass spectroscopy?

My working out: Propan-1-ol : CH3CH2CH2OH This can be broken up into: CH3 + CH2CH2OH CH3CH2 + CH2OH CH3CH2CH2 + OH Base peak = most abundant fragment formed (highest peak) How do i know which ...
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Comb and hair, is that an example for ionic boding?

As i understand, when brushing hair, some electron transfer from hair to the comb. Thus, make the comb have different charged from hair and they attract each other. It's look likely what i have learn ...
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Magnetic moment of coordination complexes?

To understand the commonly quoted magnetic values of coordination complexes (central ion) we use $$m_l=\sqrt{n(n+2)} \text{BM where BM}=\frac{e\hbar}{2m_e}\text{JT}^{-1}$$ $n$=number of unpaired ...
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Photoelectric effect and electron loss

I've read that when a certain amount of UV light is shone on a metal surface, electrons are ejected (the photoelectric effect). Are these electrons from the metal atoms themselves? and in case they ...
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How do I calculate the change in energy of an electron transition?

What are the $\Delta E$'s of the transitions of an electron from $n=5$ to $n=1$ and from $n=5$ to $n=2$ in a Bohr hydrogen atom? The wavelength of the first electron transition is $\lambda_1=409~\...
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What are the known atomic oxygen species?

I'm interested in chemical reaction mechanism with more exotic particles. The Wikipedia page seems to imply that the normal atomic oxygen is $O(^3P)$, is that right? I also came across $O(^1D),O(^1S)...
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Atomic properties [closed]

This may be a very broad question. I always asked myself how scientists manage to find out the exact molecular structures of for instance water or carbohydrates. How do they know? How do they know the ...
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How will these hydrogen atoms interact?

Assume that we have a space with just two $\ce{H}$ atoms and their distance to each other is $d$. Let's say they don't have initial velocity. What is the force with which they will act on each other? ...
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Is ionic bond just formed by "electrostatic" interaction between two oppositely charged ions?

According to the definition of ionic bond: An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. If we consider the above ...
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Finding the number of orbitals on a central atom

In $\ce{BeCl2}$ the number of orbitals on central atom, i.e. on beryllium, are 2. In $\ce{BF3}$, the number of orbitals on central atom , i.e. on boron, are 3. Similarly in $\ce{NH3}$ there are 4, ...
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What determines the density of an element?

I used to be under the (wrong) assumption that the density of an element correlates with it's atomic number $\mathrm{Z}$, I thought that since having more protons meant the atom weighed more; but of ...
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Storing kinetic energy in bonds

Let's assume a setup with a static linear molecule with three identical atoms connected by bonds and a single atom, identical to the other three, being shot at the molecule. Let's also assume that ...
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(Organic Chemistry) Common Atoms in Organic Molecules [closed]

What are 6 atoms commonly found in organic molecules?
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Z* effective charge and Ionization Energy

I'm trying to figure out the patterns for Ionization Energies. I am familiar with the periodic trend, however things become quite different when we hit the 1st I.E. For example, Na has an I.E(1) of ...
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How do the differences in the number of protons result in such great differences in elemental properties?

I understand(I think) the mass and density aspect, i.e. the more protons you have, the more the element weighs, also the denser the atom is. What about everything else(color, for example)? Elements ...
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What are the g-block's predicted properties?

I have been researching for a Physics/Chemistry exam and thought; what will the future periods in the periodic table (periods 8 and above) would entail? Each block contains its own properties that ...
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List in order of increasing radius

List in order of increasing radius: a) Rb, K, C5, Kr For this one I got C, Kr, K, Rb b) Ar, Cs, Si, Al This I got: Ar, Si, Al, Cs Does anyone know if this is correct? I don't have the solution ...
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Why do single, double and triple bonds repel each other equal amounts?

I'm here to share with you something that totally confuses me, as I can't see the logic behind it, and my teacher doesn't know either. Let's take a set of bonds that's trigonal pyramidal, with a lone ...

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