Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
1answer
136 views

Molecular dynamics (Mac OSX user): what software can I use to plot RDFs for NPT simulations? VMD only works for NVT (constant volume)

I would be very grateful if someone could recommend a way to plot RDFs for NPT ensemble molecular dynamics simulation results. I use CP2K to run NVT simulations and usually use VMD to process ...
1
vote
1answer
640 views

How does the screening effect work for orbital in the same shell?

Energy of an orbital in a single electron system depends solely on n, while energy of orbital in multi electron system depends on n and l, why is that? I understand that the screening effect is at ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

How to calculate electric force on valence electron?

In order to understand the periodic trends more fully, I wanted to calculate the net force exerted on the electron (with the highest principal quantum number and azimuthal quantum number) of an atom. ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Why does ψ^2 ( square of orbital wave function ψ) give the probability of an electron in a given region? [duplicate]

Today I was introduced to the Orbital Wave Function for electrons. $\Psi$ is a mathematical function for coordinate of electrons and has no physical meaning. But $\Psi^2$ gives probability of an ...
1
vote
0answers
128 views

Why is there a big jump in first ionisation energy between sodium and potassium?

I know the trend in group 1 is that ionisation energy decreases down the group due to an increase in atomic radius and more energy levels are added so more shielding, but I'm not sure why there's such ...
1
vote
0answers
85 views

What will happen if electron as a wave undergo destructive interference while travelling in its Orbit?

Today I came across a justification of Bohr's angular momentum quantization using the De- Broglie's hypothesis. The justification said that since the electrons are having wave nature also then while ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

How did Planck reach the conclusion that energy comes in packets based on black body curves? [closed]

I understand that if wavelength continues to decrease energy emitted by an atom would get to infinite, but how does the max wavelength at a particular temperature translate to discrete energy packets. ...
1
vote
2answers
471 views

What does Brightness/ intensity of spectral lines depend on?

My book states that it depends upon "The number of photons of same frequency or wavelength ABSORBED or EMITTED" From what I understood, if many hydrogen atoms within the discharge tube EMIT the same ...
1
vote
0answers
106 views

How can the potential energy at the infinite energy level in an atom be zero?

I have recently learnt about atomic structure and the Bohr model of the atom and have observed a discrepancy between it and my previous knowledge based on physics. For simplicity, assume the atom is ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Strongest overlap among s–s, p–p, s–p [duplicate]

So, I was wondering, when overlap of orbitals takes place, among s–s, s–p, p–p which type of overlapping is stronger? Because in s–s more volume is being used in overlap, but the electron density is ...
1
vote
1answer
177 views

Maximum number of atoms in the ground state

I was given the following question. A sample contains $100$ identical and hypothetical $H$-like atoms ( $Z$ may be fractional). Out of the given atoms, some are in the ground state, while others are ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Does one atom of an element show the properties of a bulk of that element? [duplicate]

For example, does one atom of gold have a golden color?
1
vote
1answer
141 views

Angular momentum of an electron in an atom

The Orbital Angular momentum of an electron in an atom is given by $\hbar \sqrt{l(l+1)}$ and the Spin Angular Momentum is $\hbar \sqrt{s(s+1)}$. So what is the resultant Angular momentum of an ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Constructing two body Hamiltonian for Helium atom in hydrogen slater orbitals single particle basis [duplicate]

I am trying to construct a two body states to calculate the matrix elements of electronic Hamiltonian of Helium atom. $$H=-\frac{1}{2}\nabla^{2}_{1}-\frac{1}{2}\nabla^{2}_{2}-\frac{2}{\vec{r}_{1}}-\...
1
vote
0answers
1k views

Why are 4s electrons removed before 3d electrons? [duplicate]

According to Aufbau's Principle energy of 3d orbital is greater than 4s orbital, so which filling 4s if filled beforehand 3d. Whereas while removing electrons 4s electrons are removed first. Why? I ...
1
vote
0answers
181 views

Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment for sheets made of different metals [closed]

The correct order of increasing number of alpha particles passing undeflected through the foils of Au, Ag, Cu and Al of 1000 atoms thickness each in an alpha scattering experiment of Rutherford would ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Probabilities of Electrons in Orbitals [duplicate]

I've heard both of the following: An orbital is a region where there's a 90% probability of finding an electron An orbital is a region where an electron spends 90% of its time Are these essentially ...
1
vote
0answers
207 views

Quantum Mechanical Model of An Atom, Shells, Subshells [duplicate]

I've just been introduced to the quantum Mechanical Model of an Atom, so please bear with me on this one. Are Subshells and shell physical things, like do they really exist, or is it a concept only to ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

How did the atomic number and atomic mass of elements discovered? [closed]

Elements are small for our naked eyes.so,how did the discovery of its atomic number and mass number took place?
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Why do objects gain electrons? [duplicate]

I have read that objects gain electrons to become negatively charged and also that they lose electrons to become positively charged. I have also read that same charges repel each other and non-same ...
1
vote
2answers
50 views

Atoms visualisation

In 7th class I was been taught that in an atom, electrons revolve around shells and the electrons with higher energy level are placed likewise in the shell above of that electron: In 11th class I ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Can you determine when the orbtials of an atom will hybridize?

We know that when it comes to C its orbitals hybridize (they become sp3 , sp2 or sp) and the energy levels of an hybridized orbital of this kind is lower than that of the p orbital that formed it but ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

True muonium energy levels [closed]

In a true muniom(muon-antimuon atom) do the energy levels match with that of the hydrogen's? The core is lighter for about 100 times but the muon is 100 times heavier than the electron so it would ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Quantum mechanics electron probability [closed]

Schrödinger's equation yields us the solutions of 90% probability of presence of electrons in orbitals. Hence, the electrons in theory should be able to exist elsewhere in space as well. In that case, ...
0
votes
2answers
64 views

How to compare size of subshells?

For the same principal quantum number, on increasing the value of the azimuthal quantum number does the average radius of the subshell increase or decrease? In other words, which out of, say, 3s, 3p, ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Why is atomic orbital one electron wave function? Why distance from centre is proportional to angular wave function?

Consider the following statements: An atomic orbital is one electron wave function $\psi(r,\theta,\varphi)$ obtained from the solution to the Schrödinger equation. There two electrons in an atomic ...
0
votes
3answers
2k views

What are the possible magnetic quantum numbers of silver? [closed]

What are all the possible quantum numbers ml and ms of the electrons in the outermost s orbital of silver? I'm new to this concept. Can anyone walk me through this?
0
votes
1answer
142 views

Confusion about electron arrangement in elements

My textbook says, "The first shell can hold only 2 electrons. The second and subsequent shells can hold 8 electrons to give a stable noble gas arrangement." Can someone explain me if it is MAXIMUM 8 ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Why there will be only limited shells in a particular atom? [closed]

What is the maximum possible principal quantum number for an atom(any atom not a specific one) ?
0
votes
1answer
721 views

Finding region of electromagnetic spectrum with wavenumber

A line with wave number $\pu{1.028\times10^{-2} nm^{-1}}$ is emitted in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. In what region of the electromagnetic spectrum does this line occur? Do we find this by ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

Quantization and Bohr's model

According to quantization it's said that emitted or absorbed energy is quantized. Then, when it's said in bohr's model an electron changes its orbit (Let's say it goes to a higher energy shell from $...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Size of atomic shells

Is the distance of some $n^{th}$ shell ($n$ $\neq$ outermost shell) from the nucleus of an atom different for different elements? If so, then how much is the difference or how could we calculate it?
0
votes
1answer
217 views

Diamagnetic vs Paramagnetic

As far as I know, to know whether a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic, we check if that particular species has got unpaired electron or not. But my textbook lists- Examples of Diamagnetic ...
0
votes
1answer
158 views

How are ions formed? [closed]

I know that $\ce{H2O}$ is neutral. So how does adding one more hydrogen atom to it make it positive ion ($\ce{H3O+}$)?
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Reason for same frequency of spectral line in infrared and visible region

I encountered this question while trying to understand the basics of spectroscopy and atomic structure. Which electronic transition in Balmer series of hydrogen atom has same frequency as that of n=6 ...
0
votes
1answer
77 views

Is Na$^+$ more stable than Na? [duplicate]

I had a question in my textbook:- Na -> Na$^+$ + e$^-$ Cl + e$^-$ -> Cl$^-$ But Na$^+$ and Cl$^-$ have a stable electronic configuration. So, why do they react to form NaCl? So, this is my ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Are atomic mass unit (amu), unified mass unit (u) and Dalton (Da) the same unit but with different names? [duplicate]

I recently read up on some chemistry and found these units of mass: atomic mass unit (amu) unified atomic mass unit (u) Dalton (Da) Are they all the same unit but just with different names or are ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Why potential energy is neglected in this problem for calculating the energy difference between two stationary Bohr Orbits? [closed]

Question An electron in a hydrogen like atom makes a transition from a state in which its de-Broglie wavelength is $\lambda_1$ to a state in which its de-Broglie wavelength is $\lambda_2$, then ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

Deducing the shell when transition occurs such that two photons are discharged

Find $n$ (quantum number) corresponding to the excited state of $\ce{He+}$ ion if on transition to ground state the ion emits two photons in succession with wavelengths $\pu{108.5 nm}$ and $\pu{30.4 ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Reason for needing multiple radii for the same atom [duplicate]

Why do we need different types of atomic radii? Why can't there be just one radii for an atom?
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Why does the oxides that form change down the alkali metals? [duplicate]

Why does Li2O primarily form when Li has reacted with O2 but the Na2O2 forms for sodium? Moreover, the primary product for the other alkali metals are superoxides instead of oxides and peroxides. How ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Term symbols for excited nitrogen (2s2p^4 configuration)

Looking at the NIST levels listing for neutral nitrogen atom, one of the excited configuration is $2s2p^4$ configuration. https://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/ASD/energy1.pl?encodedlist=XXT2&de=0&...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Does it exist a transgression to Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity principle in this given electron box notation?

The following question arises from a set of statements from which I'm asked to state whether they are true or false. This is as follows: Indicate which of the following statements are true or ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Why $ns^2np^6$configuration so stable? [duplicate]

In my chemistry textbook it is said that noble gases have stable configuration because they have achieved the maximum outermost shell configuration, which corresponds to the $ns^2np^6$ configuration. ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Ratio of Total energy to Kinetic energy in hydrogen atom when the reference is changed

If in the hydrogen atom Potential Energy at $\infty$ is chosen to be $13.6$eV then the ratio of total energy and kinetic energy (with the sign) for $1$st Bohr Orbit is? My Attempt I just simply gave ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Doubt in a question related to electronic transitions in Bohr's orbits

Question In Bohr series of lines of hydrogen spectrum, the third line from the red end corresponds to which one of the following inner-orbit jumps of the electron for Bohr orbits in an atom of ...
0
votes
1answer
320 views

Why does zinc sulfide glow when hit by electrons? [duplicate]

In cathode ray tube experiment in order to check the direction of flow of electrons a hole was made in a note and behind it phosphorescent material zinc sulfide it was coated. Why does zinc sulfide ...
0
votes
0answers
52 views

Energy of emitted photon in Bohr's model

In Bohr's model for hydrogen atom, the energy of photon emitted by an electron is equal to the difference in potential energy of electron in the two orbits. I do not understand this part. Shouldn't we ...
0
votes
2answers
76 views

Azimuthal Quantum Number and Magnetic Quantum Number

I know that azimuthal quantum numbers and magnetic quantum numbers are used to find the no. of and the orientation of subshells respectively, but why do they have to be called so? I reckon that ...
-1
votes
3answers
71 views

$\psi$ Represents amplitude of electron wave and $\psi^2$ represents electron density in a given space. How?

The $\psi$ represents amplitude of electron wave. So it's dimension should be $\left[L\right] $. But $\psi^2$ represents density of electrons in a given space. So it's dimension should be $\left[ML^{-...