Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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What is the exact definition of the radial distribution function?

I have been very confused by the radial distribution function which is often used in chemistry to predict the probability of finding an electron at a distance from the nucleus. From Atkins' Physical ...
S R Maiti's user avatar
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29 votes
3 answers
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Do electrons have some volume, area or shape?

I am in 8th grade now and when I was in 6th grade, my science book had diagrams of the electronic configuration of atoms. The electrons were round like spherical balls. Is it true that the electrons ...
Jimgao's user avatar
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Atomic weight = expected weight?

The atomic weight of an element, is it accurate to say that another way to think of it is the expected value of that element's weight if we were to sample one at random from the environment? Are man-...
AJJ's user avatar
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How to compare size of subshells?

For the same principal quantum number, on increasing the value of the azimuthal quantum number does the average radius of the subshell increase or decrease? In other words, which out of, say, 3s, 3p, ...
Amadeus's user avatar
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What is more stable, Na+ or Na? [closed]

As per noble gas configuration $\ce{Na+}$ should be more stable than $\ce{Na}$. But at the same time $\ce{Na+}$ has a positive charge so it will be easily attracted by negative charge while $\ce{Na}$ ...
Sameer kishor nilkhan's user avatar
15 votes
0 answers
880 views

What is d-orbital collapse?

When I was perusing the works of Schwarz on atomic structure, I came across the unfamiliar term of d-orbital collapse. He describes it as a variation in energetic sequence from group 1 to 3 elements ...
C. WJ's user avatar
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Terminology of atomic spectroscopy: Difference Among Term, States and Level

In A Primer on Quantum Numbers and Spectroscopic Notation Contents, the concept of a term and level is described as a) The level is the set of 2J+1 states with specific values of L, S, and J. ...
AChem's user avatar
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5 votes
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Are Slater’s rule and lanthanide contraction contradictory?

According to most textbook and the Wikipedia page of lanthanide contraction, the phenomenon is due to poor shielding of nuclear charge by 4f electrons. However, the σ value of 4f electrons to 6s is 1....
HFerKerman's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
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Flame Test of Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earth Metals

The flame test colors for alkali metal and alkaline earth metal salts are well known, but what about the metals themselves? Do they also give rise to the same colors (eg, brick red for Ca, pale green ...
Buckbitter Inning's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
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Why is fluorine a oxidising agent? [closed]

An oxidizing agent pulls the electron cloud of the substance being oxidized towards itself, for example: $$\ce{F2 + 2 X- -> 2F- + X2}\qquad (\ce{X} = \ce{Cl}, \ce{Br}, \ce{I})$$ We also know that ...
Chemist's user avatar
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Why are the relative masses of isotopes not close to whole numbers?

Understandably, the relative atomic masses of isotopes are often not close to whole numbers as they're adjusted for isotope abudandancy eg. $A_r(Cl)\approx35.45$. However, wouldn't one expect the ...
aayush's user avatar
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2 answers
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Relationship between Quantum Numbers and the Wave-function

I recently started learning about quantum mechanics and its applciations in atomic structure in chemistry. In this inorganic textbook Inorganic Chemistry, it describes "Each of the wavefunctions ...
Yushi Li's user avatar
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Reason for needing multiple radii for the same atom [duplicate]

Why do we need different types of atomic radii? Why can't there be just one radii for an atom?
Tanmay Shukla's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
162 views

Size of Orbitals, Making Intuitive Sense of Quantum Model, Nomenclature of Subshells in the Quantum Model

Alright, so I am doing the Quantum Mechanical (or what some people call the Wave Mechanical model) of an atom. There's this part where we have different zones of the probablity of finding electrons, ...
Ayush Roy's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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How are the molar mass and molecular mass of any compound numerically the same?

This observation is really annoying me, and the internet isn't providing me with any solid answers. Either their definitions of molar mass completely differ, or they don't stick to their own ...
Szplugz's user avatar
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2 answers
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Proof for equation of radial probability distribution curve

So my textbook says the equation for this is $$P(r) = 4\pi r^2\Psi^2 $$ It also gives the volume of the shell formula $$\mathrm{d}V = \frac 43 \pi(r+\mathrm{d}r)^3 - \frac 43 \pi r^3$$ which I ...
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Why is atomic orbital one electron wave function? Why distance from centre is proportional to angular wave function?

Consider the following statements: An atomic orbital is one electron wave function $\psi(r,\theta,\varphi)$ obtained from the solution to the Schrödinger equation. There two electrons in an atomic ...
Zenix's user avatar
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Bohr's postulate of quantisation of angular momentum

The Bohr's postulate of quantisation of angular momentum can be written in a formula as $mvr = nh/(2π)$ where $m$ is mass of electron $v$ is its velocity $r$ is the radius of that shell $h$ is Plank's ...
Rew's user avatar
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1 answer
180 views

What are orbitals actually? [closed]

If s, p, d and f subshells have these kinds of boundary surface diagram, then why don't they include the probability of finding electrons in their preceding shells? As in, if d subshells have ...
Tushar soni's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
399 views

What happens if we continuously hit an atom with photons

My sir told me that Energy required to remove an electron from one orbit to another depends on hf * n. Where n means the no of photons that will strike on a metal surface and hf is energy of one ...
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