Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions.

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6
votes
2answers
534 views

Separating NaClO from its aqueous form in bleach

I was wondering, can I separate the $\ce{NaClO}$ from the $\ce{H2O}$ in bleach. The decomposition point for $\ce{NaClO}$ is $374.14\ \mathrm{K}$, so I'm risking decomposing the compound if I do simple ...
6
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2answers
569 views

How to find the mass of dissolved AgCl when placed in a solution of NaCl?

I think the following problem in my textbook is malformed: Solid $\ce{AgCl}$ is placed in $1\,\mathrm{L}$ of $0.55\,\mathrm{M}$ $\ce{NaCl}$. Find the mass of $\ce{AgCl}$ which dissolves. I know ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

What is the exact definition of Salinity?

I am a bit unclear on the definition of salinity. I have always thought of it as simply total dissolved ions. Wikipedia seems to agree "saltiness or dissolved salt content" but many other sources ...
6
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2answers
78 views

How to weight picric acid?

Picric acid is stored under a layer of water to prevent an explosion. What is the right way to measure the amount of picric acid that taken out? It is wet and containing water.
6
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1answer
85 views

How Would A Vast Mixture (Like an Ocean) of Ammonia-Water Behave in Terms of Evaporation and Freezing?

First, I'll go ahead and say I'm not very versed in chemistry. My question comes from my interest in planetary-sciences, specifically the speculation that there are likely exoplanets and moons with ...
6
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2answers
245 views

Will a film of oil on water retard evaporation (of water) and prevent air and atmospheric impurities from diffusing into it?

I vaguely recall hearing that a layer of oil on water will slow down the evaporation of water, as well as serving as a barrier that would prevent (or retard) the diffusion of air and atmospheric ...
6
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1answer
9k views

How does increasing the ionic strength of an aqueous solution decrease the activity coefficient?

Activity is a new concept for me, and I am having a little bit of trouble understanding it. For the equation: $$\ce{aA + bB<=>cC + dD}$$ $$K_c= \frac{[\ce{A}]^a[\ce{B}]^b}{[\ce{C}]^c[\ce{D}]^...
6
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0answers
2k views

Is iron(III) carbonate stable in water?

I searched for this onsite already, and also found the following answer on Quora: In aqueous environment, iron(III) is bound by water molecules and exists as $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]^3+}$. Due to strong ...
5
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3answers
10k views

Can there be more solvent in a solute?

Something I know that leads to this question: Water dissolved in ethanol. It might sounds weird to say water as a solute. Textbooks always says that solvent is the one present in larger quantity. ...
5
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3answers
63k views

What is the maximum molarity of aqueous HCl?

Here is a problem a made up: We have some aqueous $\ce{HCl}$. What is the maximum possible molarity of the $\ce{HCl}$? How do I solve this? I don't have any good ideas.
5
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1answer
51k views

Preparation of iodine solution

How to prepare $\mathrm{0.1M}$ $\ce{I_2}$ solution. I have found in books that it should be prepared in $\ce{KI}$ solution but none of them explains why? Please explain in detail not just the ...
5
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2answers
361 views

Decrease in temperature of a aqueous salt solution decreases conductivity

Why does the conductivity of a water solution drop as the temperature decreases? How are these two related?
5
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2answers
34k views

Does dissolving salt in water change the pH?

I am particularly interested in the effect or lack of effect of dissolved NaCl in regards to pH in water. It would be interesting also if anyone has any insight for other salts and their effects. ...
5
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4answers
6k views

Produce CuCl2 from CuSO4

I have a large amount of copper sulfate available and I am interested in obtaining copper chloride from it. What is the easiest way to do so? I have considered mixing an aqueous solution of copper ...
5
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4answers
83k views

Reaction between NaOH and CO2

So I wanted to know what the reaction between sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide can be, and upon research I got 2 answers. The first one is $$\ce{CO2 + NaOH(aq) -> NaHCO3(aq)}$$ and the second ...
5
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1answer
1k views

How is NaOH able to clear a solution of Paraformaldehyde?

While making a solution of $4~\%$ para-formaldehyde for immunohistochemistry (to fix the tissue), we add para-formaldehyde into water and stir. It looks like a chalky supersaturated solution even ...
5
votes
1answer
389 views

Does acid and base react directly, or do they react first with water?

If an acid $\ce{AH}$ reacts with a base $\ce{B}$ in aqueous solution, in textbook they write $$\ce{AH + B -> A- + BH+}\label{rxn:1}\tag{1}$$ But first I add acid to water and then base, so why ...
5
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1answer
353 views

Formation of MnO2 vs [Mn(H2O)6]4+ in aqueous solution

I am looking for reasons why $\ce{Mn(IV)}$ wouldn't be stable as a hydrate. I know that from standard reduction potentials it exists as a ppt of $\ce{MnO2}$, but what is stopping it from being a ...
5
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1answer
118 views

Would sodium metal react differently with aqueous solutions than with pure water?

I know sodium metal reacts violently with water, but what about aqueous solutions (like sodium bicarbonate). Also, what would the reaction kinetics be? I have watched YouTube videos were a small ...
5
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2answers
2k views

pH of a buffer made with boric acid and potassium dihydrogen borate

The Problem Calculate the pH of a buffer that is $\pu{0.200M}$ $\ce{H3BO3}$ and $\pu{0.122M}$ $\ce{KH2BO3}$. The $K_\mathrm{a}$ for $\ce{H3BO3}$ is $7.3\times10^{-10}$ What I Tried For each of ...
5
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1answer
1k views

What happens to potassium if potassium permanganate is reduced in a redox reaction? How can I identify spectator ions?

I'm trying to get a fool-proof way of finding the products of a redox reaction. I can do both the oxidation and reduction the half reactions. For example in the potassium permanganate with hydrogen ...
5
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1answer
842 views

Why is glycol used as an antifreeze?

Lowering of the freezing point on adding a solute is a colligative property of solutions, it doesn't matter what the nature of the solute is (of course we have to assume ideal solutions). So when it ...
5
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1answer
387 views

Thermodynamics behind Deliquescence?

The phenomenon of deliquescence wherein a water soluble substance absorbs water from atmosphere and dissolve in it forming a saturated solution, has thermodynamic roots. I have read the fact that the ...
5
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3answers
804 views

Calculating the density of a saturated salt solution

Is there a way to calculate the density of a saturated salt solution from the solubility limits or does it have to be experimentally determined? First instinct, is to add the mass of the salt to ...
5
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1answer
58 views

How do you experimentally calculate the ionization constant of the carbonate ion?

Given sodium hydrogen carbonate, $\ce{NaHCO3}$, as well as hydrochloric acid, $\ce{HCl}$, how would you experimentally determine the ionization constant for the carbonate ion, $\ce{HCO3-}$? By ...
5
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1answer
3k views

Low solubility of propanal compared to propanol, propanone, propanoic acid and methyl ethanoate

I found on the internet that propanol, propanone, propanoic acid and methyl ethanoate where all completely soluble in water at room temperature. (23 degrees Celsius) But I found that propanal was, ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Why do some solid chemicals dissolve better in colder water?

I just discovered that some solid chemicals, such as $\ce{Na2SO4}$, dissolve better in cold water than hot water from here and would like to know if there is any particular reason as to why. Is it ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Byproducts of the neutralisation of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide

Given a 1 M concentration of $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$ here are the pHs: pH of $\ce{HCl}$: 1 pH of $\ce{NaOH}$: 13–14 and of course water has a pH of 7. Here is a reaction that is most likely to ...
5
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1answer
171 views

Number of water molecules in a box to simulate liquid water [closed]

I have seen that depending on the simulation approach, different number of water molecules are employed for studying liquid water properties. 32 in early DFT calculations The electronic structure of ...
5
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1answer
494 views

Electrolysis of water for demonstration: ideal electrolyte for safety, stability, conductivity, and ease of maintenance

I'm developing a system for educational purposes where electrolysis of water takes place. The aim is to practically show how electrical energy can be converted to mechanical, by electrolyzing water, ...
5
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1answer
349 views

Does the salt in the ocean act as a binding agent on sand?

When I walk on the beach, there appears to be an upper layer of the sand that is 'crusty'. This appears to be the opposite of what you see in sand in a dessert setting, where the individual ...
5
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2answers
115 views

Solubility involving precipitation

Question How do I found out how much $\ce{AgNO3}$ can be dissolved in 1 liter of solvent without precipitation of $\ce{AgCl}$. Solvent has $$M_{\ce{\,Cl-}} = 0.1\,{\rm M}\\M_{\ce{\,NH3}} = {\rm 1....
5
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2answers
556 views

Is there a soluble salt, or compound that when dissolved in water results in a solution with density less than pure water?

Generally water soluble salts tend to 'fit between' the molecules of water such that the volume of the resulting solution does not increase much relative to the volume and added mass of the salt. So ...
5
votes
1answer
11k views

What is a complete reaction?

For a lab assignment, I combined $\pu{10 mL}$ of $\pu{1 M}$ sodium sulfate solution with $\pu{10 mL}$ of $\pu{1 M}$ calcium chloride solution. The ionic equation I came up with is: $$\begin{multline} ...
5
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1answer
2k views

How would I calculate the Normality of a 0.00167 molar solution of KIO₃?

I need a 0.01 N solution of $\ce{KIO3}$ to use as a standard in a Winkler titration. The protocol that I am using specifies that this is 0.3567 g L-1, which I have calculated to be 0.00167 M based on ...
5
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1answer
147 views

Change of potential difference during electrolysis while adding salt

I was conducting a simple experiment at home on electrolysis. Obviously, when you build a circuit with a 9V battery, a lamp, and put two electrodes in water you measure a potential difference of ~9V ...
5
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2answers
403 views

How to choose the correct volumes when preparing a dilution series?

Original Question A solution of dye, Amido Black 10B dye ($10~\mathrm{mM}$, $6.165~\mathrm{g\over L}$), as-provided absorbs light much too strongly for measurement of an absorbance value. It is ...
5
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1answer
923 views

Relation Between Degree of Hydration and Electropositivity

Why are salts of strongly electropositive elements less heavily hydrated in aqueous solution than the those of less electropositive elements? Shouldn't it be the other way round as the salts of ...
5
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0answers
126 views

Where is my antimony going?

I work in a trace metals laboratory operating an ICP-OES. I've been having some trouble with the recovery of antimony in a weak $\ce{HCl}$ solution post-digestion. The antimony is part of a mix of ...
4
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2answers
33k views

Neutralization reaction between ammonia and nitric acid

Complete and balance the following molecular equation (in aqueous solution); include phase labels. Then, write the net ionic equation. $~\ce{NH_3 + HNO_3 -> ?}$ I thought that the acid $\ce{...
4
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5answers
4k views

What gas is released during dissolving NaOH

What gas is released during dissolving solid $\ce{NaOH}$ in a high purity water? Water more than 10 M$\Omega$/cm and standard quality $\ce{NaOH}$.
4
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1answer
278 views

Calcium ion and sulfate did not form precipitate

I was in the chemistry lab earlier this week. We were doing a qualitative experiment (no concentration given for any solution). I added an unknown solution that contains $\ce{Ba^2+},$ $\ce{Ca^2+},$ ...
4
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2answers
642 views

In the blue bottle experiment, will it eventually be “used up” after repeated use?

The blue bottle experiment is a bottle half full of a colorless solution (dextrose, KOH, and methylene blue, in the version that I saw) and air that, when shaken, turns blue through the methylene blue ...
4
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2answers
6k views

How to set up equation for buffer reaction?

For buffer equations, how can you tell what to react with water? For example, if I have a 1 M acetic acid solution and 1 M sodium acetate solution (a conjugate acid-base pair) mixed together and am ...
4
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2answers
14k views

CuCl2 dissolved in water

We dissolve $10\ \mathrm{g}$ of $\ce{CuCl2}$ in $0.1\ \mathrm{L}$ of water. Given that: $M(\ce{Cl})=35.5\ \mathrm{g/mol}$ $M(\ce{Cu})=63.5\ \mathrm{g/mol}$ How can one calculate the molar ...
4
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1answer
2k views

How does KMnO₄ affect electrolysis?

I'm just blindly experimenting. I tried to dissolve some potassium permanganate in water before performing electrolysis. I can't see much difference. How is $\ce{KMnO4}$ dissolved in water? How does ...
4
votes
1answer
886 views

Why isn't the hydroxyl group of citric acid deprotonated while the carboxyl groups are?

My AP chemistry book "Chemistry: the Central Science 12th edition" says that one molecule of citric acid generates 3 H+(aq) ions when dissolved in water. Looking at the structural formula: There are ...
4
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1answer
2k views

What are the active ingredients of shampoo, and how do they work?

After seeing one too many TV commercial about the fantastical properties of different high-profile shampoo products all "with documented effect" it suddenly struck me that I never actually researched ...
4
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1answer
3k views

How to remove nitrate from water sample?

Are there any simple methods to completely remove nitrate ions from few ml of impure water sample? One method I am curious about is the following process: Add one or more reagents to water in test ...
4
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3answers
2k views

Why are solutions electrically neutral?

I keep reading that solutions are electrically neutral, but I've never read an explanation. I've read after the fact justifications, such as one problem which asked me to calculate the force of ...