Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions and acid-base equilibria.

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Hydration number: Carbonic acid in water

Carbonic acid ($\ce{H2CO3}$) is known to be soluble in water, and that this particular compound is unstable, so much so that according to the 2014 article from Berkeley Lab: New Insights on Carbonic ...
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Can I synthesize iron acetate like this?

The oxidation state of the iron doesn't matter too much; I am just trying to make an attractive red-brown ink. Here are some instructions I prescribed to a friend. Here's an approximately decent ...
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In my homemade electrolysis setup, only the negative end bubbles?

I've created an electrolysis setup by connecting a $6~\mathrm{V}$ battery to a cup filled with saline water via pencils; I am confused as to why only the negative pencil bubbles though. After running ...
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AgI and AgCl reduction potentials

The reduction potential for $\ce{AgI}$ is $-0.15\ \mathrm{V}$ and for $\ce{AgCl}$ it’s $0.22\ \mathrm{V}$. As $nFE =-\Delta{G} = T\Delta{S} - \Delta{H}$ this must imply that $\ce{AgI}$ is a stronger ...
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How to dissolve composite In2O3 with SnO2 without affecting stainless steel?

I found this article, but it was not helpful. The $\ce{In2O3}$ is probably amorphous. $\ce{HNO3}$ and $\ce{HCl}$ do not work. Any ideas?
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Saturation of multiple solutes

Can a liquid which is saturated with a single solute, dissolve a different solute, or is saturation a universal thing? I ask because I’ve seen that different solutes have different points (amounts) at ...
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Calculating Standard Gibbs Energy of Dissolution

The solubility of mercury (I) iodide is $\mathrm{5.5\ fmol/L}$ in water at $25\ \mathrm{^\circ C}$. What is the standard Gibbs energy of dissolution of the salt? The reaction is $$\ce{Hg2I2(s) -&...
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Separating NaClO from its aqueous form in bleach

I was wondering, can I separate the $\ce{NaClO}$ from the $\ce{H2O}$ in bleach. The decomposition point for $\ce{NaClO}$ is $374.14\ \mathrm{K}$, so I'm risking decomposing the compound if I do simple ...
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How to find the mass of dissolved AgCl when placed in a solution of NaCl?

I think the following problem in my textbook is malformed: Solid $\ce{AgCl}$ is placed in $1\,\mathrm{L}$ of $0.55\,\mathrm{M}$ $\ce{NaCl}$. Find the mass of $\ce{AgCl}$ which dissolves. I know ...
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What is the exact definition of Salinity?

I am a bit unclear on the definition of salinity. I have always thought of it as simply total dissolved ions. Wikipedia seems to agree "saltiness or dissolved salt content" but many other sources ...
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How to weight picric acid?

Picric acid is stored under a layer of water to prevent an explosion. What is the right way to measure the amount of picric acid that taken out? It is wet and containing water.
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How Would A Vast Mixture (Like an Ocean) of Ammonia-Water Behave in Terms of Evaporation and Freezing?

First, I'll go ahead and say I'm not very versed in chemistry. My question comes from my interest in planetary-sciences, specifically the speculation that there are likely exoplanets and moons with ...
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Will a film of oil on water retard evaporation (of water) and prevent air and atmospheric impurities from diffusing into it?

I vaguely recall hearing that a layer of oil on water will slow down the evaporation of water, as well as serving as a barrier that would prevent (or retard) the diffusion of air and atmospheric ...
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How does increasing the ionic strength of an aqueous solution decrease the activity coefficient?

Activity is a new concept for me, and I am having a little bit of trouble understanding it. For the equation: $$\ce{aA + bB<=>cC + dD}$$ $$K_c= \frac{[\ce{A}]^a[\ce{B}]^b}{[\ce{C}]^c[\ce{D}]^...
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Is iron(III) carbonate stable in water?

I searched for this onsite already, and also found the following answer on Quora: In aqueous environment, iron(III) is bound by water molecules and exists as $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]^3+}$. Due to strong ...
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Can there be more solvent in a solute?

Something I know that leads to this question: Water dissolved in ethanol. It might sounds weird to say water as a solute. Textbooks always says that solvent is the one present in larger quantity. ...
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Preparation of iodine solution

How to prepare $\mathrm{0.1M}$ $\ce{I_2}$ solution. I have found in books that it should be prepared in $\ce{KI}$ solution but none of them explains why? Please explain in detail not just the ...
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507 views

Decrease in temperature of an aqueous salt solution decreases conductivity

Why does the conductivity of a water solution drop as the temperature decreases? How are these two related?
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Taking volume contraction into account when mixing water with ethanol

To calculate the amount of purified water and the amount of ethanol (96% Vol.) which is needed for a desired/variable amount of a mixture - given a desired/variable percentage of ethanol - I use the ...
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Reaction between NaOH and CO2

So I wanted to know what the reaction between sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide can be, and upon research I got 2 answers. The first one is $$\ce{CO2 + NaOH(aq) -> NaHCO3(aq)}$$ and the second ...
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Does dissolving salt in water change the pH?

I am particularly interested in the effect or lack of effect of dissolved NaCl in regards to pH in water. It would be interesting also if anyone has any insight for other salts and their effects. ...
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Is the salt of a weak acid and a weak base also a weak electrolyte?

I'm able to find a lot of information on acids and bases, as well as strong-strong, weak-strong, and strong-weak salts. However all the introductory materials on electrolytes just stop there and say "...
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How is NaOH able to clear a solution of Paraformaldehyde?

While making a solution of $4~\%$ para-formaldehyde for immunohistochemistry (to fix the tissue), we add para-formaldehyde into water and stir. It looks like a chalky supersaturated solution even ...
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What is the lethal dose ( LD50 ) of coffee?

Of course, there are many types of coffee, so I would like a range of lethal dose amounts for the average human, from the mildest of lattes to the most hardcore of espressos. Pure caffeine's lethal ...
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How is an aqueous Ag+ the same as [Ag(H2O)2]+?

$\ce{Ag^{+}_{(aq)}}$ can be written as $\ce{[Ag(H2O)2]+}$ but how would you know that it bonds with 2 water molecules? I don't get when ligands randomly form 6, 4, 2 bonds.
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When I place a straw in carbontated drink and blow, more gas bubbles rise to the surface?

When I place a straw in carbontated drink and blow (making bubbling noises), more gas bubbles rise to the surface. The gas bubbles which rise to the surface are from the carbon dioxide gas dissolved ...
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Does acid and base react directly, or do they react first with water?

If an acid $\ce{AH}$ reacts with a base $\ce{B}$ in aqueous solution, in textbook they write $$\ce{AH + B -> A- + BH+}\label{rxn:1}\tag{1}$$ But first I add acid to water and then base, so why ...
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283 views

Could we reach a pH of 4.9 by blowing through straws?

According to Wikipedia's article on Breathing: The permanent gases in gas we exhale are 4% to 5% by volume more carbon dioxide and 4% to 5% by volume less oxygen than was inhaled. If I started ...
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558 views

Formation of MnO2 vs [Mn(H2O)6]4+ in aqueous solution

I am looking for reasons why $\ce{Mn(IV)}$ wouldn't be stable as a hydrate. I know that from standard reduction potentials it exists as a ppt of $\ce{MnO2}$, but what is stopping it from being a ...
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Is lithium bicarbonate an aqueous solution of lithium carbonate?

This question is related to: Are Lithium bicarbonate and​ Magnesium bicarbonate both soluble in water? What type of chemical reaction is this? How can bromine water be called a solution? In the ...
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pH of a buffer made with boric acid and potassium dihydrogen borate

The Problem Calculate the pH of a buffer that is $\pu{0.200M}$ $\ce{H3BO3}$ and $\pu{0.122M}$ $\ce{KH2BO3}$. The $K_\mathrm{a}$ for $\ce{H3BO3}$ is $7.3\times10^{-10}$ What I Tried For each of ...
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What happens to potassium if potassium permanganate is reduced in a redox reaction? How can I identify spectator ions?

I'm trying to get a fool-proof way of finding the products of a redox reaction. I can do both the oxidation and reduction the half reactions. For example in the potassium permanganate with hydrogen ...
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1answer
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Net ionic equation with only aqueous ions

When you turn a balanced equation into a net ionic equation, you ignore all the ions that are spectator ions (aqueous on one side as well as the other). You only write the solid and the aqueous ions ...
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Why does pouring soda slowly and smoothly seem to keep more of the carbonation?

So, I caught myself gently pouring a can of soda into a cup of ice (making sure that there was room for air to move through so the stream of soda from the can to the cup was consistent and even) ...
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Why is glycol used as an antifreeze?

Lowering of the freezing point on adding a solute is a colligative property of solutions, it doesn't matter what the nature of the solute is (of course we have to assume ideal solutions). So when it ...
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417 views

Thermodynamics behind Deliquescence?

The phenomenon of deliquescence wherein a water soluble substance absorbs water from atmosphere and dissolve in it forming a saturated solution, has thermodynamic roots. I have read the fact that the ...
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Calculating the density of a saturated salt solution

Is there a way to calculate the density of a saturated salt solution from the solubility limits or does it have to be experimentally determined? First instinct, is to add the mass of the salt to ...
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1answer
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How do you experimentally calculate the ionization constant of the carbonate ion?

Given sodium hydrogen carbonate, $\ce{NaHCO3}$, as well as hydrochloric acid, $\ce{HCl}$, how would you experimentally determine the ionization constant for the carbonate ion, $\ce{HCO3-}$? By ...
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Low solubility of propanal compared to propanol, propanone, propanoic acid and methyl ethanoate

I found on the internet that propanol, propanone, propanoic acid and methyl ethanoate where all completely soluble in water at room temperature. (23 degrees Celsius) But I found that propanal was, ...
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Why do some solid chemicals dissolve better in colder water?

I just discovered that some solid chemicals, such as $\ce{Na2SO4}$, dissolve better in cold water than hot water from here and would like to know if there is any particular reason as to why. Is it ...
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Byproducts of the neutralisation of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide

Given a 1 M concentration of $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$ here are the pHs: pH of $\ce{HCl}$: 1 pH of $\ce{NaOH}$: 13–14 and of course water has a pH of 7. Here is a reaction that is most likely to ...
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271 views

Number of water molecules in a box to simulate liquid water [closed]

I have seen that depending on the simulation approach, different number of water molecules are employed for studying liquid water properties. 32 in early DFT calculations The electronic structure of ...
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542 views

Trichloride ion (c.f. triiodide ion)

While triiodide ion is commonly known, why is that trichloride ion (and its salts) almost unheard of? While it does exist according to literature, why is the stability of trichloride ion in aqueous ...
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1answer
532 views

Electrolysis of water for demonstration: ideal electrolyte for safety, stability, conductivity, and ease of maintenance

I'm developing a system for educational purposes where electrolysis of water takes place. The aim is to practically show how electrical energy can be converted to mechanical, by electrolyzing water, ...
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Does the salt in the ocean act as a binding agent on sand?

When I walk on the beach, there appears to be an upper layer of the sand that is 'crusty'. This appears to be the opposite of what you see in sand in a dessert setting, where the individual ...
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Solubility involving precipitation

Question How do I found out how much $\ce{AgNO3}$ can be dissolved in 1 liter of solvent without precipitation of $\ce{AgCl}$. Solvent has $$M_{\ce{\,Cl-}} = 0.1\,{\rm M}\\M_{\ce{\,NH3}} = {\rm 1....
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Is there a soluble salt, or compound that when dissolved in water results in a solution with density less than pure water?

Generally water soluble salts tend to 'fit between' the molecules of water such that the volume of the resulting solution does not increase much relative to the volume and added mass of the salt. So ...
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What is a complete reaction?

For a lab assignment, I combined $\pu{10 mL}$ of $\pu{1 M}$ sodium sulfate solution with $\pu{10 mL}$ of $\pu{1 M}$ calcium chloride solution. The ionic equation I came up with is: $$\begin{multline} ...
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How would I calculate the Normality of a 0.00167 molar solution of KIO₃?

I need a 0.01 N solution of $\ce{KIO3}$ to use as a standard in a Winkler titration. The protocol that I am using specifies that this is 0.3567 g L-1, which I have calculated to be 0.00167 M based on ...
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180 views

Change of potential difference during electrolysis while adding salt

I was conducting a simple experiment at home on electrolysis. Obviously, when you build a circuit with a 9V battery, a lamp, and put two electrodes in water you measure a potential difference of ~9V ...

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