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Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions.

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2
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0answers
51 views

Is it appropriate to approximate solute particles in a dilute solution as an ideal gas?

I was studying osmosis and I came across the formula for osmotic pressure. I decided to see the derivation for osmotic pressure in a dilute solution. The derivation involved an equation involving the ...
-1
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1answer
48 views

Can Diatomaceous Earth be added to another chemical to harden it?

I've researched plenty, but cannot find this answer. If Diatomaceous Earth is 85% Sodium Silicate, could it be added to plaster of paris, with water, to form a hard surface, with the benefit of the ...
0
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1answer
118 views

What is the final molar concentration (molarity) of the nitrate ions in the resulting solution?

A chemist mixes 16.3 mL of 1.23 M sodium nitrate with 6.28 mL 0.823 M solution of calcium nitrate. What is the final molar concentration (molarity) of the nitrate ions in the resulting solution? What ...
2
votes
1answer
129 views

How to find the concentration of barium ions in a mixture of barium sulfate and barium thiosulfate?

I have a hard time with selective precipitation problem. A mixture of $\ce{BaSO4}$ and $\ce{BaS2O3}$ is shaken with pure water until a saturated solution is formed. Both solids remain in excess. ...
0
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0answers
33 views

Henry's law p = kx vs m = kp

What exactly is the difference between the following equations? $$p = kx \qquad\text{and}\qquad m = kp$$ Is the $k$ in both same, because I have seen same $k$ in textbooks for both equations?
0
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0answers
44 views

Comparing vapour pressure of 1 molar vs 1 molal solution of sodium chloride

Say, we have 1 molar solution of $\ce{NaCl}$ and 1 molal solution of $\ce{NaCl}$. Among these, which will have maximum vapour pressure? I know that vapour pressure will depend on the number of $\ce{...
1
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0answers
28 views

Do TDS meters measure HCO₃⁻/CO₃²⁻?

I am trying to add $\pu{2 g}$ of $\ce{KHCO3}$ to $\pu{20 L}$ of RO water $(\mathrm{pH} = 5.2)$ which theoretically it will add $$ \begin{array}{lr} \hline \ce{K+} &\pu{10.32 ppm} \\ \ce{HCO3-} &...
2
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1answer
45 views

Neutralisation Reaction Confusion

What will happen when $\pu{1 mol}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ reacts with $\pu{1 mol}$ of $\ce{NaOH}$? Will $\pu{1 mol}$ each of $\ce{NaHSO4}$ and water be formed? Or will $\pu{0.5 mol}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ will ...
1
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2answers
46 views

Heating 2% solution to get 4% solution

I have a 2% solution of Zinc sulfate in water (in heptahydrate form) that I want to turn into 4% solution instead of having to buy 4% solution separately. Would heating it to 100 degrees Celsius and ...
4
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0answers
101 views

Solubility of PbSO4

The solubility of $\ce{PbSO4(s)}$ increase with the addition of $\ce{H2SO4}.$ Why? I don't quite understand this. When dissolving $\ce{PbSO4(s)}$ we get the equilibrium equation: $$\ce{PbSO4(s) <=...
0
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2answers
166 views

How to reduce surface tension of oil?

I would like to create tiny colored drops slowly falling down in a transparent liquid. The diameter of the droplets must be around 2mm, and their speed must be approximately 0.5 mm / sec. For that, ...
0
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0answers
24 views

How addition of a soluble salt affects equilibrium involving precipitation with a base sharing the same cation?

I have the following reaction at equilibrium: $$\ce{Ba(NO3)2(aq) + KOH(aq) <=> Ba(OH)2(s) + 2 KNO3(aq)}$$ Will there be a change in the equilibrium if the salt $\ce{KCl}$ is added? Will the ...
1
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1answer
83 views

What are the enthalpy and entropy contributions to carboxylic acids dissociating in water?

Carboxylic acids such as acetic acid do not dissociate much in the gas phase. In aqueous solution, however, they act as acids (proton donors). $$\ce{CH3COOH(aq) <=> H+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)}$$ ...
0
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0answers
50 views

Calculating pH of solution

What is the $\mathrm{pH}$ when you dissolve equal amounts of $\ce{NaHCO3}$ and $\ce{Na2CO3}$ in water? When both of the compounds are dissolved, we will have equal amounts of $\ce{HCO3-}$ and $\ce{...
35
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3answers
9k views

Which “exotic salt” can lower water's freezing point by 70 °C?

The Medium.com article Mars Phoenix Lander, 10 Years Later shows several remarkable images and discoveries on Mars by the Mars Phoenix Lander circa 2008. One image (shown below) shows what looks like ...
0
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1answer
38 views

Adjustment of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in drinking water?

It's been a long time since I did any molar chemistry in school and despite doing a lot of reading on the subject this week, I am making a mess of some basic calculations. I hope that someone who ...
3
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2answers
79 views

How to measure quantities at standard state when this state is a hypothetical one?

Consider the reaction $$\ce{A(g) + H2O(l) <=> B(aq) + C(g)}$$ If all gases and solutions were ideal, the standard state would be pure water, the solute B at a concentration of 1 M, the gases A ...
2
votes
2answers
103 views

Can I use the Henderson–Hasselbalch for calculating the pH of non-buffer systems?

Can I use the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation on reactions that are not buffers? When I read up on the derivation of the equation, I noticed that there is absolutely no assumption on the relative ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Concentration in a solution

If I mix up 46.29 grams of Potassium Nitrate powder (KNO3) in 1000mL of water and then take 1 ml of that solution and put it into 1 gallon of water what will the ppm of "K" and "NO3" be separately. ...
0
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1answer
242 views

What happens if you put a piece of copper into a solution containing Al3+ ions?

This is a question in my studies, and I am a little bit confused! I would think it happens nothing because copper is below aluminium in the reactivity series, right?
0
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0answers
104 views

Trichloroacetic acid aqueous solution

I have bought some anhydride of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and would like to prepare an acidic solution. My problem is, that I don't know how much "powder" to mix with how much water to produce an x% ...
0
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1answer
77 views

Can tin(IV) sulfide be synthesized from tin(II) chloride via oxidation with sulfite in acidic media? [closed]

Will the following reaction occur? $$\ce{2Na2SO3 + 6SnCl2 + 12HCl → 4NaCl + 5SnCl4 + SnS2 + 6H2O}$$ I'm going to synthesizing $\ce{SnS}$ and $\ce{SnS2}$ NP's, but our supply is runned out and ...
1
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1answer
745 views

pH of CH3COOH + HCl solution (shouldn't be a buffer)

$\pu{0.05 L}$ of a solution containing $\pu{0.3 M}$ acetic acid $(\ce{CH3COOH}$, $K_\mathrm{a} = \pu{1.8e-5})$ are added to $\pu{75 mL}$ of a solution containing $\pu{0.02 M}$ hydrochloric acid ($\ce{...
4
votes
1answer
339 views

Would the change in enthalpy (ΔH) for the dissolution of urea in water be positive or negative?

To test the properties of a fertilizer, $15.0\ \mathrm g$ of urea, $\ce{NH2CONH2(s)}$, is dissolved in $150\ \mathrm{mL}$ of water in a simple calorimeter. A temperature change from $20.6\ \mathrm{^\...
2
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0answers
23 views

Cleaning a stubborn Electrospray residue

I have an electrospray ionization capillary tip that sprays into a chamber that contains some circuit boards. An aqueous CsI sample is apparently causing a white residue to build up on these boards ...
1
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2answers
96 views

Does the amount of solute affect rate of solvation?

I know that in order to increase the rate of solvation, you need to increase how often solute and solvent particles come into contact. You can do it by: agitating the mixture increasing the surface ...
2
votes
2answers
159 views

Molarity Numerical on Mixing Solutions

If 3 L of 1 M NaOH solution is prepared by mixing properties of stock solutions of $x$ L of 2.5 M NaOH and $y$ L of 0.4 M NaOH and no water is to be used, find $x : y$. My attempt: $$3 = 2.5x + 0.4y$...
3
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2answers
51 views

Precipitating silver(I) salts from the solution of barium(II) cyanate and iodide

Consider a $\pu{10.0 mL}$ solution containing $\pu{1.0e-10 M}$ each of $\ce{Ba(CN)2}$ and $\ce{BaI2}$. If $\pu{3.5e-9 mol}$ of $\ce{AgNO3(s)}$ is added to this solution, will any precipitate(s) form? ...
1
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1answer
76 views

Why doesn't open-chain glucose react with water readily in aqueous solution?

Though the exact number given varies from 0.02% to 3%, it's well agreed that glucose spends a very small percentage of its time in aqueous solution as a linear aldehyde. Glucose's overwhelming ...
0
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2answers
131 views

What happens when mixing elemental mercury with sodium hypochlorite solution [closed]

Say you spilled elemental mercury from a thermometer and used household bleach on it, what would be the reaction if any?
-1
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2answers
104 views

Liquid Versus Aqueous States? [closed]

I am studying ionic equations and have encountered the statement of the phase of matter in the equation since ionic substances tend to react differently based on their phase. I know that (l) state ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Preparation of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate Solution

how would you make a solution of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate to achieve 150, 200, 250 and 300 mgL−1 concentration of copper? I do not have the anhydrous version of the solute. Also, when I ...
0
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2answers
24 views

Influence of pH on precipitate crystallite sizes?

It's normally assumed that a higher pH of solution would slow nucleation rates and hence lead to larger crystal formation. I've found literature that it is due to solid-liquid inter-facial tension. ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

What is the minimum operating temperature of chemical hand warmers?

I have been looking at chemical hand warmers such as Hot Hands, Grabber and HotSnapZ. Unfortunately, I cannot find a minimum operating temperature for these types of devices. Logic tells us that they ...
0
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1answer
91 views

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate to replace epsom salt?

Can anhydrous magnesium sulfate be used instead of epsom salt for feeding plants? Do hydrates and anhydrous salts become the same when dissolved in water?
0
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1answer
54 views

What is the percent of potassium as K₂O in the fertilizer sample?

The solubility of sodium tetraphenylborate in water is $\pu{470 g/L}$ while the solubility of potassium tetraphenylborate in water is $\pu{1.8e–4 g/L}$. Due to the orders of magnitude difference in ...
0
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2answers
37 views

Unit analysis for neutralization reaction

What volume of $\pu{0.500 mol L-1}$ $\ce{HCl}$ (in $\pu{mL}$) is required to neutralize $\pu{2.02 g}$ of solid $\ce{NaOH}$ pellets? So far I have tried regular unit analysis: 2.02 g NaOH * 1mol ...
1
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2answers
124 views

Determining Kc for the equilibrium involving iron thiocyanate using spectrophotometric data

$$\ce{Fe^3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) <=> [Fe(SCN)]^2+(aq)}$$ $\pu{12.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.00110 mol L-1}$ $\ce{Fe^3+}$ was added to $\pu{6.00 mL}$ of $\pu{0.00140 mol L-1}$ $\ce{SCN-}$. The absorbance of ...
2
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1answer
132 views

Percent Dissociated from Titration Curve

Question 818 references the titration curve. Answer is A because $\ce{H+}$ conc $= 10^{-4}$. This is conc of dissociated acid. The conc of the undissociated acid is the original concentration minus ...
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1answer
33 views

How can I reduce sodium chloride levels in water, without removing other minerals?

How can I reduce sodium chloride levels in water, without removing other minerals? Good day, I make a sole from Himalayan Salt which I add to my Reverse Osmosis treated water to ensure my body isn't ...
1
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1answer
153 views

Why is maximum buffer capacity for some diprotic buffers not when pH = pKa?

According to Rajkovic et al. [1]: $$β = \frac{[\ce{H+}]}{K_\mathrm{w}} + 2.303\cdot\frac{[\ce{H+}]\cdot K_\mathrm{a}\cdot c}{[\ce{H+}] + K_\mathrm{a}}$$ where $K_\mathrm{a}$ is the ...
0
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0answers
44 views

H+ vs HCl in the gastric juice

Parietal cells in the stomach are known to expel $\ce{H+}$ ions into the gastric juice to keep the pH acidic. When $\ce{H+}$ $\ce{[H3O+]}$ can fully function as acid in the gastric juice, why do cells ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Should I include ions from the solvent in solubility product constant calculations?

I'm trying to determine the Solubility Constant $K_\mathrm{sp}$ of $\ce{Ba(NO3)2}$ dissolved in nitric acid solution $\ce{HNO3}$ from experimental data. $\ce{HNO3}$ will be mostly dissociated so ...
0
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0answers
92 views

Can a solute be physically filtered out of a solvent?

Suppose that I have a substance dissolved in water. I then pour the solution into a filter. The filter's pores are large enough to allow the passage of water, but not the passage of the substance. In ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Can I boil off chlorine? Does it evaporate quickly at high temperatures?

Can I boil off chlorine? Does it evaporate quickly at high temperatures? I am asking because I want to remove it from drinking water, and I don't want to wait 24 hours for it to evaporate naturally.
1
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1answer
37 views

Which ions determine ionic conductivity of a salt solution?

Let's take $\ce{ZnSO4}$ salt solution in water for example. So the ions inside my solution will be $\ce{H+}$, $\ce{OH-}$, $\ce{Zn^2+}$ and $\ce{SO4^2-}$. My questions are: Is the ionic conductivity ...
0
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1answer
128 views

Effects of Ka on the Half-Equivalence Point

I'm new to studying chemistry at a university level and am currently reviewing acid-base titrations. I am wondering about the relationship between your ionization constant for a weak acid ($K_\mathrm{...
0
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1answer
114 views

Is NaCl the only precipitate when you add HCl to concentrated NaCl [closed]

When aqueous HCl is added to a saturated salt water solution, is NaCl the only precipitate or does some HCl crystalize as well? Sources online say that NaCl crystallizes but they don't say what ...
1
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1answer
27 views

Is it stupid to put used acid into a pool after cleaning the chlorinator? [closed]

I have a salt pool, and when the chlorinator salts up with calcium, I clean it with a diluted acidic solution. What happens to the acidic solution after the reaction happens? I.e., does the pH change?...
0
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1answer
30 views

Copper powder amount dissoved in water [closed]

How much copper powder dispersed into 2 liters of water will result in a 10 ppm concentration? I am not a chemist.