Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions.

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4
votes
1answer
132 views

Best x-ray dopant?

An x-ray computed tomography scanner has been used in an attempt to look at the pore space of a limestone rock sample (a carbonate, $\ce{CaCO3}$) saturated with a $\mathrm{12\ wt\%}$ sodium iodide ($\...
2
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2answers
16k views

How to predict the solubility of an organic compound in different kinds of solvents? [duplicate]

How is it possible to know whether a particular solvent will dissolve in a particular kind of solvent, i.e. organic, polar, protic...? Are there any indicators to look for in molecules or elements ...
5
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1answer
51k views

Preparation of iodine solution

How to prepare $\mathrm{0.1M}$ $\ce{I_2}$ solution. I have found in books that it should be prepared in $\ce{KI}$ solution but none of them explains why? Please explain in detail not just the ...
0
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1answer
284 views

Aqueous Chemistry: Ranking Ion Concentration

I am trying to rank the concentration of $\ce{PO4^3-}$, $\ce{NO3^-}$, and $\ce{Na+}$ that remain in a reaction. The reaction occurs when 100mL of 1.0M $\ce{Na3PO4}$ solution is mixed with 100mL of 1....
7
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1answer
351 views

Cyanide from seeds breaking down in a pond

I have a large loquat tree that overhangs a pond. The loquat seeds apparently contain cyanide of some sort, so I'm trying to find the effect the seeds have when they fall in the pond. Over time I ...
0
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1answer
481 views

What happens when oxidizing Ni(OH)2 with a strong base?

In an aqueous solution, Nickel oxyhydroxide is oxidised with a 1:1 ratio of aqueous Sodium hydroxide. My goal is to produce Nickel oxyhydroxide ($\ce{NiOOH}$). Strong Base: $\ce{NaOH + H2O \...
0
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2answers
281 views

chlorine formed in hydrochloric acid

Is it plausible that free chlorine could be formed in concentrated hydrochloric acid. The background to this is that I have bought some 30% HCl to remove calcium carbonate scale from a reverse ...
1
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2answers
1k views

What causes Starch's lump creation when solvent (butter/water/oil) is added and how to prevent them

When liquid(water/butter) is added to starch lumps of starch are formed. Which are completely dry from inside. Adding more solvent doesn't seem to help therefore it is not a case of saturated solution....
1
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1answer
2k views

Applying the Solubility Guidelines is AgClO4 soluble or insoluble?

The book I am using is "General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications by Ralph H. Petrucci. On page 158 the Solubility Guidelines for Common Ionic Solids is given. Rule 3 states that, "Salts ...
4
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1answer
579 views

Will I get bromine by electrolysis of the brine from the Dead Sea?

I know that electrolysis of a saturated solution of sodium chloride with an inert anode (eg., graphite) is a handy way to obtain pure chlorine. I have a sample of saturated salt solution from the Dead ...
13
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3answers
44k views

If caffeine is an alkaloid, why is coffee acidic?

I have just put together on my mind these two facts: caffeine is an alkaloid and brewed coffee is slightly acidic (pH = 5). My Biology teacher and my Chemistry teacher could not elaborate satisfying ...
3
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2answers
7k views

Why do acids ionize in solution if they are covalently bonded?

Maybe I am wrong, but I thought acids were covalently bonded since hydrogen doesn't form ionic compounds. For example, wouldn't $\ce{HCl}$ look like: Since the electrons are shared, why does it ...
1
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0answers
482 views

Reasonings on the pH of calcium carbonate in ammonium chloride solution

Consider calcium carbonate saturated in $1.0\:\mathrm{M}$ ammonium chloride solution. I have calculated the $\mathrm{pH}$ of this solution analytically (with mass and charge balance) to be $6.92$. ...
1
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1answer
52 views

Can we determine apriori the volume of solvent in an electrolyte

Suppose I would like to create a one molar solution of NaCl in water. The molar concentration is defined as $c_i=\frac{n_i}{V} $ $n_i=1$ in this case. I need to take 58.5 grams of NaCl (atomic ...
-4
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1answer
787 views

How is the dichromate anion generated from potassium dichromate? [closed]

How does $\ce{K2Cr2O7}$ become $\ce{Cr2O7^2-}$ when dissolved in water?
1
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2answers
2k views

Magnesium powder mixed with CuSO4 solution

$\ce{Mg}$ powder is stirred into $\ce{CuSO4}$, what is the balanced molecular equation for this reaction ? I have $\ce{Mg + CuSO4 -> Mg2SO4 + Cu}$. Also, is the ionic equation the same as the net ...
3
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3answers
1k views

What is the procedure to create stock solutions?

Until now to execute this recipe, each time i had to count those milligrams/Liter. An enough difficult procedure. I am posting here this question to help me understand the procedure of creating ...
4
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1answer
35k views

Net ionic equation with only aqueous ions

When you turn a balanced equation into a net ionic equation, you ignore all the ions that are spectator ions (aqueous on one side as well as the other). You only write the solid and the aqueous ions ...
2
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3answers
2k views

How to verify the accuracy of a pH meter

One suggestion I received is that I prepare a solution of a known activity and probe the solution with the pH meter. The problem I see with this is that any error in solution preparation can lead us ...
0
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1answer
2k views

Why is the water column empty in ICE table

In the ICE table pure solids and liquids have a value of one in the equilibrium expression but when we create an ICE table, why is the $\ce{H_{2}O}$ column empty? Should it not have a value of one?
1
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1answer
3k views

Removing HCl from water

I have water contaminated with dissolved chlorine: $\ce{H2O + Cl2 <=>HCl + HOCl}$ During electrolysis, this is an issue. These are my products: $\ce{NaCl + H2O ->T[electrolysis] NaOH + Cl2 ...
6
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1answer
2k views

Is 4-nitrobenzaldehyde or 4-aminobenzaldehyde more likely to be hydrated?

Of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 4-aminobenzaldehyde, which has the higher $\ce{K_{eq}}$ of hydration? $\qquad \qquad$ Steric factors can likely be ignored in this problem since we are dealing with ...
3
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2answers
4k views

How to calculate the solubility product for PbS from galvanic potential?

Knowing that at 25 °C the following galvanic cell: $$\ce{Pb~|~Pb(NO_3)_2~1M~||~PbS~saturated~|~Pb}$$ shows an $\mathrm{EMF} =0.413~\mathrm{V}$, find the $K_\mathrm{sp}$ of $\ce{PbS}$. My Approach ...
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0answers
67 views

Identifying probable compound using its colour & reactants

This is quote from OxyChem document on Hypochlorites: Steel tanks in caustic soda service become passivated with a gray-black film forming on the metal. Thereafter, caustic soda at less than ...
0
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2answers
215 views

Can citric acid protonation produce benzene and water

Is this reaction possible: $\ce{C6H8O7 + 12 H3O -> C6H6 + 19 H2O}$? Considering that the $\ce{H+}$ can be induced by ionization of the citric acid solution the benzene can be produced in this way?
4
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1answer
2k views

How does KMnO₄ affect electrolysis?

I'm just blindly experimenting. I tried to dissolve some potassium permanganate in water before performing electrolysis. I can't see much difference. How is $\ce{KMnO4}$ dissolved in water? How does ...
0
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1answer
4k views

What is the pH of a solution of HCOONa and HNO3?

Calculate the pH of an aqueous solution obtained by mixing 20 ml of $\ce{HCOONa}$ 0,1 M and 5 ml of $\ce{HNO_3}$ 0.2 M. ($K_\mathrm a$ of $\ce{HCOOH}$ $= 10^{-4}$) My try: The number of the ...
1
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1answer
643 views

Balancing ionic equations and determining number of ions

There were two questions that I've listed below that I've had troubles on. I got an answer in both, but both of them weren't correct. For the first question, they list the answer to be D and then ...
4
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1answer
69 views

Boiling solutions with two salts

If you dissolve two different ionic compounds (that don't make a precipitate) in water and then boil the solution so all the water evaporates, the salts will re-crystallize. Is it possible that you ...
6
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2answers
6k views

Why put zinc solution in a galvanic cell?

In a galvanic cell with Cu and Zn electrodes, I was taught that each electrode is immersed in a solution containing it's own positive ions. I understand why you need copper ions, so they can gain ...
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2answers
1k views

How can you predict a double displacement reaction with no precipitate?

Is it possible to predict a double displacement reaction between two ions where the products remain in aqueous solution? I see how you can predict precipitation reactions if you know whether the ...
9
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1answer
13k views

Acid-base equilibrium of NH4CN

I'm having difficulties understanding this problem. We have in the problem that $K_\mathrm a$ for $\ce{HCN} = 6.2\cdot10^{-10}$ and $K_\mathrm b$ for $\ce{NH3} = 1.8\cdot10^{-5}$. Write chemical ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Byproducts of the neutralisation of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide

Given a 1 M concentration of $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$ here are the pHs: pH of $\ce{HCl}$: 1 pH of $\ce{NaOH}$: 13–14 and of course water has a pH of 7. Here is a reaction that is most likely to ...
1
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1answer
1k views

Calculating Ka values from std. state thermodynamic data

My professor showed us a sample calculation of the Ka value for a strong acid. He used standard state thermodynamic data. I have an issue with this: 1) Wouldn't this give us an understated Ka value?...
2
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2answers
1k views

Find the color of the solution

The acid-base indicator methyl red has a $K_{a}$ = $1 \times 10^{-5}$. Its acidic form is red while its alkaline form is yellow. If methyl red is added in a colorless solution with a $pH = 7$, the ...
3
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3answers
511 views

What does the hydrolysis of a salt tell us about its basic/acidic character?

I'm curious to know how basicity and acidity arises when a salt or covalent compound is dissolved in water.
4
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2answers
33k views

Neutralization reaction between ammonia and nitric acid

Complete and balance the following molecular equation (in aqueous solution); include phase labels. Then, write the net ionic equation. $~\ce{NH_3 + HNO_3 -> ?}$ I thought that the acid $\ce{...
18
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4answers
46k views

How much can the pH change through dilution?

Consider an acidic solution with Hydrogen ion concentration, $\ce{[H+]}$ of $10^{-5}\:\mathrm{M}$. Since $\:\mathrm{pH} = -\log \ce{[H+]}$ the $\:\mathrm{pH}$ of solution is $5$. Suppose we dilute ...
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0answers
173 views

Deviation from ideal solutions - activities and concentrations

What are some examples of solutions deviating significantly from ideal behavior, and, by extension, showing pHs significantly different from those predicted by usage of concentrations instead of ...
6
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2answers
4k views

How can the density of water be maximised?

What is the maximum possible density of water at room temperature? The density of the water in the Dead Sea at 37°C is 1.24. Would it be possible to increase the density using salts we add to our food,...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there a database which give reaction constant?

For instance, I have a chemical reaction like : $$\ce{Fe^{2+} + $0.5$O2 + H^{+} ->Fe^{3+} + $0.5$ H2O}$$ And I would like to use Action-Mass law, but I need to have equilibrium constant for this ...
1
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2answers
102 views

Reconciling the units of pH calculation

As part of a simulation I am developing I have an acid in aqueous solution represented as a concentration field of mass density (units g/L) at various points in ...
0
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3answers
2k views

Why does an acid exist when dissolved in water?

Acid is a substance that releases $\ce{H+}$ ions when mixed with water But if it releases $\ce{H+}$ ions the acid will ultimately not exist. For e.g we take the acid $\ce{H2SO4}$. If we add water ...
1
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2answers
69 views

Adding concentrations to obtain mass

I have a question that gives two concentrations and asks for the mass of HCl formed by the reaction. I have two concentrations: 250mL of 4.00M $\ce{H2SO4}$, and 250mL of 1.00M $\ce{NaCl}$. Here is ...
8
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2answers
3k views

Can lead(II) oxidize tin metal in aqueous solution?

According to my textbook, element $\ce{X}$ can oxidize element $\ce{Y}$ if $\ce{X}$ was lower in the activity series. Lead is lower than Tin in the activity series table in the textbook, but the ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Why are solutions electrically neutral?

I keep reading that solutions are electrically neutral, but I've never read an explanation. I've read after the fact justifications, such as one problem which asked me to calculate the force of ...
3
votes
1answer
327 views

In a redox reaction, why does more than one oxidation state of an element form?

Consider the reaction 100ml 10M $\ce{NaOH_{(aq)}} +$ 100ml 10M $\ce{NaHSO3_{(aq)} +}$ 100mL 0.01M $\ce{KMnO4_{(aq)}}$ In the picture posted here, the left columns give information on the Molarity of ...
3
votes
1answer
9k views

Solubility of p-nitrophenol in various substances?

So I had an organic chemistry lab where we had to dissolve p-nitrophenol in water, dilute $\ce{NaHCO3}$, dilute $\ce{NaOH}$, and dilute $\ce{HCl}$ to test for solubility. The p-nitrophenol dissolved ...
4
votes
2answers
476 views

Do buffers only work for species of the opposite variety? (I.e. weak acids buffer strong bases and vice versa)

I have looked at several sources including Khan Academy, ChemCollective and the answer to a similar question: Can someone please explain buffers to me? However, it is not clear whether buffers can ...
6
votes
2answers
16k views

How much carbonation is in one liter of commercial fountain Coca-Cola

From what I understand generally Coke is carbonated to roughly 6.2 g per liter in bottles and cans, or 3.1 volumes of CO2. I was watching this video because I was curious about how fountain soda ...