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Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions and acid-base equilibria.

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Why is supersaturated sodium acetate so (meta)stable?

Sodium acetate is a common example used in general chemistry lectures to illustrate the idea of supersaturation, and that precipitation of a supersaturated solution can be initiated by a seed crystal. ...
dwhswenson's user avatar
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769 views

How can copper(II) sulfate crystallize outside a glass vial?

I'm making copper sulfate crystals in glasses. Within a few weeks, the copper sulfate seems to crystallize both inside and outside the glass: (A few weeks after making a new solution) (Yet another ...
OoDeLally's user avatar
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What pH value of 1M sodium crotonate solution supposed to be?

I need to prepare the $\pu{1M}$ solution of sodium crotonate, however, I don't have one in lab, but I do have sodium hydroxide and crotonic acid. Thus, I calculated that for $\pu{100 mL}$ of $\pu{1M}$ ...
Araneus0390's user avatar
5 votes
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788 views

Solubility of PbSO4

The solubility of $\ce{PbSO4(s)}$ increase with the addition of $\ce{H2SO4}.$ Why? I don't quite understand this. When dissolving $\ce{PbSO4(s)}$ we get the equilibrium equation: $$\ce{PbSO4(s) <=...
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Where is my antimony going?

I work in a trace metals laboratory operating an ICP-OES. I've been having some trouble with the recovery of antimony in a weak $\ce{HCl}$ solution post-digestion. The antimony is part of a mix of ...
Max Power's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
11k views

Reaction between sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid (vinegar)?

I observed this reaction by playing around with vinegar and baking soda and I do not completely understand it. Everyone knows that baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and vinegar (acetic acid) go crazy ...
Matthew's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
219 views

How does a silver chloride electrode (Ag/AgCl) convert the potential in aqueous solution to the wire?

I am aware of the redox chemistry that happens at the electrode surface, but I'm not sure how exactly a change in electrical potential in the solution would change the potential in the electrode?
Anthony's user avatar
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Notation for spectral density in experimental community

In an open quantum system setup where the system is coupled to infinite harmonic oscillators as bath (as in the Caldeira leggett model, for example), through the Hamiltonian, $$H = \frac{\hat{p}^2}{2m}...
Prem's user avatar
  • 91
4 votes
1 answer
330 views

Variation of conductance of saturated aqueous solution with temperature

The following question was asked in JEE Mains 2020: Let $C_{\ce{NaCl}}$ and $C_{\ce{BaSO4}}$ be the conductances (in S) measured for saturated aqueous solutions of $\ce{NaCl}$ and $\ce{BaSO4}$, ...
Box Box Box Box's user avatar
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Why does viscosity decrease when divalent cations are dissolved into aqueous solutions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose?

Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC/NaCMC/Aqualon) is a common product used in many instances for its unique properties, especially its ability to make solutions viscous. It is well known that the ...
Sam's user avatar
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How to break down soap and detergents?

I am building a greywater harvesting system. It is a 3-stage system: The 1st stage breaks down soap and detergents. The 2nd stage filters the water. The 3rd stage pumps water out of system. What ...
John Hoskins's user avatar
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Maintaining our supersaturated oceans

Supersaturates solutions can be unstable and decay beautifully once a seed crystal is introduced. Our oceans near the surface are supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. This map shows the ...
Kevin Kostlan's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
188 views

Can there be an aqueous solution with a convex meniscus?

This question is motivated by a quote from a TV show: A detective is looking at a small vial (really a glass tube) that supposedly contains poison. Then the detective says: You don't have to take AP ...
Stef's user avatar
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Number of moles of acidified potassium dichromate required to liberate 6 moles of iodine from an aqueous solution of iodate ions

I came across this question in a recent exam I had taken: How many moles of acidified $\ce{K2Cr2O7}$ is required to liberate 6 moles of $\ce{I2}$ from an aqueous solution of $\ce{I-}$ ? So this is ...
sai-kartik's user avatar
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479 views

The most convenient process to purify Oxalic Acid up to a high level of purity

I am set out to purify a batch of commercial oxalic acid with the aim in mind to end up with a highly pure product (starting from $\pu{4,000 ppm}$ total impurities and doing so with basic lab ...
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Molar ratios not leading to complete reaction in Schweizer's reagent production

In my home lab, I've reacted $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$ with aqueous ammonia to produce Schweizer's reagent. However, I'm surprised by the amount of ammonia required to react with this amount of $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$. ...
TwoMice's user avatar
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Removing Tungsten Trioxide from Tungsten Electrode

I need a very sharp tungsten electrode, and I think radial electrochemical etching with sodium hydroxide is the way to go. The problem therein (I think) is that the etching will cause an oxide layer ...
user55502's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
1k views

Calculating total volume mixing NaCl and water

I'm (as a non chemist) trying to calculate the the volume of a NaCl solution. The problem is that I know the volume of water prior to mixing in NaCl, but I want to know the volume of the solution ...
rhkarls's user avatar
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Chemistry Behind TMOS Aerogel

I have found out how to make silica aerogel. Currently, the solution that I need to create to make the gel requires tetramethyl orthosilicate or TMOS. Furthermore, the procedure requires me to make ...
bkarthik's user avatar
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Hydrogen Peroxide Heat of Dilution

Based on some data here, I am getting the heat of dilution of 100% $\ce{H2O2}$ as approx. 1100 cal/mole. That's about 4.6 kJ/mol if I did my math right. Is this a correct value? Seems too low to ...
curious_cat's user avatar
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109 views

Poor aqueous solubility of chloroazodin

Below is the structure of chloroazodin: Why is chloroazodin poorly soluble in water? It has multiple amine and imine nitrogens, all of which appear to be available for hydrogen bonding, and thus it ...
Sahar Maz's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
79 views

Can a brine water electrolysis be looped?

Electrolysis of brine yields hydrogen and chlorine gases and aqueous $\ce{NaOH}$. So is it possible to combine the gases to form $\ce{HCl}$ gas, and mix it back with the aqueous $\ce{NaOH}$, so it ...
Teki Haken's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
289 views

If both nitric acid and nitrate ion are stabilised through resonance, what makes the nitrate ion more stable in aqueous medium?

If both nitric acid and nitrate ion are stabilised through resonance, what makes the nitrate ion more stable in aqueous medium? Can the same argument be applied to nitrous acid and nitrite ion in ...
Jack Bing's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
623 views

The Health Effects of Alkaline Ionized Water?

I came across alkaline ionized water as my aunts bought a system called Kangen Water from Enagic Inc. The water produced by this system is claimed to contain smaller water clusters (4-6 molecules) ...
Huy Nguyen's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
32 views

Salts solubility and speciation calculations using PHREEQC

I am collecting data from literature for CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions. These are usually synthetic brines and are reported as molalities or wt% of salts or salt mixtures (I have NaCl, KCl, ...
Abdeldjalil Latrach's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
49 views

Stability of n-Dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside in buffer solutions for assay experiments

I have a buffer system which contains multiple salts and in addition DTT and n-Dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside. I understand that DTT is hydrolysing quite fast and this component must be used always fresh ...
raptorlane's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
200 views

Why is it recommended to not store commercial sodium silicate solutions in direct sunlight, what are the effects of doing so and can it be modelled?

I regularly purchase aqueous sodium silicate solutions from commercial providers for my studies and note that a storage recommendation for all different grades (i.e. differing $\ce{SiO2 / Na2O}$ ...
Hendrix13's user avatar
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Is it always necessary to boil off H2S(g) to test for group III cations in qualitative analysis?

When a sample contains $\ce{Al^3+}$ ions (group-III), to test for its presence, before adding NH4Cl/NH3 solution do we need to boil off acidic H2S added earlier to check for the presence of group-ii ...
Sudhagar's user avatar
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2 votes
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At constant solvent activity, do solution properties depend on identity of the solute?

When a substance is dissolved or mixed with water in high concentrations, the activity of water drops from 1 to a value that depends on the substance and its concentration. Is it correct to say that ...
Gotaquestion's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
108 views

Gouy-Chapman model

Recently I have been investigating the problem of a neutral solutions (with equal number of anions and cations) interacting with an infinite surface $z=0$ with electrostatic potential $\phi(z=0)=\...
sined's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
0 answers
232 views

Transforming hydroxyl group to carboxylic acid in an aqueous environment

I am looking for a way of converting a hydroxyl group into a carboxyl group in an aqueous environment for eventual coupling to an amine. There seem to be plenty of ways of achieving this in various ...
chemdrawbob's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
303 views

Why does copper(II) sulfate solution turn black on addition of excess sodium borohydride?

In my laboratory experiment, I was supposed to reduce copper(II) sulfate to copper by means of $\ce{NaBH4}$, an indication of which was supposed to be a colour change from blue (copper(II) sulfate) to ...
Sashank Sriram's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
1k views

What is the resulting solution after leaching hardwood ash with water?

After doing online research, I've noticed there are differing interpretations on what happens when ash is mixed with water, so I've come here seeking clarification on what indeed happens, and also ...
Mr. Cultist's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
55 views

Calculating the solubility for chromium(III) hydroxide using the complex ion constant

Problem $$ \begin{align} \ce{Cr(OH)3(s) &<=> Cr^3+(aq) + 3 OH-(aq)} &\quad K_\mathrm{sp} &= \pu{6.7E-31} \\ \ce{Cr^3+(aq) + 4 OH-(aq) &<=> Cr(OH)4-(aq)} &\quad K_\...
T.Mok's user avatar
  • 31
2 votes
0 answers
167 views

Why does sodium citrate in water turn black when blueberries are added?

I recently started making oral rehydration therapy for someone I'm taking care of who developed POTS after COVID-19 infection. (ORT was recommended by their doctor.) I use the standard ingredients of ...
jessefivey's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
76 views

Colligative properties: why does the size of solute not matter?

Colligative properties are defined as the "properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the ...
Bee's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
37 views

Isomerization of phosphorylated 2-imino-1,3-dioxalanes into phosphorylated cyclic carbamates

I found a patent dating back to the Soviet Union. The patent number is 256764, and the patent describes the synthesis of phosphorylated cyclic carbamates. Here is a section of the patent, followed by ...
user73910's user avatar
  • 1,264
2 votes
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124 views

Which salts precipitate from a potassium/sodium chloride/sulfate solution?

This is not a homework question. I am not in any course of study. The following question arises from my personal curiosity. If 1 mole of sodium sulfate and 2 moles of potassium chloride are dissolved ...
John Bentin's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
396 views

Effect of charge density on electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid

I am told that if electrolysis of dilute sulfuric acid is performed under high charge density, then the following reaction takes place at anode instead of evolving oxygen: $$\ce{2 HSO4- -> H2S2O8 +...
Robin Singh's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
148 views

Competing half reactions in electrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide

If you run a direct current using pure nickel electrodes through a solution of NaOH in distilled water, you will separate the water into hydrogen and oxygen. Are there any other reactions that could ...
MadScientist's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
274 views

What is the pH and pKa relationship of LaCl3 in water and its precipitant La(OH)3?

In light of this question and its answers, I hope to get some insights into the $\mathrm{pH}$ of $\ce{LaCl3}$ in water and its $\mathrm{pH}$ relationship to $\ce{La(OH)3}$ precipitant's $\mathrm{p}K_\...
bonCodigo's user avatar
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2 votes
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63 views

Do I understand correctly that simulation volume influences relative permittivity calculations? If so, how is the result useful?

I am having a lot of trouble understanding the influence of volume on relative permittivity/static dielectric constant. I'm not a chemist, but am using molecular dynamics to calculate relative ...
user3292696's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
50 views

Activity of NaCl aqueous solution at high ionic strengths: Common-ion effect

Is there any theoretical way to estimate the activity of $\ce{NaCl}$ at high ionic strengths in water and that in $\pu{7 M}$ $\ce{NaCl}$ solution? This question is based on whether solubility of $\ce{...
Suddhasattwa Ghosh 's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
80 views

Is it appropriate to approximate solute particles in a dilute solution as an ideal gas?

I was studying osmosis and I came across the formula for osmotic pressure. I decided to see the derivation for osmotic pressure in a dilute solution. The derivation involved an equation involving the ...
user79504's user avatar
  • 197
2 votes
0 answers
32 views

Cleaning a stubborn Electrospray residue

I have an electrospray ionization capillary tip that sprays into a chamber that contains some circuit boards. An aqueous CsI sample is apparently causing a white residue to build up on these boards ...
AnonymousGraduateStudent's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
258 views

Mechanism for removal of pesticides from fruit by sodium bicarbonate

When Googling around for methods to remove pesticides from fruits and vegetables, a study commonly referred to from some news sites (e.g. here and here ) is one where soaking apples in a sodium ...
AlexM's user avatar
  • 29
2 votes
0 answers
87 views

Non-hydrate forming salts?

Are there any water-soluble salts that don't form hydrates? Hydration seems very thermodynamically favorable, as evidenced by its abundance. It also makes sense since the solvation and hydration ...
ericksonla's user avatar
  • 1,700
2 votes
0 answers
190 views

Why is fluoride good for your teeth?

The main component of tooth enamel is calcium hydroxyapatite. I know fluoride ions can replace hydroxide ions in the enamel matrix, slowing the rate of enamel demineralization. Why does hydrofluoric ...
KanyeBest's user avatar
  • 353
2 votes
0 answers
295 views

Varying data about solubility of sodium acetate trihydrate

I recently looked up the solubility of sodium acetate trihydrate in water at 20°C and found surprisingly diverse values such as: 613g/l (GESTIS-Stoffdatenbank) 762g/l (TU Freiberg) 1250g/l (applichem, ...
GreenSmurf's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
47 views

Should the concentrations in weight % of the components of a solution always add up to 100%?

There's a paper with this statement of a alkaline solution: Nanostructured CuO films were formed by immersing the cleaned tabs into a hot $(\pu{96 \pm 3 ^\circ C})$ alkaline solution composed of $\...
manoj's user avatar
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