Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions and acid-base equilibria.

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32 views

How to make silicic acid, potassium silicate or calcium silicate?

I am a student of tropical agriculture. I am taking the class of agronomic chemistry and plant nutrition. I want to make use of silicate source I have at home for e.g. zeolite, wood ashes, ...
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what are some big open questions in solution or condensed phase, physical, organic or inorganic chemistry? [closed]

I am sorry if that is not the right forum to ask, but I am really curious about this, and trying to understand where to invest my efforts next. I am trying to follow the literature, but sometimes I ...
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52 views

Substituting K2CO3 for KOH in Soap

Wood water obtained by running water through hardwood ashes has a high quantity of $\ce{K2CO3}$, historicaly this was called lye. Yet soap recipes today seem to use $\ce{KOH}$ or $\ce{NaOH}$ as lye. $...
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How much stronger is Potassium Hydroxide than Potassium Carbonate [closed]

What is the total alkilinity of K2CO3, and what is the total alkalinity of KOH As I understand KOH is stronger. Is total alkilinity a good way to measure this.
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How can a v/v% of ferric chloride hexahydrate be stated as a v/v% of ferric chloride? [closed]

I have the SDS sheet for a chemical solution where the $v/v\%$ is stated as 62.7% for ferric chloride hexahydrate ($\ce{FeCl3.6H2O}$) and I need to find the $v/v\%$ for ferric chloride ($\ce{FeCl3}$) ...
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How does the solvation of Zn lead to oxidation? (galvanic cell)

This video explains a causality of electric potential difference in a galvanic cell that's different from what I've understood. The video says that the $\ce{Zn}$ is dissolved into the water, and ...
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1answer
50 views

Notation for inclusion of water in a dissolution equation

Earlier I had a student come by wanting to know how to show the dissolution of $\ce{NH4OH}$ in water. I would think we would just write it: $$\ce{NH4OH(aq) <=> NH3(aq) + H2O(l)}$$ I say this as $...
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Calculate concentrations of ions after acid-base reaction given volumes and concentrations

A $\pu{35.0 mL}$ of $\pu{4000 ppm}$ $\ce{HCl}$ solution is mixed with $\pu{45.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.1025M}$ $\ce{NaOH}$ solution. Assume volumes are additive. $$\ce{NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) -> NaCl(aq) + H2O(...
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Would a galvanic cell/Daniell Element stop when there wouldn't be 1 M salt solutions and whats their purpose [closed]

Through much research, I still haven't found the meaning of the $\pu{1 M}$ zinc sulphate and $\pu{1 M}$ copper sulphate solution in the Daniell cell. Is this just to standardize the output Voltage? ...
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1answer
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Can you meassure a negative pH value with a pH meter?

I was checking the $\mathrm{pH}$ of $\pu{1 M}$ chromic acid solution, and I got its $\mathrm{pH}$ around -1.7. Yet, $\mathrm{pH}$ of $\pu{0.4 M}$ solution was around -0.6. Could these values be ...
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What is an effective coagulant/flocculant for an acidic solution?

The acidic solution is a mixture of dissolved ammonium sulfate and mono-ammonium phosphate (pH about 4.5-4.8) along with an inorganic sludge with a similar consistency to clay I am looking to remove ...
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Equilibrium of zinc ion with ammonia

In my chemistry lab, we are testing the amphoteric properties of this metal. I understand zink can react with an acid or a base to form different compounds in solution based on pH. In one part of the ...
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2answers
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How to model 98% ethanol solution concentration graph over time

İ want to plot a graph of ethanol solution concentration over time .So we know that alcohol evaporates quickly in open air but is there a time when the rate of evaporation mathces that of water and ...
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How to explain why the boiling point of the aqueous solution of a non-volatile solute increases

I have the following graph: with the following expression for the chemical potential variation: I need to explain why the boiling point of the aqueous solution of a non-volatile solute increases, ...
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Is [Fe(OH)(H2O)5]+ more likely to be oxidized than [Fe(H2O)6]2+?

I want to know if the $\ce{[Fe(OH)(H2O)5]+}$ ion formed upon adding water to $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]^2+}$ is more likely to be oxidised to $\ce{Fe^3+}$ than $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]^2+}$. If it is, then why?
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1answer
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Would ionic conduction be halted by shielding at the electrodes?

I've done this experiment myself and seen it front of my eyes. Set up a basic circuit with a battery, an LED, and connect the circuit with a salt-water solution and copper wire. The LED lights up. If ...
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Why is it a product of ions in water? [duplicate]

What is the significance of finding the product of Hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions? What meaning is behind the product of these two that have been multiplied.
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Green deposition on the anode after electrolysis of sodium bicarbonate solution in tap water

I use $\pu{12 V}$ battery with copper wires and tap water with $\ce{NaHCO3}$ dissolved in it. I connected the battery and everything went as expected but after 5 minutes bubbling stopped. I took out ...
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1answer
41 views

Is mixture of ammonium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate a buffer solution? [closed]

Is a mixture of $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4NO3}$ a buffer solution? I have seen some examples with $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$ but never $\ce{NH4NO3}$.
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1answer
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Grams of solution of magnesium chloride given molarity of chloride ion [closed]

To make 100. mL of a solution that is 0.25 M in chloride ion, how many grams of magnesium chloride would you need to dissolve? I had a few different approaches to this, but my most immediate thought ...
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82 views

Physical Chemistry: Specifically the Dissolution of Carbonates

Please note this question is different to the other that keeps being mentioned. That one is about the concentration of just $\ce{HCO3-}$ when no $\ce {pH}$ was given. Whereas, in this one I am trying ...
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2answers
43 views

Milliliters of NaBr when changing molarity [closed]

I was very confused by this problem. I was able to get the molarity, but I wasn’t certain how to go from there: If $\pu{2.60 g}$ of $\ce{NaBr}$ is dissolved in enough water to make $\pu{160.0 mL}$ of ...
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How copper (II) reduces to copper (I) in a Fehling Reaction? [duplicate]

Copper in solution is in 2+ form. What makes it gain an electron and turns to Cu+ and Bond with oxygen? How does that happen and how glucose participates?
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Why is the Ag+ concentration in a beaker fixed in the reaction between excess AgCl (s) and KI (aq) from the start? [duplicate]

This arises as a sub-question for the following question: Calculate the concentration of I- in a solution obtained by mixing 0.10 M KI with an excess of AgCl(s). I tried to look at How does addition ...
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Calculate the concentration of I− in a solution obtained by shaking 0.10 M KI with an excess of AgCl(s) [duplicate]

My textbook says to solve it in the following way: 1) Ignore the $\pu{0.10 M}$ $\ce{KI}$ since it doesn't matter. 2) Since you have excess $\ce{AgCl(s)}$, you can calculate the $\ce{Ag+}$ ...
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1answer
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Why is hydrated beryllium ion acidic?

The beryllium ion, $\ce{Be^{2+}}$, forms the aquo complex $\ce{[Be(H2O)4]^{2+}}$. According to LibreTexts, this complex is acidic in solution: $$\ce{[Be(H2O)4]^{2+} + H2O -> [Be(H2O)3OH]+ + H3O+}$$ ...
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2answers
119 views

How does addition of AgCl affect concentration of iodide in KI solution?

In a mixture of $\ce{AgCl(s)}$ and initial $\pu{0.10 M}$ $\ce{KI}$, what is the $[\ce{I-}]$ after the reaction proceeds? Disclaimer: This is not a graded assignment, but rather a problem I'm trying to ...
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1answer
38 views

How to calculate how much weak acid would dissociate in water?

So I know water has a pH of 7. If we add 0.1 mol of a strong acid inside 1 liter of water, it WILL fully dissociate into 0.1 mol of A- and 0.1 mol of H+ thus making the pH of the solution 1. But what ...
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Can there be an aqueous solution with a convex meniscus?

This question is motivated by a quote from a TV show: A detective is looking at a small vial (really a glass tube) that supposedly contains poison. Then the detective says: You don't have to take AP ...
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1answer
81 views

Universal symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality

This is a really basic (perhaps trivial) question, but I just want to confirm: What are the SI symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality? For molality and molarity, there is a difference, but I’...
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Adding aluminum sulfate to neutralize an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with pH of 12.6

How much aluminum sulfate do I need to add to an aqueous solution of sodium silicate to neutralize the solution (pH from 12.6 to 7)? For a water treatment school project, we remove sodium silicate ...
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1answer
93 views

How to calculate molar concentration from equilibrium equations with no initial concentration given?

I have the equations: \begin{align} \ce{CO2(g) + H2O(l) &<=> H2CO3(aq)} &\quad K_1 &= 10^{-1.47} \tag{1}\\ \ce{H2CO3(aq) &<=> H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)} &\quad K_2 &= 10^{-...
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1answer
87 views

Why does green ferrous sulfate solution change color to yellow upon addition of hydrochloric acid?

I was demonstrating the formation of $\ce{Fe(OH)2}$ precipitate at school when the light green $\ce{FeSO4}$ I was using reacted with dil. $\ce{HCl}$ turned yellow. This only happened with dil. $\ce{...
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pH of an aqueous solution of Mg2+ kept rising above that of clean water. What's going on?

In a recent inorganic chemistry lab session, we tested the pH of various ions in water. The water turned out to be on the acidic side (5.5 with $\mathrm{pH}$-paper, 5.59 with $\mathrm{pH}$-meter). A ...
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112 views

What pH value of 1M sodium crotonate solution supposed to be?

I need to prepare the $\pu{1M}$ solution of sodium crotonate, however, I don't have one in lab, but I do have sodium hydroxide and crotonic acid. Thus, I calculated that for $\pu{100 mL}$ of $\pu{1M}$ ...
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1answer
32 views

Disparity between LeChatelier's Principle and Solutions

Let's say that there is a solution $\ce{Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) <=> NaCl(s)}$ If the above solution is at equilibrium we can say that it is saturated and hence no more Sodium Chloride will dissolve. ...
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1answer
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Why is the solution of ammonium bifluoride more acidic than aqueous ammonium fluoride?

At low concentrations of aqueous $\ce{NH4HF2}$ $(w = 1–2\,\%)$ $\mathrm{pH}\approx 3.$ But aqueous $\ce{NH4F}$ $(w = 20–40\,\%)$ has $\mathrm{pH}\approx 7.$ Yet the equilibria of $$ \begin{align} \ce{...
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1answer
61 views

Dissociation equilibria of ammonium bifluoride in water

Ammonium bifluoride or ammonium hydrogen fluoride is a salt of a weak base and a weak acid. The weak acid is because the second equilibria of $\ce{HF}$ written as: $$\ce{HF + F- <=> HF2-}$$ and ...
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Does aqueous ammonium fluoride solution release hydrogen fluoride vapors?

Can $\ce{HF}$ vapors be released from $\ce{NH4F}$ solution in water $(w(\ce{NH4F}) = 40\,\%)$ at room temperature? I assume that dissolving $\ce{NH4F}$ in water produces small amount of $\ce{HF}.$
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Destroying micellar particles using electrolytes

I learnt that micellar particles formed by ionic detergents forms due to the negative charges of H2O molecules are facing the solution, hence micellar particles repel each other. I also learnt that ...
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1answer
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Aluminum electrodes for NaCl [duplicate]

Upon using aluminium Electrodes for a concentrated solution of NaCl, i conducted electrolysis on the solution for nearly 4-5 hours. There was definitely a gas possibly hydrogen being evolved at the ...
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2answers
59 views

Seeking safe, water-soluble chemicals for an IR spectroscopy experiment

I am working with a custom-built device which is intended to perform some mid-infrared chemical measurements. It consists of four thermopile sensors with optical windows. In front of each window is ...
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1answer
82 views

Why do bubbles form and stay when I shake a bottle of tea?

I have some bottled tea and I noticed that shaking it creates some foamy bubbles that stay for quite a while (at least half an hour if not more). I originally thought it has something to do with my ...
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leaving a spoon in a cup of tap water for about 12 hours makes a pattern of bubbles, why? [closed]

I left the spoon in the water after showing the cup from the tea that I was drinking last night makes a spoon like the pattern of bubbles
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1answer
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How to prepared saturated salt solution (NaCl)? [closed]

What do they mean by "add 321 g saturated NaCl solution"? Description does not contain volume.
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21 views

How to know which way to calculate an extraction

I have been solving a number of extraction problems and thought I had figured out how to solve each problem depending on if I started in an aqueous solution or in an organic solution. However, I just ...
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Why does vapor pressure of ice decrease faster than water when temperature decreases?

In melting point depression, I have learnt the explanation from the textbook that (e.g. aq. solution): Definition of melting point: ice and water exist in equilibrium (have the same vapor pressure). (...
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1answer
47 views

Converting w/v to mole fraction

If I have 10 mL 0.9% w/v $\ce{NaCl}$ solution, I can deduce that the solution contains 0.09 g of $\ce{NaCl}$. Imagine that this is standard laboratory conditions and 1 ml = 1 g is acceptable. Is the ...
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1answer
63 views

Common Ion Effect explanations

From my textbook, it is stated that: e.g. If we add a basic salt $\ce{NaF}$, it will fully dissociate to give $\ce{F-}$. Then if we add $\ce{HF}$, since it is a weak acid, the high concentration of $\...
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1answer
230 views

Aspirin Hydrolysis at pH 2

Conducting an experiment, I found that very little salicylic acid was evolved performing hydrolysis at $\mathrm{pH \ 2}$ and at $\pu{45 ^\circ C}$. In fact, far more salicylic acid was evolved at $\...

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