Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions.

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2
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1answer
79 views

Mixing cobalt(III) hydroxide and thallium(III) hydroxide

A simple question on solutions is driving me crazy. At this point, I think the textbook's wrong. Here's the question: A saturated solution of cobalt(III) hydroxide $(K_\mathrm{sp} = \pu{1.6e-44})$ ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Hydronium ion concentration to compare pH values

I'm having a bit of trouble with this question: Which has a higher $\mathrm{pH}$ value, $\pu{0.001 M}$ $\ce{HCl}$ or $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{CH3COOH}$ $(K_\mathrm{a} = \pu{1.8E-5})?$ I have calculated ...
0
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0answers
19 views

Concentration of silver(I) after adding solid silver(I) carbonate to the solution of alkali metal carbonate [on hold]

I'm having a bit of trouble with this question: What is the concentration of $\ce{Ag+}$ ions if $\pu{0.050 g}$ of $\ce{Ag2CO3}$ is added to a $\pu{1 L}$ solution of $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{Na2CO3}$ at $\...
5
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3answers
86k views

Reaction between NaOH and CO2

So I wanted to know what the reaction between sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide can be, and upon research I got 2 answers. The first one is $$\ce{CO2 + NaOH(aq) -> NaHCO3(aq)}$$ and the second ...
0
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1answer
63 views

Meaning of mass concentration “units” % m/v [closed]

In a saline solution that is 5.750% (m/v) potassium iodide $(\ce{KI}),$ there are: a) 5.750 mL $\ce{KI}$ per 100.0 mL $\ce{H2O}$ b) 575.0 mg $\ce{KI}$ per 10.00 mL of $\ce{KI}$ solution c) 5....
0
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1answer
33 views

Equilibrium expression for dissolution of carbon dioxide

I was asked to give the equilibrium expression for: $$\ce{CO2(aq) + H2O(l) <=> H2CO3(aq)}$$ As water is a liquid and a solvent here, it shouldn't be included in the expression, hence I wrote: ...
-1
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1answer
22 views

Exact numbers for solubility of sodium and magnesium chloride [closed]

I know that NaCl has a solubility of 360 g per 1000 g of water (Pubchem) ... so 360 g (or 6.15 moles) of NaCl is present in (1000 + 360 grams) of solution ... and density of saturated NaCl is 1.202 g/...
-3
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0answers
11 views

Calculating Quantities in Precipitation Reactions [closed]

What volume of $\pu{0.865 M} \; \ce{CaCl2 (aq)}$ is required to precipitate all the $\ce{Ag+ (aq)}$ from $\pu{35.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.500 M} \; \ce{AgNO3 (aq)}$? What amount of $\ce{AgCl (s)}$, in grams, ...
1
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2answers
43 views

Predicting a precipitate based on Ksp

$\pu{105 mL}$ of $\pu{0.10 M}$ $\ce{AgNO3}$ is added to $\pu{125 mL}$ of $\pu{0.35 M}$ $\ce{K2CrO4}.$ Will a precipitate form? $(K_\mathrm{sp}$ for $\ce{Ag2CrO4}$ is $\pu{1.12E-12}.)$ Answer: Can ...
1
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1answer
41 views

Gibbs energy derivative vs equilibrium for aqueous reaction

I am trying to find the Gibbs-energy equilibrium for the reaction $$\mathrm{A}+\mathrm{B}\rightleftharpoons\mathrm{C}.$$ According to most sources the equilibrium concentrations in an ideal solution ...
0
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0answers
14 views

What is the justification for using the Marcus rate equation to model charge transport in organic semiconductors?

I am trying to understand the history of how Marcus theory moved from describing electron exchange reactions in aqueous ionic solutions to also being applied to describe transport in organic ...
3
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1answer
2k views

Acidic and alkaline salt solutions: why do some salt form acid/bases while others don't [closed]

I have a question regarding salts and their solutions. How come some salts, like sodium carbonate and ammonium chloride, produce acids/bases when dissolved in water? Moreover, how can you predict ...
0
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1answer
42 views

How to know which reduction and oxidation reactions occurred?

We just had a lab experiment on galvanic cells and we used 0.5 M and 1 M iron(III) nitrate solution at the anode (iron electrode) and 1 M and 0.5 M copper(II) nitrate solution at the cathode (copper ...
1
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0answers
21 views

Calculating pH of a saturated weak acid/base solution [closed]

How can you calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ if you know for example the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ or $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{b}$ value of a weak acid/base and how much acid/base can dilute in water. Let's ...
1
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0answers
33 views

Do I understand correctly that simulation volume influences relative permittivity calculations? If so, how is the result useful?

I am having a lot of trouble understanding the influence of volume on relative permittivity/static dielectric constant. I'm not a chemist, but am using molecular dynamics to calculate relative ...
0
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2answers
56 views

Why do we use [H⁺] and [OH⁻] in balancing redox reactions instead of using [H₃O⁺] and [OH⁻]? [duplicate]

For what reason is it universally agreed upon that we use $$\ce{H+ + OH-}$$ ions in balancing water on either side of the reaction, but not the $$\ce{H3O+}$$ ions?
-1
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1answer
29 views

How to find osmolarity of a solution contatining salt and glucose?

What is the osmolarity of a solution that contains $4.00\%$ (m/v) $\ce{NaCl}$ $(M = \pu{58.44 g mol-1})$ and $3.00\%$ (m/v) glucose $(M = \pu{180.18 g mol-1})?$ I know you have to convert percentages ...
0
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1answer
95 views

Anhydrous magnesium sulfate to replace epsom salt?

Can anhydrous magnesium sulfate be used instead of epsom salt for feeding plants? Do hydrates and anhydrous salts become the same when dissolved in water?
2
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1answer
53 views

What is the interaction between dissolved ions of opposite valence in a solution at rest?

NaCl is dissolved in water. Ions sodium and chloride are sufficiently free from each other so that they may occupy different regions of the solution after an active transport process through a ...
0
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1answer
60 views

Isolating barium(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) from aqueous solution [closed]

Q15 Each metallic ion was separated from an aqueous solution containing $\ce{Ba^2+},$ $\ce{Cu^2+},$ and $\ce{Zn^2+}$ by the procedure shown in the following figure. From ①–⑥ in the table below choose ...
8
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3answers
40k views

Volume required to dilute solution for a pH change

A $\pu{100 mL}$ solution of $\ce{NaOH}$ has a $\mathrm{pH}$ of $13$. What volume of water in $\pu{mL}$ must be added to change the $\mathrm{pH}$ to $11$? My steps: Begin by calculating conc. of $[\...
4
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1answer
294 views

Calcium ion and sulfate did not form precipitate

I was in the chemistry lab earlier this week. We were doing a qualitative experiment (no concentration given for any solution). I added an unknown solution that contains $\ce{Ba^2+},$ $\ce{Ca^2+},$ ...
1
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1answer
89 views

Preparation of acetate buffer from sodium acetate and hydrochloric acid

A $\pu{1.0 L}$ buffer solution of $\mathrm{pH}~4.43$ is made up of $\pu{0.30 M}$ sodium ethanoate and $\pu{0.20 M}$ $\ce{HCl}$ solutions. Calculate the volume of sodium ethanoate and $\pu{0.20 M}$ $\...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Formation of green precipitation whilst adding potassium fluoride to aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate [closed]

Aqueous copper sulfate solution (blue) gives a green precipitation with aqueous potassium fluoride. Explain these experimental results. I've read answers like, $\ce{H2O}$ is a weak ligand and ...
0
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2answers
635 views

Which of the following is the most acidic salt?

A 0.1 M solution of which salt is most acidic? (a) Aluminum(III) nitrate $\ce{Al(NO3)3}$; (b) Magnesium(II) bromide $\ce{MgBr2}$; (c) Sodium bicarbonate $\ce{NaHCO3}$; (d) Sodium formate $\...
6
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2answers
81 views

How to weight picric acid?

Picric acid is stored under a layer of water to prevent an explosion. What is the right way to measure the amount of picric acid that taken out? It is wet and containing water.
7
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3answers
2k views

How much salt (or any other substance one can find in a kitchen) do I need to add to make water boil at 104 °C?

I've seen some formulas around in other questions and Google searches, but my chemistry is pretty much dead so I have no clue where to find the relevant values to calculate it myself. I just need to ...
0
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0answers
20 views

I want a certain Ion in my solution. How do I choose which chemical to buy?

thanks for taking the time. I am physicist doing experiments in which I need certain Ions (at the moment, Ru(II)) in solution. I have no chemical training excepting what I'm learning right now. What I ...
0
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2answers
2k views

Confused about strong/weak dibasic and tribasic acids

I know that sulfuric acid is considered a strong acid, and the dissociation of its first $\ce{H+}$ ion is complete and of its second $\ce{H+}$ ion is partial. Phosphoric acid is weak and all three of ...
4
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1answer
2k views

How does KMnO₄ affect electrolysis?

I'm just blindly experimenting. I tried to dissolve some potassium permanganate in water before performing electrolysis. I can't see much difference. How is $\ce{KMnO4}$ dissolved in water? How does ...
4
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2answers
35k views

Neutralization reaction between ammonia and nitric acid

Complete and balance the following molecular equation (in aqueous solution); include phase labels. Then, write the net ionic equation. $~\ce{NH_3 + HNO_3 -> ?}$ I thought that the acid $\ce{...
0
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0answers
32 views

Balanced equation for Schweizer's reagent production?

In Thompson's Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments the chemical formula for Schweizer's reagent is represented as $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4](OH)2}$ (although Wikipedia represents it as $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4(...
3
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0answers
33 views

Molar ratios not leading to complete reaction in Schweizer's reagent production

In my home lab, I've reacted $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$ with aqueous ammonia to produce Schweizer's reagent. However, I'm surprised by the amount of ammonia required to react with this amount of $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$. ...
3
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2answers
82 views

How to measure quantities at standard state when this state is a hypothetical one?

Consider the reaction $$\ce{A(g) + H2O(l) <=> B(aq) + C(g)}$$ If all gases and solutions were ideal, the standard state would be pure water, the solute B at a concentration of 1 M, the gases A ...
1
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1answer
66 views

Will distillation do the job of purifying the water?

I asked about my sophisticated water purification system for a generation ship on Worldbuilding Stack Exchange, and somebody mentioned this: If you're gonna go to all the trouble of distilling it, ...
9
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1answer
1k views

Vapor pressure of immiscible liquids

I have read that vapour pressure of a mixture of two immiscible liquids is $$P=P^0_A + P^0_B$$ where A and B are immiscible liquids. If they are immiscible, they would form separate layers. Thus ...
2
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1answer
603 views

Reaction of aqueous sodium carbonate with aluminum foil

Aqueous sodium hydroxide is known to react with aluminum foil in an exothermic, hydrogen-gas releasing reaction like $$\ce{2NaOH(aq) + 2Al(s) + 2H2O(\ell) → 2NaAlO2(aq) + 3H2(g)}$$ However, on ...
2
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0answers
28 views

Activity of NaCl aqueous solution at high ionic strengths: Common-ion effect

Is there any theoretical way to estimate the activity of $\ce{NaCl}$ at high ionic strengths in water and that in $\pu{7 M}$ $\ce{NaCl}$ solution? This question is based on whether solubility of $\ce{...
3
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2answers
6k views

Long-term storage of Ascorbic Acid mixed with Sodium Bicarbonate

Every day I mix two parts of ascorbic acid powder with 1 part of sodium bicarbonate powder and place the resulting powder into an airtight container. I have noticed that if the resulting powder is ...
-1
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2answers
150 views

Why doesn't ethanol dissolve in sodium bicarbonate?

Today I experimented with different solvents and solutes and was a bit surprised by one result. When I added ethanol to dilute sodium bicarbonate and tapped the test tube against my palm to mix it, I ...
5
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3answers
64k views

What is the maximum molarity of aqueous HCl?

Here is a problem a made up: We have some aqueous $\ce{HCl}$. What is the maximum possible molarity of the $\ce{HCl}$? How do I solve this? I don't have any good ideas.
5
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4answers
6k views

Produce CuCl2 from CuSO4

I have a large amount of copper sulfate available and I am interested in obtaining copper chloride from it. What is the easiest way to do so? I have considered mixing an aqueous solution of copper ...
0
votes
2answers
647 views

Molality of the solution prepared from a hydrated salt [closed]

A solution is made up by dissolving $\pu{13.8 g}$ $\ce{Na2CO3 · 10 H2O}$ in $\pu{103.5 g}$ of water. What is the molality of $\ce{Na2CO3}$ in this solution? I can't solve it. I tried converting to ...
0
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5answers
17k views

Does the water in hydrates affect final concentration?

Say I have a hydrate, and I am going to dissolve it in water. Does the water in the hydrate affect the final concentration? Here's an example: If I have $\pu{249.69 g}$ of $\ce{CuSO4·5H2O}$, and ...
0
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1answer
1k views

Making artificial sweat

I'm currently working on a chemistry investigation wherein I need to dilute a compound with artificial sweat. I have looked at various forums, including this, which gave answers, but is very outdated. ...
2
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2answers
13k views

Electrolysis of diluted sulfuric acid

My teacher told me that electrolysis of dil. $\ce{H2SO4}$ (concentration below $50\%$) using inert electrodes results in gradual increase of the concentration of $\ce{H2SO4}$. I can't seem to figure ...
1
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1answer
162 views

Why is maximum buffer capacity for some diprotic buffers not when pH = pKa?

According to Rajkovic et al. [1]: $$β = \frac{[\ce{H+}]}{K_\mathrm{w}} + 2.303\cdot\frac{[\ce{H+}]\cdot K_\mathrm{a}\cdot c}{[\ce{H+}] + K_\mathrm{a}}$$ where $K_\mathrm{a}$ is the ...
7
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1answer
243 views

How to derive the conductivity titration curve which accounts for salt formation

I derived an equation that gave me the volume of base required to get a certain $\mathrm{pH}$: In a titration between a weak acid $\ce{HA}$ and weak base $\ce{B}$ (adding base into acid solution) the ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Computing enthalpy of formation of dissolved gas from its enthalpy of dissolution

Provided that I know the enthalpy of formation $\Delta H_f^0(X_{g})$ of a substance $X$ in gas phase and its enthalpy of dissolution $\Delta H^0_{sol}(X)$ in the same conditions, considering that the ...
16
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2answers
2k views

pH probe bulb - what is happening within the glass?

I am trying to understand how the glass bulb of a pH electrode of a pH meter works - the glass bulb itself. Not the reference electrode or the rest of the electrode (HCl, Ag/AgCl wire, etc...), the ...