Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions and acid-base equilibria.

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1answer
33 views

Why is there no visible reaction when sodium sulfate is added to zinc nitrate? [closed]

Why is there no visible reaction when sodium sulfate is added to zinc nitrate? The product is a clear and colorless solution and no precipitate if formed.
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3answers
782 views

Tap water pH adjustment using citric acid

I've lowered tap water pH from 7 to 6 using citric acid. After couple of hours pH raised again to 7. What is the reason for this raise? Citric acid overcomes waters buffering feature then raise the $...
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1answer
56 views

Mixing hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide doesn't lead to sodium peroxide anymore [closed]

I've been using same bottle of hydrogen peroxide and same bottle of 50 % of sodium hydroxide to make sodium peroxide for a month now. You could see the presence of sodium peroxide in the solution ...
1
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1answer
129 views

MgO as food supplement - solubility in water

A number of magnesium food / sports supplements contain it as MgO - which is practically unsoluble in water. The recommended quantity is somewhere around .3g / day, so not an insignificant amount. How ...
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1answer
64 views

Predict whether a reaction is likely to occur. If so, write a net ionic equation [closed]

a) $\ce{AgNO3(aq) + CuCl2(aq) -> }$ So the first step is to combine the inners and outers. So I have $\ce{AgCl}$ and $\ce{CuNO3}$ I know $\ce{NO^-_3}$ has a -1 charge so then wouldn't $\ce{Cu}$ ...
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1answer
46 views

Hydrated electrons produced by radiation vs electrons from electrostatic charge: are they equally reactive?

One of the species generated in water or aqueous solutions by the ionizing radiations are free electrons that quickly become "hydrated" or "aqueous electrons" (see for example this ...
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1answer
112 views

Why is the solution of ammonium bifluoride more acidic than aqueous ammonium fluoride?

At low concentrations of aqueous $\ce{NH4HF2}$ $(w = 1–2\,\%)$ $\mathrm{pH}\approx 3.$ But aqueous $\ce{NH4F}$ $(w = 20–40\,\%)$ has $\mathrm{pH}\approx 7.$ Yet the equilibria of $$ \begin{align} \ce{...
2
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1answer
198 views

Identification of aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide, sodium acetate and potassium thiocyanate using nickel(II)

I'm very new to chem — taking an intro to chemistry course where we are currently focused on substance identification. I have two substances, both aqueous solutions of either $\ce{NaOH},$ $\ce{KSCN},$ ...
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0answers
17 views

How does the length of Nafion's fluoropolymer copolymer affects in conductivity?

In the synthesis of Nation, as shown in the diagram linked Nafion structure], there is a polymerized tetrafluorethylene copolymer to the Sulfonic acid group attached at the end. Does the length/mass ...
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0answers
33 views

Waste management of hazardous solvents

How should one safely dispose of chemicals like dichloromethane, toluene or acetone that were mixed with water? Is the water contaminated to a degree that it needs also treatment? For example ...
2
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1answer
7k views

How do non-ionic compounds dissolve into water? Into molecules or atoms?

I can't seem to find the answer in google, which is surprising. I'm aware that ionic compounds dissolve into electrolytes. However, when non-ionic sacarose for example dissolves in water, does the ...
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1answer
58 views

Indirectly Measuring Diffusion of NO2 into Water

I am working on a data science project with the central hypothesis is that air-born pollutants can become water-born through diffusion. The example I am using as a proof of concept is $\ce{NO2}$. The ...
0
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1answer
169 views

Finding Ka of a monoprotic weak acid from pH and concentration of added sodium salt

A solution of $\pu{0.36 M}$ of the sodium salt of a generic monoprotic weak acid $\ce{HA}$ has a $\mathrm{pH}$ value of $8.782.$ $K_\mathrm{a} = ?$ Why doesn't the following formula work in this ...
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0answers
49 views

The electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride: The products at cathode and anode

What will be produced at cathode and anode during the electrolysis of aqueous $\ce{NaCl}$? Suppose we carry out electrolysis of dilute $\ce{NaCl}$ and we need to find the products at cathode and ...
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0answers
26 views

How to prepare a solution of Ferrous Iron?

I need to prepare a solution of Ferrous Iron (Fe2+). This solution will be used to test a water filtration system by simulating the Ferrous Iron that is sometimes present in well water. The system is ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Why is the enthalpy of solution of hydrated calcium chloride positive?

My book says that the enthalpy of solution of anhydrous calcium chloride is negative because it produces hydrated calcium chloride. But when hydrated calcium chloride is dissolved in water, the ...
2
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1answer
42 views

More ions form pairs when concentration of acid increases, does that decrease the speed of reaction?

Electrical conductivity decreases as an acid becomes more concentrated because more ions form pairs. However, does that affect the speed of reaction of the acid as there is a smaller concentration of ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Acid dissociation constant calculated from the ionization percentage

The question goes like this: An acid (HX) is 25% dissociated in water. If the equilibrium concentration of HX is $\pu{0.30 M}$, calculate the value of $K_\mathrm{a}$. So I tried as follows: if I ...
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1answer
33 views

Do coordination complexes with stronger ligands form more stable complexes?

I read that chelate complexes generally are more stable than monodentate complexes. However, I noticed that in the case of $\ce{[Fe(CN)6]^3-}$ and $\ce{[Fe(en)3]^3+}$, this is not observed as the ...
1
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1answer
54 views

Method to remove impurities from acetaminophen synthesis experiment

I'd like to know about impurities from acetaminophen synthesis experiment. Are there any impurities produced by oxidation of p-aminophenol? If there is any impurity produced by oxidation of p-...
0
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1answer
58 views

Dextrose equivalent values (DE) of the most common sugars

What are the dextrose equivalent values (DE) of lactose, and other common sugars? Some data like the values for sucrose (0), maltodextrin (x<20), maltose (52), and glucose (100) can be found at ...
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0answers
31 views

Copper powder from aqueous copper sulfate solution help

I’ve been wanting to make copper powder for some homemade pyrotechnics. When placing an iron object in a copper sulfate solution, copper powder is produced. However, sooner or later, the reaction ...
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0answers
24 views

Can Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHG) be used for disinfection of medical device (e.g. of polyethylene material)? [closed]

Chlorhexidine is commonly used as a skin antiseptic, hand disinfectant, endodontic irrigant etc. It possess antibacterial and antifungal properties, and is considered low toxicity when used in low ...
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0answers
34 views

Aqueous glucose solution concentration computation

The question in my worksheet is as follows: You dissolve $\pu{1.451 mol}$ of glucose in water to a volume of $\pu{250 mL}$. The mass of the glucose is $\pu{261 g}$ and the molecular weight $\pu{180....
4
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2answers
9k views

How can an insoluble compound be a strong electrolyte

Here's a quote from Petrruci General Chemistry (pg. 160): Silver chloride, $\ce{AgCl}$ is an insoluble ionic compound. When $\ce{AgCl}$ dissolved in water, it is 100% dissociated into $\ce{Ag}^+\text{...
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1answer
73 views

Seeing solubility in various cases

Match the following: $\begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|} \hline &\textrm{Column-I}&&\textrm{Column-II} \\\hline \textrm{(A)}&\ce{AgBr}&\mathrm{(p)}&\mathrm{(Solubility~in~water~is~more~...
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1answer
5k views

How to liquefy or extract water from superabsorbent polymer?

I am looking for a good way to liquefy or extract water from superabsorbent polymer. From what I remember it was salt that can liquefy it. Since salt when dissolved will have sodium cation and ...
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1answer
2k views

Why does Dead Sea water feel greasy?

The best explanation I found so far is this: These salts (magnesium, potassium, sodium, etc.) are responsible for the "greasy" feel of the water. But it doesn’t say which salts exactly are ...
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2answers
2k views

Get the molar mass of an unknown liquid in a dissolution

A dissolution has $10$ g of some unknown liquid and also $90$ g of water. The freezing point of this dissolution is $-3.3\, ^\text{o}$C. What is the molar mass of the unknown liquid in g/mol? Alright....
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1answer
123 views

Numerically solving chemical equilibrium equations

Here are chemical equilibrium equations: $\begin{cases} \mathbf{N}^\text{T}\mathbf{X}+\mathbf{C}=\mathbf{Y}\\ \mathbf{N}\ln\mathbf{Y}=\ln\mathbf{K} \end{cases}$ Here $\mathbf{C}=\begin{pmatrix}c_1\\...
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0answers
32 views

How do two species from the same buffer system have different pKa values? [closed]

$$ \begin{array}{lr} \hline \text{Reagent}~(\pu{0.1 M}~\text{solutions}) & \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} \\ \hline \text{Ammonia} & 9.25 \\ \text{Acetic acid} & 4.75 \\ \text{Ammonium chloride} &...
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2answers
56 views

If a company advertises a solution as 20% on their web-site, will it be 20% w/w?

I am trying to buy some ammonia solution from a company and I have found the product I want but the product particulars just tell me it's 20%. They don't say if it's 20% w/w or w/v? Their technical ...
2
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1answer
85 views

Relation between standard silver-silver chloride electrode potential and solubility product of silver chloride

I learned that $E^\circ_\ce{Cl^-|Ag,AgCl}, E^\circ_\ce{Ag^+|Ag}$ and $K_\mathrm{sp}$ of $\ce{AgCl}$ are related as $$\boxed{E^\circ_\ce{Cl^-|Ag,AgCl} = E^\circ_\ce{Ag^+|Ag} + \frac{RT}{F}\ln K_\mathrm{...
3
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2answers
309 views

Does the salinity in seawater affect the process of alkaline hydrolysis?

I am an architecture student doing a project on crematorium spaces. I am looking at resomation or alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative method of disposition of a body. From what I gather from ...
3
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1answer
112 views

Why is hydrogen peroxide acidic in aqueous solution?

This seemed like a trivial question to me... until I began to think about it. The "usual" criteria for greater acidity are larger sizes of the atom attached to the acidic proton within the ...
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1answer
79 views

Is this true for conductivity of mixture of two solutions equal to the sum of conductivities of each solution?

Suppose $\ce{Na2SO4}$ has a conductivity $\pu{2.6 \times 10^{-4} S cm-1}$ and on mixing $\ce{CaSO4}$ to saturation, the conductivity becomes $\pu{7.0 \times 10^{-4} S cm-1}$. So, Is the conductivity ...
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2answers
22k views

Why does hand sanitizer turn into a liquid after coming out of the bottle?

Hand sanitizer is a gel in its bottle, but when I pour it on my palm, it turns into a free flowing liquid. Why does that happen? It doesn't turn to a liquid when I pour it on my floor or my table. ...
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1answer
30 views

Will Sodium Polyacrylate (SAP) absorb the gas from liquid ammonia?

I'm considering using sodium polyacrylate grains to absorb spills of a relatively strong Ammonium Hydroxide solution. Will the SAP (super absorbent polymer) only absorb the water, and in effect make ...
4
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1answer
97 views

How do I calculate the amount of preservatives one would need for a cleaning solution?

I plan on making a very simple cleaning solution to clean metal contacts on PCB boards. It cannot contain anything that is flammable or hazardous so I've come up with the solution below. Distilled ...
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1answer
59 views

How exactly does a buffer made up of a weak acid and its conjugate base work upon addition of hydroxide ions? [duplicate]

Consider a buffer solution containing a weak acid and its conjugate base ($c_\mathrm{total} = \pu{0.1 mol L-1}$): $$\ce{HA <=> H^+ + A^-}$$ When $\ce{H+}$ ions are added (from a strong acid), ...
2
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2answers
86 views

How do you achieve phase separation of a methanol / chloroform solution?

If I'm washing a methanol solution with chloroform, can I just add water in a 1:1 mixture with the methanol and expect it to break? Do I need to do anything else to cause the aqueous phase to separate ...
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3answers
2k views

Is "Sulfuric acid... makes a poor electrolyte... very little of it will dissociate into ions" really true? What does that actually mean?

While researching chromate conversion coating for edits to this answer in Space Exploration SE, I came upon the following passage in Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel to Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric ...
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1answer
53 views

Solving detergent powder in a solution

I used a detergent powder mixed with water to clean my espresso machine. Some micro particles of powder are stuck into machine's inner tank. So when I pull the hot water out of the machine's nozzle, ...
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1answer
103 views

Calculating molarity of iodine solution after reaction

I made an iodine solution referring to the methodology provided in this link: https://www.thoughtco.com/vitamin-c-determination-by-iodine-titration-606322 $$\ce{KIO3 + 5KI + 3H2SO4->3I2 + 3H2O + ...
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2answers
423 views

How many sodium ions is each oxygen atom attracted to in aqueous sodium chloride? [closed]

When $\ce{NaCl}$ salt is dissolved in water the $\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{Na+}$ ions and the polar $\ce{H2O}$ molecules are attracted to each other such that each $\ce{Na+}$ ion attracts several oxygen ...
2
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1answer
1k views

How to make 0.3% ammonia water from 28-30% ammonia hydroxide

Can someone tell me how to make 0.3% ammonia water from 28-30% Ammonia hydroxide? I am trying to make a gallon or 3.78 Liters.
6
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2answers
355 views

Balancing reaction between copper and nitric acid given the ratio of formed nitrogen oxides

Problem $\ce{Cu}$ reacts with $\ce{HNO3}$ according to the equation $$\ce{Cu + HNO3 -> Cu(NO3)2 + NO + NO2 + H2O}$$ If $\ce{NO}$ and $\ce{NO2}$ are formed in 2:3 ratio, what is coefficient of $\ce{...
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2answers
22k views

Finding mole fraction from molality

Calculate the mole fraction of ammonia in a $\pu{2.00 m}$ solution of $\ce{NH3}$ in water. What I know is that the formula for mole fraction is $$X = \frac{\text{no.-of-moles-of-solute}}{\text{(no.-...
8
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3answers
53k views

Volume required to dilute solution for a pH change

A $\pu{100 mL}$ solution of $\ce{NaOH}$ has a $\mathrm{pH}$ of $13$. What volume of water in $\pu{mL}$ must be added to change the $\mathrm{pH}$ to $11$? My steps: Begin by calculating conc. of $[\...
1
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1answer
104 views

Calculating pH of aqueous ammonium hydrogen sulfide solution

I was doing the following question yesterday: Calculate the pH of a $\pu{0.1 M}$ solution of $\ce{NH4HS}$, given $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{b}$ of $\ce{NH3}$ is $4.74$, and $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a1}$ and $\...

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